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GENEALOGY 
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VOLUME XVII 



January, 1923 — December, 1923 



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OLIVER HAZARD PERRY 

Statue erected at The Front, Buffalo, by the Perry Centennial Commission, 
iyi5. Charles H. Niehaus, sculptor 



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PRESIDENT FILLMORE. AS CAPTAIX OF THE UXIOX 
CONTINENTALS, A BUFFALO HOME GUARD UNIT 

From a photograph taken September, 1862, now owned by the 
Buffalo Historical Society 






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JANUARY, 1923 



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Literature of Buffalo 

Authors, Literary Societies and Libraries 

lUf-HE CONDITIONS of pioneer settlements are not condu- 
cive to literary productions. "While forests are being 
felled, lands are being- cleared and settlements are being 
iw^ZMs^.j established, there is little time and less disposition on 
the part of settlers to engage in the fine arts. The subjugation of 
territory and preparing it for occupancy are the matters requirng 
the first consideration of any new community, and there is little op- 
portunity for the exercise of the creative faculties. This condition 
may be rendered still less conducive to the cultivation of the fine 
arts by such stress and turmoil of social affairs as occurred along the 
Niagara frontier for a century or longer prior to the burning of 
Buffalo in 1813. Little can be expected from a community under 
such tumultuous and war-like conditions as prevailed in this region 
prior to the close of the War of 1812. 

Aside from the literature attributable to the Niagara region 
which were the productions of explorers, travellers and visitors, lit- 
tle was produced worthy of the name of literature,prior to the advent 
of Smith H. Salisbury and Hezekiah Salisbury in 1811. That year 
they published the first number of "The Buffalo Gazette." The 
first book was entitled " Public Speeches delivered at the Village of 
Buffalo on the Gth and 8th days of July, 1812, by Hon. Erastus 
Granger and Red Jacket," published by S. H. and PI. A. Salisbury, 
1812. That book is reproduced in Volume IV of the Publications 
of the Buffalo Historical Society. Diplomatic and temperate as 
were the speeches of Erastus Granger, and eloquent as were the 
speeches of Red Jacket, the greatest of Indian orators, all contained 



Note. — This narrative relating to "Literature of Buffalo" is from advance sheets 
of "Municipality of Buffalo, New York— A History," Hon. Henry Wayland Hill, LL.D., 
Editor-in-Chief. (Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York and Chicago). 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

in that volume, they can hardly be classed as the literature of Buf- 
falonians, though it may be said that Ked Jacket, whose remains, 
now peacefully rest beneath the heroic-sized statue in Forest Lawn 
Cemetery, poured forth the farewell sentiments of his vanishing race 
in words that will live as long as the words of any language will live. 
The following excerpts from the utterances of Red Jacket show 
the sweep of his vision, the pathos and power of his matchless elo- 
quence : 

""When I am gone and my warnings are no longer heeded, the 
craft and avarice of the white man will prevail. My heart fails me 
when I think of my people so soon to be scattered and forgotten. 
But an evil day came upon us. Your forefathers crossed the great 
waters and landed on this island. Their numbers were small. They 
found friends, not enemies. They told us they had fled from their own 
country for fear of wicked men, and had come here to enjoy their 
religion. They asked for a small seat. We took pity on them and 
granted their request, and they sat down amongst us. W T e gave 
them corn and meat. Brothers of the pale race: We crave now, 
in our turn, but 'a small seat' in yonder domain of the dead." 

Hardly less touching and eloquent was the address of Chief Na- 
thaniel Strong in Buffalo, on December 29, 1863, from which is ex- 
cerpted the following : 

"Thus perished the pride and glory of my people. His efforts to 
resist the advance of civilization among the Iroquois sprang from a 
mistaken patriotism. He knew not the irresistible power that impels 
its progress. The stalwart oak with its hundred arms could not 
hope to beat back the fierce tempest. He lived to see the power and 
glory of the confederate Iroquois culminate. He saw their friend- 
ship courted by the French and English monarchies, when those 
gigantic powers were grappling in a desperate struggle for suprem- 
acy in the new world. He lived to see his nation decline ; its power, 
its influence, its numbers wasting away like spring snows on verdant 
hill-sides. 

"I stand before you now in the last hours of a death-stricken 
people. A few summers ago, our council fires lighted up the arches 
of the primeval wood, which shadowed the spot where your city 
now stands. Its glades rang with the shouts of our hunters and the 
gleeful laugh of our maidens. The surface of yonder bay and river 
was seamed only by the feathery wake of our bark canoes. The 
smoke of our cabins curled skyward from slope to valley. 

"To-night! to-night! I address you as an alien in the land of 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

my fathers. I have no nation, no country, and, I might say, I have 
no kindred. All that we loved, and prized, and cherished, is yours. 
The- land of the rushing river, the thundering cataract and the 
jeweled lakes, is yours. All these broad blooming fields, those wood- 
ed hills and laughing valleys are yours — yours alone." 

The foregoing excerpts of Indian philosophy and eloquence r 
some of them in English, illustrate the flexibility, sonorousness and 
beauty of their language, as well as something of their command of 
the English language, of which they were apt students. If Buffalo had 
no literature of its own prior to the destruction of the village in 1813, 
it had the great background of Indian lore and French records, 
deposited in American and European archives, out of which is being 
produced by the Buffalo Historical Society such works as "The Bed 
Jacket," and other Indian papers, "The Life of General Ely S. 
Parker," "An Old Frontier of France," by Dr. Frank H. Sever- 
ance, and others of priceless historical value. There are also being 
collected papers, manuscripts and books from European as well as 
from American sources of original material relating to the Niagara 
region. All such papers, manuscripts and books constitute a rich 
and copious collection in relation to this territory. Such collection in 
the Buffalo Historical Society is voluminous, as is the collection in 
the Grosvenor Library, and though Buffalonians, before the "War of 
1812, did not produce books or other literary productions to any 
great extent, since that time they have acquired from other sources 
and also produced many works of literary merit as will hereinafter 
appear. 

In the development of the literature of a people, poetry usually 
precedes prose. This is true of the development of the Hebraic, the 
Hellenic, and other early literatures. We might expect that to be 
the order in the evolution of the literature of modern nations, were it 
not for the fact that back of them are the productions of the preced- 
ing ages from whose inexhaustible fountains they are continually 
making fresh draughts to supply their own educational require- 
ments. That was the condition of the occupants of this territory 
in the first half century after the War of 1812. There was the 
imaginative aboriginal, the polished French, and the stately English 
literature, to draw from. The territory was rich in all essentials 
that constitute the foundation of good literature. How skillfully 

3 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

those essentials have heen utilized by the writers of Buffalo appears 
in their works. 

• Had this been a sterile rather than a region fertile in Indian lore, 
legend and song, as it was fertile in the thrilling episodes of peoples 
which had successively occupied it and whose adventures, hostilities 
and achievements comprise much of the history of the region, its 
literature might have been far less voluminous and far less illum- 
inating. However, with such abundant data and records of the past, 
constituting a priceless literary heritage to the writers in and about 
Buffalo, much has been expected of them, and in that respect they 
have not fallen short of their opportunities. One of the earliest 
poems, of twenty-two stanzas, was that of Elder A. Turner, on "The 
Death of Mr. Job Hoisington, who fell in defence of Black Rock on 
December 30, 1813. ' ' One stanza reads as follows : 

"British and Indians, all, 

The massacre began ; 
Arrows of death, the leaden balls, 
Forbid our troops to stand." 

Such productions were not uncommon, and were occasionally re- 
peated at local entertainments. 

During the early years of Millard Fillmore, who occasionally 
taught school, and was so engaged at Cold Springs, now a part of 
Buffalo, in 1825, one of his pupils produced eight verses on "The 
Death of Calib Dulittle," recently from Vermont, which were read 
at the New England Kitchen— one of the features of the Old Set- 
tlers' Festival. The opening and closing stanzas read as follows: 

"One Calib Dulittle was his name, 
Who lately to this village came, 
Residing with his brother, Jeemes, 
Last Friday noon went out, it seems, 

"To cut sum timber for a sled. 
The sno being deep, he had to wade; 
Full 40 rod to a ash tree, 
The top being dry, as you may see. 

"Now, Skollars, all a warnin take, 
How Calib Dulittle met his fate, 
And when you have a sled to make, 
Don't let a tre fall on your pate." 

To overcome such ignorance on the part of the pupils then in the 
village schools was not the least of Mr. Fillmore's problems. 

Another effusive production of that period was the "Lamenta- 
ble Ballad of sixteen stanzas on the murder of John Love by the 

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LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

three Thayres," which appeared in 1826, full of orthographic and 
other errors. It is too long to quote, and has little or nothing of the 
poetic spirit. It is printed in Volume I of the Publications of the 
Buffalo Historical Society. 

At the opening of the Grand Erie Canal at Buffalo in 1825, the 
following anonymous song was distributed on a broad sheet of silk 
and revealed something of the enthusiasm of the occasion. 



"Master Dixon — A New Song." 



"Ye brethren dear, who now unite 
In this grand scene of pure delight, 
We now have reached the glorious height, 
The level of Lake Erie. 

"The waters of the east and west, 
The Hudson, Mohawk, and the rest, 
In sweet communion now are blest; 
They mingle with Lake Erie. 

"This day we all rejoice to meet; 
The glorious work is now complete, 
The mountain's levelled at our feet, — 
Is levelled with Lake Erie. 

"Accomplished is the grand design, 
The work of Level, Square and Line; 
O ! Masonry, the art was thine, 
To triumph o'er Lake Erie. 

"Where is the nation that can show 
Such streams as thro' our mountains flow 
To the Atlantic, far below 
The level of Lake Erie? 



"The work of many a freeman's hand, 
A brave, a bold, a noble band — 
The guardians of this happy land, 
The conqucrers of Lake Erie. 

"Buffalo, O ! who can ever view 
These works so grand, these scenes so new, 
And not admire, and love thee, too, 
Thou child of ancient Erie? 

"Around thy paths I love to roam, 
For every house is here a home; 
I bless the hour when first I come 
To meet with thee and Erie. 

"O ! who will not this day rejoice, 
And lift on high his grateful voice? 
Come, men and women, girls and boys, 
Shout for Buffalo and Lake Erie ! 

"This happy day shall ever be 
Remembered as a jubilee; 
The Lakes, the Rivers, join the Sea, 
The Ocean weds Lake Erie." 



There also appeared in the "Buffalo Journal," published, by 
David M. Day, in January, 1826, a poem, of which the six concluding 
verses are the following : 

"Let despots mock the joy with which we met 
Upon our shores our fathers' friend and son, 
And greeted him — the gallant Lafayette. 
Dare they insult the flag that bore him home? 
No ! Europe never will again forget 
The due respect and proper courtesy 
Columbia's Banner claims upon the sea. 

"My Muse wants breathing, she is too sublime 
For modern ears ; 't were well to take good care 
Lest criticks ridicule her lofty rhyme, 
Which would, indeed, be a most sad affair, 
We'll lower our strain then, and devote a line 
To home concerns. 'Tis said that Buffalo 
Is soon to be a city, and I know 

"No reason why she should not. The foundation 
Of Ararat we lately helped to fix 
And have had other public celebrations 
(According to my note-book sixty-six), 
And have a right to make our calculations 
Of future greatness. There is something pretty 
And quite harmonious in the name of 'city.' 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

"The year hath been to us a jubilee, 
A year of great rejoicing; we have seen 
Lake Erie's waters moving to the sea 
On their element. The bark I deem 
Which bore our gift, more famous yet shall be 
Than that proud ship in which to ancient Greece 
The intrepid Jason bore the Golden Fleece. 

"Yet boast we not of mighty labors done 
In our own strength or wisdom; we would bless 
His sacred name in morning orison, 
Who stamped his footstep on the wilderness ; 
And towns and cities rose, the busy hum 
Of congregated man, where erst He viewed 
One dark and boundless solitude. 

"And the white sail now glistens on the Lake, 
Where late the Indian in his bark canoe, 
Bursting from some low marsh or tangled brake, 
Shot forth upon the waters joyously, 
Perchance his annual hunting tour to make, 
Where since the cultivated field, I ween, 
That savage mariner himself hath seen." 

There were various other poetic productions more or less fugi- 
tive, and also such poems as "Invocation to Genius," "Saturday 
Evening," "The Hearthstone," "Address Spoken at the Opening 
of the Buffalo Theater," on June 22, 1835, and "Tehoseroron," 
all by Hon. Jesse Walker. There have been many other produc- 
tions, some of which were occasional and others formal, by many 
Buffalo poets. Among such were the following writers, namely: 
Bryant Burwell, Edward Christy, A. Tracy, Thomas D'Arcy Mc- 
Gee, Guy II. Salisbury, Mrs. H. E. G. Arey, Agnes D. Emerson, sup- 
posed to be an assumed name, Rachel Buchanan Gildersleeve, Mrs. 
John A. Ditto, John C. Lord, Emily Bryant Lord, David Went- 
worth, Matilda H. Stewart, Anson G. Chester, J. Harrison Mills, 
Jerome B. Stillson, Charles D. Marshall, Amanda T. Jones, Eliza- 
beth Kellar, James Kendall Hosmer, Rev. J. Hazard Hartzell, Jabez 
Loton, Mary E. Mixer, Clara A. Hadley, Augustus Radcliffe Grote, 
Mary Norton Thompson, Elizabeth M. Olmsted, Mary A. Ripley, 
James N. Johnson, David Gray, Annie R. Annan (Mrs. William 
H. Glenny), William B. Wright, Anna Katherine Green (Mrs. 
Charles Rohlfs), Rev. A. Cleveland Coxe, Arthur W. Austin, Mary 
E. Burtis, Linda DeK. Fulton, Josiah Letchworth, M. J. Kittinger, 
James W. Barker, Joseph O'Connor, Esther C. Davenport, W. H. 
C. Hosmer, Grace Balfour, Ellen M. Ferris, Irving Browne, Allen 
Gilman Bigelow, John Charles Shea, Mary Evelyn Austin, Frederic 
Almy, Eugene V. Chamberlain, Mary J. MacColl, Agnes B. Earl, 

6 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

Minnie Ferris Hauenstein, Josephine Wilhelm Wickser, Kather- 
ine E. Conway, William Mcintosh, Rev. Patrick Cronin, Frank H. 
Severance, Edmund J. Plumley, Charles S. Parke, Frederick Peter- 
son, George Hibbard, Carrie Judd Montgomery, Ada Davenport 
Kendall, Henry A. VanFredenberg, Henry R. Howland, Bessie 
Chandler, Rowland B. Mahany, Julia Ditto Young, Mark S. Hub- 
bell, Walter Storrs Bigelow, Agnes Shalloe, Sophie Jewett, Theo- 
dore Francis MacManus, Charles Carroll Albertson, Willard E. 
Keyes, Charlotte Rosalys Martin, Walter Clark Nichols, Helen 
Thayer Hutcheson, Elizabeth Flint Wade, Frances Hubbard Larkin, 
Cypress Spurge, Emily M. Howard, David Gray, Jr., Irving S. 
Underbill, Hannah G. Fernald, Jesse Storrs Ferris, Edith Eaton 
Cutter, Arthur Detmers, Rev. Albert T. Chester, Hon. James Tor- 
rington Spencer, Anne Murray Larned, Rose Mills Powers, Sarah 
Evans Letchworth, Emily Howland Leeming, Marrion Wilcox, Char- 
lotte Becker, Richard AVatson Gilder, Aline Glenny, Caroline Misch- 
ka Roberts, Thekla Adam, Jane F. Dowling, S. Cecilia Cotter King 
(Mrs. William A. King), Philip Becker Goetz, Donald Bain, James 
S. Metcalf, Carlton Sprague, Robert Cameron Rogers, John D. 
Wells, George K. Staples, Walter M. Zink, Thomas S. Chard, Wil- 
liam Mcintosh, Arthur W. Austin, Mary L. Hall, Harriet E. Bene- 
dict, Mrs. Emily Thatcher Bennett, Antoinette Haven, Matilda Stew- 
art, Charlotte L. Seaver, Katherine E. Conway, Mrs. James F. 
Gluck and others. 

Some of the foregoing writers produced only occasional verses, 
and they can hardly be said to be entitled to the appellation, "poet." 
Some of them were not residents of Buffalo, but wrote the poems to 
"be used on some public occasion in Buffalo. Others, while passing 
through Buffalo, wrote concerning it, or of Lake Erie and the Ni- 
agara region, as did Thomas Moore, who in his poem from Buffalo 
upon Lake Erie to the Honorable W. R. Spencer thus soliloquized : 

"As far from thee my lonely course I take, 

No bright remembrance o'er- the fancy plays, 

No classic dream, no star of other days, 

Has left that visionary glory here, 

That relic of its light, so soft, so dear, 

Which gilds and hallows even the rudest scene, 

The humblest shed, where genius once has been ! 
******** 

"Even now, as, wandering upon Erie's shore, 
I hear Niagara's distant cataract roar." 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

No part of our fair domain lias been visited by more writers 
from this and other countries than the Niagara region, and their 
. poems and other productions occasioned thereby would fill volumes, 
constituting a unique literature of Niagara. It is not our purpose, 
however, to undertake to enumerate all who, from the visit of Father 
Hennepin in 1678 to the present, have written of Niagara, Lake Erie, 
and the region about Buffalo. The names of those already given 
will suffice to indicate something of the extent of the interest which 
the people of this city have taken in poetic composition, or in that 
which "embodies the product of the imagination and fancy and 
appeals to these powers in others, as well as to the liner emotions, 
the sense of ideal beauty and the like." 

Many Buffalonians have drunk deep at the Pierian fountain of 
the Muses, and for nearly a century have poured forth their lyrics 
and other poetic compositions in continuous succession. Many will 
be found in the anthology entitled "The Poets and Poetry of Buf- 
falo," by James N. Johnston, and others are listed in the paper en- 
titled "The Authors of Buffalo," by Frank H. Severance, and still 
others are to be found in miscellaneous publications. 

In addition to the poems already mentioned, only a few others 
can be particularized. One of Buffalo's best known poets in the 
sixties was Guy H. Salisbury, whose poem entitled "Buffalo" con- 
tains the following stanzas : 

"By Erie's blue and sparkling sea Her engines vex the tide ; 

The tangled forest grew, And broad canals rich products bear 

And red men o'er the silver waves To Ocean's distant side. 

Paddled the light canoe. Art comes and rears the stately pile — 

No pale-face then had sought its shore Temples of the Living God — 

With rail, or steam, or venturous oar, And beauteous homes adorn the spot 

To wake the echoes there ; Where savage men abode. 
The wild beast ranged the solemn wood 

To find in its dim solitude "History her classic store outspreads, 

His rude and lonely lair. And Genius wakes the lyre, 

And workers shape their wondrous things 

"The white men came to make their homes By forge and furnace fire. 

Amid the wilderness, A reeming city stands to-day 

And back the savage tribes recede Where once the hamlet stood, 

As on the intruders press. And lofty spires their shafts uprear 

The forests sink, the plough's sharp edge Where waved the sylvan wood. 
Soon cleaves the virgin soil. 

And waving harvest-fields repay "No hoary seat of ancient lore 

The thoughtful sower's toil. Hath here scholastic bowers, 

The village streets on every side But Learning yet hath many shrines 

Their lengthened lines extend, In this dear home of ours. 

And dwellings rise, whose circling smoke The people's sons, or rich or poor, 

From household hearths ascend. Her priceless boon may share, 

And Wisdom's mines reward but toil 

"Fair Commerce comes and spreads the sail, And earnest delvers there." 

8 



A 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 



Another short production illustrative of Buffalo poets is that 
of Charles D. Marshall, entitled "The Poet's Thought:" 

"The poet roams through flower-strewn meads 
And plucks a bright bouquet ; 
He binds it with a thread of thought ; — 
It lives its little day. 

"But soon the chilling breath of Time 
Shall strew the leaves around ; 
The cold world with its iron heel 
Will crush them in the ground. 

"But let this truth his sad heart cheer 
And soothe in hour of need ; 
Beneath the calyx of each flower 
Lies hidden precious seed, 

"Which borne upon the changing wind, 
Wafted by every air, 
Will find rich soil in some fond heart, 
Take root, and blossom there." 

Dr. John C. Lord, "whose fancy," said James 0. Putnam, "lit- 
erally revelled in the imagery of the Hebrew melodists," contributed 
several ]3oems to the literature of the region. The first of these is 
entitled "Buffalo," and reads as follows: 

"Queen of the lakes, whose tributary seas 
Stretch from the frozen regions of the North 
To Southern climates, where the wanton breeze 
O'er field and forest goes rejoicing forth: 

"As Venice, to the Adriatic Sea 
Was wedded, in her brief, but glorious day; 
So broader, purer waters are to thee, 
To whom a thousand streams a dowry pay. 

"What tho' the wild winds o'er thy waters sweep, 
While lingering Winter howls along thy shore, 
And solemnly 'deep calleth unto deep,' 
While storm and cataract responsive roar— 

'"Tis music fitting for the brave and free, 
Where Enterprise and Commerce vex the waves ; 
The soft voluptuous airs of Italy 
Breathe among ruins and are wooed by slaves. 

"Thou art the Sovereign City of the Lakes, 
Crowned and acknowledged ; may thy fortune be 
Vast as the domain which thy empire takes, 
And Onward as the waters to the sea." 

Dr. John C. Lord dedicated an ode to the Union Continentals, en- 
titled "Forward! March," which opened and closed with the fol- 
lowing stanza: 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

"For altars and for firesides, 
For the Country and for God, 
For the State our fathers founded, 
For the soil on which they trod, 
For loyal brethren trembling 
Beneath a traitor's nod — 
Forward! March!'' 

One of the best poems of the late Kobert Cameron Rogers was 
that delivered at the dedication of the Pan- American Exposition in 
May, 1901. Its second stanza reads as follows : 

"Enchanted city where the dreaming scul 
Conjures the minarets of far Cathay — 
And half expects along some waterway 
To hear all Venice in a barcarole; 
Mistress of moods, across whose changing face 
Half of old Spain and half of Greece we trace; 
Hither the nations of the West have brought 
Fruit of their labour, flower of their thought; 
Best of their best besides our best finds place : 
The Saxon vigor vies with Latin grace ; 
And tithes are paid in product and in art. 
But in all this the past as well has part. 
The imperial cities of the world have shown 
Tributes as beautiful at worthy shrines ; 
Something is here that moves on different lines ; 
A master-thought that we would claim our own ; 
A magic word — a dominant that cries 
Insistent through this fugue of industries." 

The following are the concluding stanzas of the lyric poem of 
Frank H. Severance, entitled "This Greater Buffalo:" 

"The New World's grandest marvel, this : to blend 
In one new type the sons of divers strain, 
Begetting here a brotherhood 

Of purer blood 

And stronger brain, 
Of loftier thought and broader view, 
Of clearer vision for the true. 

"Cities are built on ashes, and on lives 
Without fruition, save that this survives : 
A field more fallow for the common good, 
A higher level of true brotherhood. 
We Babel-builders with our cry of 'great' 

Should sanctify instead 

This dowry of the dead. 
That city only is of high estate 
Whose sons and daughters in themselves are great. 

"Art, Science, Letters, — lo, 
Handmaidens of the Worthier Buffalo. 
Theirs still the ministering part — 
The end and mission of all art — 
To wake to new life, and control 
The latent forces of the soul." 

IO 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

In 1868, William B. Wright brought out his "Highland Ram- 
blers,' and in 1S73 "The Brook and Other Poems." The fading 
year is beautifully portrayed by William B. Wright in the following 
lines: 

"The year moves to its sad decline, 
A dull gray mist enfolds the hills, 
The flowers are dead, the thickets pine, 
In other lands the swallow trills ; 
For since they stole his Summer flute 
The moping" Pan sits stark and mute : 
The slow hooves of the feeding kine 
Crack the herbage as they pass ; 
The apples glimmer in the grass, 
And woods are yellow, woods are brown, 
The vine about the elm is red, 
Crow and hawk fly up and down, 
But for the wood-thrush, he is dead ; 
The ox forsakes the chilly shadow, 
Only the cricket haunts the meadow. 

"The feast is ending, the guests are going, 
In bands or singly they quit the board ; 
The torch is paling, the Mutes stop blowing, 
The meat is eaten, the wine is poured." 

Bishop Arthur Cleveland Coxe was a learned, vigorous and 
voluminous writer in prose, as well as a gifted poet. He brought out 
his "Athwold," his first collection of poems, in 1838. His "Christian 
Ballads" appeared in 1840, his "Athanasian and Other Poems" in 
1845, and his "Pascal, a Collection of Easter Poems," in 1889. Hi3 
poems were popular in England as well as in America, as may be 
assumed from such as the f ollowing stanza : 

"Now pray we for our country 
That England long may be 
The hoi}' and the happy 
And the gloriously free." 

The following are from his "Carol" and show something of his 
power as a poet : 

"I know — I know where the green leaves grow, 
When the woods without are bare ; 
Where a sweet perfume of the woodland's bloom 
Is afloat on the winter air ! 
When tempest strong hath howled along, 
With his war-whoop wild and loud, 
Till the broad ribs broke of the forest oak, 
And his crown of glory bowed ; 
I know — I know where the green leaves grow, 
Though the groves without are bare, 
Where the branches nod of the trees of God, 
And the wild vines flourish fair. 

II 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

"I know — I know where blossoms blow 
The earliest of the year ; 

Where the passion-flower, with a mystic power, 
Its thorny crown doth rear ; 
Where crocus breathes and fragrant wreaths 
Like a censer fill the gale; 
Where cow-slips burst to beauty first, 
And the lily of the vale ; 
And snow-drops white and pansies bright 
As Joseph's colored vest ; 
And laurel-tod from the woods of God, 
Where the wild-bird builds her nest. 

"I know — I know where the waters flow 
In a marble font and nook, 
When the frosty sprite in his strange delight 
Hath fettered the brawling brook, 
When the dancing stream, with its broken gleam, 
Is locked in its rocky bed ; 
And the sing-song fret of the rivulet 
Is hush as the melted lead; 
Oh, then I know where the waters flow 
As fresh as the spring-time flood, 
When the spongy sod of the fields of God 
And the hedges are all in bud. 

"I know— I know no place below, 
Like the home I fear and love ; 
Like the stilly spot where the world is not 
But the nest of the Holy Dove. 
For there broods He 'mid every tree 
That grows at the Christmas-tide, 
And there, all year, o'er the font so clear, 
His hovering wings abide ! 
And so, I know no place below 
So meet for the bard's true lay, 
As the alleys broad of the Church of God, 
Where Nature is green for aye." 

The literature of Buffalo has been enriched by the productions 
of many other gifted poets, none of whom, however, has sung 
more sweetly nor more ideally than David Gray, for a long time on 
the editorial staff of "The Courier." His immortal epic, "The Last 
of the Kah-Kwahs," is a gem of such rare beauty that it will be 
treasured as long as the English language continues to be the 
vehicle for the transmission of sublime thoughts. The Kah-Kwahs 
were supposed to be the Neutral Nation of Indians who occupied 
the site of Buffalo previous to its conquest by the Senecas. In the 
year 1647 it is said that the Neutral Nation was destroyed by the 
Iroquois, as the result of a relentless war arising from a quarrel 
which occurred at a place known as Tu-shu-way, the Indian village, 
located in the place of the linden or bass-wood trees on the Buffalo 
river. The following stanzas are from that celebrated poem of 

12 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

David Gray, which is founded upon the foregoing legendary Indian 
history: 

"The city sleeps; its changing features fade 
In the green depths of many a rustling glade ; 
The wind of summer whispers sweet and low 
'Mong trees that waved three hundred years ago. 
The streamlet seeks the path it knew of yore, 
And Erie murmurs to a lonely shore ; 
The birds are busy in their leafy towers 
The trampled earth is wdd again with flowers ; 
And the same River rolls in changeless state, 
Eternal, solemn, deep and strong as fate. 
It is the time when still the forest made 
For its dusk children a protecting shade; 
And by these else untrodden shores they stood, 
Embodied spirits of the solitude ! 
When still at dawn, or day's serener close, 
The smoke-wreaths of the Kah-Kwah lodges rose. 

"No hoary legend of their past declares 
Through what uncounted years our home was theirs — 
How oft they hailed, new-glittering in the West, 
The moon, a phantom-white canoe, at rest 
In deeps of purple twilight — this alone 
Of all their vanished story has not flown; 
That, through unnumbered summers' long increase, 
The Neutral Nation was the home of peace. 
Far to the north the Huron war-whoop rang, 
And eastward, on the stealthy war-path, sprang 
The wary Iroquois ; but like the isle 
That, locked in wild Niagara's fierce embrace, 
Still wears the smile of summer on its face — 
(Love in the clasp of Madness) — so the while 
With peace the Kah-Kwah villages were filled. 
And, as the Lake's dark heart of storm is stilled, 
The fury of its surge constrained to calm 
Beneath the touch of winter's marble palm, 
So, when the braves of warring nations met, 
They changed the hatchet for the calumet, 
And hid with stolid face their mounting ire 
From the bright glimmer of the Kah-Kwah fire. 

"Year followed year, and peaceful Time had cast 
A misty autumn sunshine o'er the past, 
And, to the hearts that calmly summered there, 
The forehead of the future shone as fair ; 
Save that perchance some wise and wakeful ear 
In the great River's ceaseless song could hear, 
Through the mirk midnight, when the wind was still, 
The murmured presage of approaching ill. 

"It came at last — the nation's evil day, 
Whose rayless night should never pass away. 
A calm foreran the tempest, and, a space, 
Fate wore the mask of joy upon his face. 
It was a day of revel, feast and game, 
When from the far-off Iroquois there came 
A hundred plumed and painted warriors, sent 
To meet the Kah-Kwah youth in tournament. 
And legend tells how sped the mimic fight; 

13 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

And how the festal fire blazed high at night 

And laugh and shout through all the greenwood rang ; 

Till, at the last, a deadly quarrel sprang, _ 

Whose shadow, as the frowning guests withdrew, 

Deepened, and to a boding war-cloud grew. 

And not for long the sudden storm was stayed; 

It burst in battle, and in many a glade 

Were leaves of green with crimson crost, 

As if by finger of untimely frost. 

Fighting they held the stubborn pathway back, 

The foe relentless on their homeward track ; 

Till the thinned remnant of the Kah-Kwah braves 

Chose, where their homes had been, to make their graves. 

And rallied for the last and hopeless fight, 

With the blue ripples of the lake in sight. 

"Could wand of magic bring that scene again 
Back, with its terrors, to the battle-plain, 
Into these silent streets the wind would bear 
Its mingled cry of triumph and despair ; 
And all the nameless horror of the strife. 
That only ended with a nation's life, 
Would pass before our startled eyes, and seem 
The feverish fancy of an evil dream. 
For in the tumult of that fearful rout 
The watch-light of the Kah-Kwah camp went out. 
And, thenceforth, in the pleasant linden shade, 
Seneca children, only, laughed and played. 
And still the River rolled in changeless state, 
Eternal, solemn, deep and strong as fate. 

"A few strange words of a forgotten tongue 
That still by Lake and River's marge have clung, 
Are all that linger, of the Past, to tell, 
With their weird-sounding music, how it fell 
That here the people of that elder day 
Sinned, suffered, loved, hoped, hated, passed away. 
*********** 

"So History's dream is told, and fading, fleet 
The shadows of the forest from the street; 
But is it much to ask, if it were sought, 
That it return at times to tinge our thoughts? — 
To tell us, when the winter-fires are lit, 
And in the happy heart of home we sit. 
That other fires were here, ere ours had shone, 
And sank to ashes years and years agone ; — 
That where we stand, and, watching, see the West 
Ebb till the stars lie stranded on its breast. 
Or homeward ships, more blest than they of Greece, 
Returning with the prairie's Golden Fleece, 
To other eyes long since perchance was given, 
Through the same sapphire arch, a glimpse of Heaven. 
And haply not in vain the thought shall rise 
To sadden, it may be, our reveries, 
That here have throbbed, with all the bliss of ours. 
Hearts that have mouldered upward into flowers !" 

The foregoing are fairly representative of the poets and poetry 
of Buffalo. In 1904 James N. Johnston, a Buffalo poet, edited a 
book, entitled "The Poets and Poetry of Buffalo." Since its pub- 

14 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

lication other stars have arisen in the literary firmament that are 
shining with increasing splendor. Among them is Minnie Ferris 
Hauenstein (Mrs. Alfred G. Hauenstein), whose collection of verse 
will soon appear as "Sonnets From the Silence." Many of Buf- 
falo's poets, prose writers and authors generally, including editorial 
writers and publishers, arc reviewed in the paper of Frank H. Sever- 
ance, entitled "Random Notes on the Authors of Buffalo," pub- 
lished in Volume IV of the Buffalo Historical Society's publica- 
tions. The names of many Buffalo authors also appear from time to 
time in the papers and periodicals published in Buffalo and else- 
where. 

In addition there are several groups of prose writers in Buffalo. 
These include Judge Samuel Wilkeson, who himself made im- 
portant history for Buffalo ; Orsamus H. Marshall, who was a thor- 
ough student of Indian history and well versed in Indian lore ; Wil- 
liam Ketchum, Rev. Dr. John C. Lord, W.L. G.Smith, Jesse Clement, 
Crisfield Johnson, General A. W. Bishop, John Harrison Mills, 
Orton S. Clark, George H. Stowits, Daniel G. Kelly, Ivory Chamber- 
lain, C. W. Boyce, Frank Wilkeson, General James S. Strong, El- 
bridge Gerry Spaulding, William Dorsheimer, Charles C. Deuther, 
Bishop John Timon, Eben Carlton Sprague, Henry Tanner, James 
Fraser Gluck, Rev. Thomas Donohoe, Rev. Sanford Hunt, Rev. Pro- 
fessor Guggenberger, John L. Romer, Dr. Frank H. Severance, 
George S. Potter, Rev. William B. Wright, Frederick J. Shepard, 
Samuel M. Welsh, Jr., Lars G. Sellsted, Judge Truman C. White, 
Rev. Albert T. Chester, J. Stanley Grimes, R. W. Haskins, Albert 
Brisbane, Oliver G. Steele, Robert Davis, A. W. Wilgus, W. L. G. 
Smith, Robert Pennel, D. S. Alexander, Henry Wayland Hill, H. 
Perry Smith, Dr. Julian Park, Josephus Nelson Larned. The 
principal work of Mr. Larned was his "History for Ready Refer- 
ence," comprising with its supplement eight volumes. It gave Mr. 
Larned a national reputation as an historical writer. No Buf- 
falonian has delved deeper into regional history than Dr. Frank H. 
Severance, secretary of the Buffalo Historical Society, and author 
of many works bearing on the French period of Niagara history, 
as well as on other periods of such history. His most masterful 
work is that entitled "An Old Frontier of France," consisting of 
two volumes, and ranking with any of Parkman's works on Cana- 
dian frontier history. Henry Wayland Hill, president of the Buf- 

15 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

falo Historical Society, has done research work in Lake Champlain 
regional history and in the French colonial period. He compiled 
the two volumes of the "Champlain Tercentenary Celebration," 
which gained for him the appreciation of the French nation and the 
decoration as a Chevalier of the National Legion of Honor. Mr. 
Hill is also the author of "Waterways and Canal Construction in 
New York," as well as of various historical papers, encyclopedic 
articles and miscellaneous pamphlets. Arthur L. Parker's contri- 
butions to Indian history and biography include his "Life of Gen- 
eral Ely S. Parker" and his "History of Archaeology of the State of 
New York," recently published by the State of New York. Fred- 
erick Houghton's "History of the Buffalo Creek Reservation" is an 
addition to local records. The writers of comprehensive general 
histories of Buffalo include Crisiield Johnson (1S73), H. Perry 
Smith (1884), Truman C. White (1S97), John Devoy (189G), and 
Josephus Nelson Larned (1911). That by Mr. Johnson is, in the 
opinion of Dr. Severance, "unsurpassed in its class of histories." 
Turner's "Pioneer History of the Holland Purchase" (1S19) is a 
valuable reference work for students of settlement history of this 
region. William Ketchum began a "History of Buffalo," but found 
that what he had written of Indian history would almost fill two 
volumes, so that his work was published in 1861 as the "History of 
Buffalo and the Senecas," and is generally known as "Buffalo and 
the Senecas," for it deals with only the first decade of Buffalo vil- 
lage history. Rev. Thomas Donohoe's "The Iroquois and the 
Jesuits" (1S95) is a review of the early records of that religious 
order in America. 

Books of travel have been written by Horace Briggs, Bishop 
Coxe, F. S. Dellenbaugh, Henry P. Emerson, Mrs. E. A. Forbes, 
Josiah Letchworth, Charles Linden, James N. Matthews, Oliver G. 
Steele, Charles Wood and others. 

Medical and surgical works of more than pamphlet publication 
have included those written by Drs. A. L. Benedict, F. E. Campbell, 
Austin Flint, F. E. Fronczak, Charles. C. F. Gay, F. H. Hamilton, 
Lucien Howe, F. Park Lewis, M. D. Mann, Herman Mynter, Ros- 
well Park, R. V. Pierce, James P. W T hite. Local writers who have 
dealt with other scientific subjects have included Lewis F. Allen, Al- 
bert H. Chester, E. E. Fish, Roswell W. Haskins, D. S. Kellicott, 
Henry Wayland Hill, Charles Linden, A. R. Grote. 

. 16 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

The published books on Politics, Sociology, Law and Education 
include those by the following Buffalonians: Albert Brisbane, James 
( >'. Putnam, Grover Cleveland, William P. Letchworth, Irving 
Browne, Mrs. 11. E. G. Arey, Rev. S. H. Gurteen, Charles Ferguson, 
Henry W. Hill, E. C. Mason, E. C. Townsend, Charles P. Norton, 
\V. II. Ilotchkiss, W. C. Cornell, Leroy Parker, James F. Gluck, 
Robert Schweckeratk, Charles E. Rhodes, Frederick A. Wood, H. 
E. Montgomery, Henry P. Emerson, C. N. Millard. 

Religious works have been written by very many of the gifted 
ministers of religion who have held pastorates in Buffalo. Some 
reached distinction as writers before taking up ministerial charge 
in Buffalo; some did not come into particular notice in literature 
until after leaving Buffalo; but among those who are remembered 
in the city for their literary products as well as pastoral excellence 
are Bishops Timon, Ryan, and Coxe, Reverends Henry A. Adams, 
C. C. Albertson, G. H. Ball, Gottfried Berner, J. L. Corning, J. P. 
Egbert, W. F. Faber, R. S. Green, C. E. Locke, John C. Lord, S. S. 
Mitchell, J. A. Regester, Montgomery Schuyler, Thomas S. Slicer, 
Stephen R. Smith, Henry Smith, J. Hyatt Smith, MT. L. R. P. Thomp- 
son, J. B. Wentworth, William B. Wright, and George Zurcher. Oth- 
er writers on religious subjects include James H. Fisher, E. C. 
Randall, Mrs. C. H. Woodruff, Mary Martha Sherwood. 

In fiction, several Buffalonians have attained distinct national 
success by their works. In this department of literature the fol- 
lowing Buffalonians have produced books of high standard : George 
Berner, Allen G. Bigelow, J. E. Brady, Bessie Chandler (Mrs. Leroy 
Parker), Jane G. Cooke, H. L. Everett, Mrs. Gildersleeve-Long- 
street, David Gray, Jr., George A. Hibbard, W. T. Hornaday, El- 
bert Hubbard, James H. W. Howard, Carrie F. Judd, William F. 
Kip, H. T. Koerner, J. H. Langille, Mrs. E. B. Perkins (Susan 
Chestnutwood), Mrs. Charles Rohlfs (Anna Katherine Green), Rob- 
ert Cameron Rogers, W. G. L. Smith, G. A. Stringer, Jane D. Abbott 
(Mrs. Frank Abbott), Dorothy Tanner (Airs. Montgomery), D. E. 
Wade, Ida Worden Wheeler, 0. Witherspoon, Marion DeForrest, 
George A. Woodward, Julia Ditto Young. George A. Hibbard for 
many years was a frequent contributor to the pages of the "Satur- 
day Evening Post," "Atlantic Monthly," and other leading Ameri- 
can magazines. Elbert Hubbard, "the Sage of East Aurora," 
reached a literary fame which was worldwide ; his pen was sharp, 

17 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

his lines clear, his sentences masterpieces of forceful constructive 
English. He was at the height of his fame in May, 1915, when, 
upon a fateful May afternoon, he and a hundred other American 
citizens of peaceful occupations, and nine or ten times that number 
of men, women and children of other nationalities, found that the 
ship on which they were Hearing Ireland was rapidly sinking as the 
result of a well-nigh inconceivable attack upon it — upon the lives of 
a thousand private citizens who were in no way connected with the 
armed forces of Britain — by a German submarine boat. Elbert 
Hubbard, with the thousand, sank beneath the waves with the "Lu- 
sitania," but who can maintain that that act by the German militar- 
istic administration was not the cause of the United States' ultimate 
entry into the war with that power which ignored the fundamental 
laws of honor and mercy and flouted the rights of neutrals? For 
such diversion from the subject of this chapter, the writer may be 
pardoned, prompted as the diversion was by the thought of how 
great was America's literary loss when Elbert Hubbard met with 
such a tragic death. His "Eminent Painters" is a masterpiece; 
his "Message to Garcia" is an inspiration and help to all who set 
out to accomplish anything. 

Among the writers and publications of Buffalonians on miscel- 
laneous subjects and books published in Buffalo, were the follow- 
ing: Frederick Butler's "History of the United States," Rev. 
Miles P. Squire's contributions to Biblical and Theological Reviews, 
his book published in 1855, entitled "The Problem Solved, or Sin 
Not of God," his other book entitled "Reason and the Bible, or the 
Truth of Revelation," published in 1860, and his "Ten Lectures on 
European Topics, and Lectures at Beloit College." 

After the death of Rev. George Washington Hosmer in 1881, a 
collection was made of his sermons and miscellaneous writings. In 
1886 Rev. John B. AVentworth, D. D., brought out his work entitled 
"The Logic of Introspection." The sermons of Rev. Montgomery 
Schuyler were published under the title of "The Church, Its Min- 
istry and "Worship." In 1839 J. Stanley Grimes published his 
"New System of Phrenology." In 1840 Albert Brisbane published 
his "Social Destiny of Man, or Association and Reorganization of 
Industry." In 1843 Albert Brisbane published his work entitled 
"Association, or a Concise Exposition of the Practical Part of 
Fourier's Social Science." In 1837 appeared Robert Davis' book 

18 


















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THE ACADEMY OF .MUSIC. AS RECONSTRUCTED, 1893 
For many years Buffalo's best theatre. Still standing, much altered 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

entitled "A Canadian Farmer's Travels in the United States." In 
1S13 appeared Benjamin Wait's "Letters From Van Dieman's 
Land, written during five years' imprisonment for political offenses, 
committed in Upper Canada." In 1839 Samuel Wilkeson published 
"A Concise History of the Commencement, Progress and Present 
Condition of the American Colonies in Liberia." In 1852 W. L. G. 
Smith published "Life at the South, or Uncle Tom's Cabin as it is, 
being Narratives, Scenes and Incidents in the Real Life of the 
Lowly." William Ketchum brought out his two-volume "History 
of Buffalo and the Senecas" in 1861. In 1876 Crisfield Johnson 
completed his "Centennial History of Erie County." Hon. Lewis 
F. Allen wrote on agriculture, drainage and other subjects. General 
James C. Strong was the author of " Wah-kee-nah and Her People," 
a study of North American Indians, customs and traditions. Rev~ 
Thomas Donohoe was the author of "The Iroquois and the Jesuits." 
General A. W. Bishop was the author of books entitled "Loyalty 
on the Frontier," "What is the Situation Now, and Why the Solid 
South." 

From time to time there have appeared many military records, 
including "A Record of Battery I, otherwise known as Wiedrick's 
Battery," and "The Ship Yard of the Griffin," both by Cyrus K. 
Remington. "Shakespeare's Draught From Living Water" and 
"Leisure Moments in Gough Square" were written by George Alfred 
Stringer. "The Life and Times of the Rt. Rev. John Timon, D. D., 
the First Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Buffalo," by 
Charles G. Deuther, appeared in 1870. George J. Bryan contributed 
his "Biographies and Journalism" in 1886. "The Story of the 
Ilutchinsons," by Mrs. C. H. Gildersleeve, was a notable contribu- 
tion to the literature of the musical activities of the pre-war period. 
Charles E. Morse, John Harrison and others wrote songs that were 
popular. In 1881 Rev. J. Hazard Hartzell published his collected 
poems entitled "Wanderings on Parnassus," and there also ap- 
peared a volume of verse by Thomas S. Chard, the author of 
"Across the Sea." From time to time there were published in the 
"Catholic Union" the poems of Patrick Cronin. In "The Courier' r 
appeared the poems of Joseph O'Connor, and in "The News" form- 
erly appeared the poems of John D. Wells and in "The Times" now 
appear the poems of John D. Wells. Anna Katherine Green's 
novel, "The Leavenworth Case," appeared in 1878, "A Strange 

19 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

Disappearance" in 1879, "The Sword of Damocles" in 1SS1, and a 
volume of her poems in 1S82. Mrs. E. B. Perkins' "Malbrook" ap- 
peared in 1871, and her ''Honor Bright" in 1883. While pastor of 
St. Mark's M. E. Church, Rev. George E. Ackerman wrote his "Re- 
searches in Philosophy" and "Man a Revelation of God." While 
resident in Buffalo, Bishop John F. Hurst, of the M. E. Church, 
translated several standard works on church history, and he also 
contributed several original works. He was a voluminous and 
scholarly writer, and his contributions to literature in number and 
scholarship approach those of Bishop Arthur Cleveland Coxe. Not 
all the works of the two Bishops, however, appeared while they were 
residents of Buffalo. The contributions of other clergymen, as 
stated in "The Authors of Buffalo," by Frank H. Severance, in- 
clude "Historical Sketches and Incidents Illustrative of the Estab- 
lishment and Progress of Universalism in the State of New York," 
by the Rev. Stephen R. Smith; "Some Lessons From the Parable 
of the Sower," by the Rev. J. P. Egbert; "The True Man and 
Other Practical Sermons," by the Rev. S. S. Mitchell; "Dogma no 
Andidote for Doubt," by James H. Fisher; "Both Sides, or Jon- 
athan and Absalom," by the Rev. Dr. Rufus S. Green; "Handbook 
of Charity Organization," by the Rev. S. Humphreys Gourteen; 
"Complete System of Sunday-school Instruction," by the Rev. Or- 
lando Witherspoon ; various writings by the Rev. A. T. Chester, and 
two works by the Rev. J. H. Langille, one on ornithology, "Our 
Birds in Their Haunts," the other entitled "Snail-shell Harbor, a 
Picture of Life on the Northwest Coast of Lake Michigan." 

Among the contributors to the literature of science, in addition 
to those already stated, were Dr. Julius Pohlman on geology and oth- 
er specialties, Edward P. Van Duzee on entomology, Hon. David F. 
Day on botany, Hon. George W. Clinton also on botany, fishing and 
hunting and on animals, Henry W. Hill on "Rainfall and Water 
Supply" in the "Americana Encyclopedia" (1920 edition) and 

many others. 

# • * * * «.# * • 

Even before Buffalo had been incorporated, an effort was made 
by some of the more cultured settlers to establish a library. Many 
of the pioneers had had little schooling; some had had no schooling 
at all, for the day of the compulsory and free school had not yet 
come. Some would welcome the facilities of a library for their 

20 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

educational value, while others would appreciate the means it af- 
forded them of literary diversion at little or no cost, for books were 
beyond the purchasing ability of most men in those days of poorly- 
paid labor. A library of seven hundred volumes instituted in 1816 
was appreciated. A small company was formed, and that company 
maintained what was styled "The Buffalo Library" from 1816 to 
1S32. It seems to have passed away at about the time that Buffalo 
expanded its civic status to that of a city. Another library and 
literary society came into existence in 1830; it was known as the 
Buffalo Lyceum, but its life was short. Both libraries were eventu- 
ally transferred to another, that of the Young Men's Association. 

On February 20, 1836, the local newspapers carried a notice re- 
questing "the young men of Buffalo, friendly to the founding of a 
Young Men's Association, for a mutual improvement in literature 
and science," to meet at the court house on Monday, the 22nd day 
of February, at 7 p. m. The meeting was held, a constitution 
adopted, based upon that of the Albany Young Men's Association, 
and a week later organization was completed by the election of the 
following officers: Seth C. Hawley, president; Dr. Charles Winne, 
Samuel N. Callender and George Brown, vice-presidents; Frederick 
P. Stevens and A. G. C. Cochrane, corresponding and recording 
secretaries; John H. Lee, treasurer; Oliver G. Steele, Henry K. 
Smith, William II. Lacy, George W. Allen, Charles H. Raymond, 
Henry R. Williams, George E. Hayes, Halsey R. Wing, Rushmore 
Poole, and Hunting S. Chamberlain, managers. 

Before the end of the first year (1836) the Young Men's Associa- 
tion had a library of 2,700 volumes, including the collections of the 
old Buffalo Library and the Lyceum ; and in its reading room were 
forty-four weekly, ten monthly and six quarterly publications, "mak- 
ing it the completest of any west of New York City." It was for- 
tunate, probably, that the Association was organized in 1836 and 
not in the next year; the monetary panic of 1837 would probably 
have stopped its organization altogether, whereas in 1836 the 
projectors had comparatively little difficulty in raising a fund of 
$6,700 for the purchase of books, and other essentials of a library. 
And even though so fortunately founded, the Association had great 
difficulty in surviving the period of depression that followed the 
disturbance of the nation's finances in 1837. The Young Men's 
Association "carried a burden of debt for many years, and lived 

21 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

pinchingly, but it lived." Its first rooms were on the upper floors of 
a building three doors below Seneca street, on Main; and, 
until a regular librarian was appointed, Mr. B. W. Jenks, a portrait 
painter whose studio adjoined, saw that the property of the As- 
sociation was not misused. The first regular librarian was Charles 
H. Raymond; he "persisted in his unrewarded toil" until 1839, 
when Mr. Phineas Sargent relieved him. In 1811 removal was 
made to South Division street, near Main, and there a small lecture- 
room was fitted up. The quarters were small, and in 181S an un- 
successful attempt was made to establish a building fund. In 1852 
larger quarters were leased in the American Block, on the west 
side of Main street, between Eagle and Court; there the Association 
had the use of the fairly large and excellent American Hall, on the 
third floor, with the library placed underneath. Annual courses of 
lectures by famous men brought much income to the Associa- 
tion, which soon became "distinctly at the front of the intellectual 
life of the town." Mr. Sargent was succeeded as librarian in 
1850 by Lewis Jenkins, who withdrew two years later. Then be- 
gan the connection of William Ives with the Library, a connection 
destined to cover more than fifty years. It was not until 1905 that 
Mr. Ives retired from service; though still in good health, he was 
then nearly ninety years old, and had served the Library for fifty- 
three years. 

In 1856, encouraged to the effort by Mr. George Palmer, who had 
provisionally offered the association a building site valued at $12,- 
000, with $10,000 additional in money, the library managers sought 
to raise $90,000 for building purposes. They were not so fortunate 
as before the previous monetary panic; that of 1S57 was upon 
them before they could raise the stipulated sum. 

In 1861, "near the eve of the outbreak of our dreadful Civil 
War, the Association celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary, with 
notable public exercises, distinguished by one of the finest of the 
poems of the late David Gray." Notwithstanding the extraordinary 
demands in men and money of the Union, for the purpose of the 
war, the Young Men's Association acquired a building fund of 
$81,655 during the war period. The acquirement came at the end 
of an effort prolonged through two years, to unite the Young 
Men's Association, the Grosvenor Library, the Fine Arts Academy, 
the Buffalo Historical Society, and the Society of Natural Sciences, 

22 



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LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

in the erection of a building for their common use. In the spring 
of 1864 the Association purchased from Messrs. Albert and George 
Brisbane the St. James Hotel and St. James Hall, on Main, Eagle, 
and Washington streets, "under conditions which provided quar- 
ters in the hotel building, when reconstructed, for all of the institu- 
tions named above, and temporarily for some others as well." The 
Association five years later established a special fund for large pur- 
chases of books, and within two years increased its total from 16,000 
to 25,000 volumes. The office of superintendent was created in 1877, 
and Josephus Nelson Larned was appointed to that office. Reclassi- 
fications of the books followed, the Dewey system of cataloging be- 
ing adopted. 

In 1882, long before which the library quarters had become in- 
adequate, the court house site, bounded by Washington, Broadway, 
Ellicott and Clinton streets, was acquired by some public-spirited 
gentlemen, "to save it from being sold for commercial uses," it is 
stated, but apparently with the view of transferring it to the Young 
Men's Association and affiliated societies of liberal culture. The 
citizens associated in this action were Sherman S. Rogers, James 
M. Smith, Sherman S. Jewett, Francis H. Root, Charles Berrick, 
O. P. Ramsdell, Dexter P. Rumsey, Pascal P. Pratt and George 
Howard; and they planned to consolidate the Young Men's and 
Grosvenor libraries, "with the Fine Arts Academy, the Societ} r of 
Natural Sciences and the Historical Society grouped around them." 
The two libraries could not be brought together, though the other 
features of the scheme were consummated. The Young Men's 
Association raised a building fund of $117,000, and soon George 
Esenwein, of Buffalo, was superintending the erection of a building, 
to the plans of C. L. W. Eidlitz, of New York. Ground was broken 
on October 8, 1881, and within less than two years, on September 
13, 1886, the removal of the library began, though the formal open- 
ing of the building, with the Art, the Science, and History collections 
in place did not occur until February 7, 1887. The Young Men's 
Association had before that time been authorized to change its 
name to The Buffalo Library. 

Providence seemed to guard the priceless treasures of the Li- 
brary and other societies, for within six weeks of the formal opening 
-of the new building, the vacated quarters were destroyed by fire. The 
Iroquois Hotel soon rose, an enterprise of the Buffalo Library, and 

23 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

it was favorably leased. Financial embarrassment eventually 
brought help from the city, later by act of the State Legislature 
secured through the efforts of Assemblyman Henry W. Hill and 
others, being authorized to contract with the two libraries for the 
establishment of free public service. Formerly the Buffalo Library 
had been able to admit to the privilege of borrowing books for 
home use only its members, who subscribed three dollars a year. 
By the contract entered into on February 24, 1897, between the Buf- 
falo Library and the City of Buffalo : 

"The Buffalo Library conveyed to the City of Buffalo its books 
and pamphlets in trust for a period of 99 years, together with the 
net annual income from the Library property. The city accepted 
the trust, and bound itself to maintain the Library ( by annual appro- 
priation of a sum of not less than four-fifths of three one-hundredths 
of one per centum of the total assessed valuation of taxable prop- 
erty in the city (appropriating, also, not less than one-fifth of three 
one-hundredths of one per centum of such assessed valuation to 
the maintenance of the Grosvenor Library each year). The Library 
to be known as the Buffalo Public Library, and to be free to the 
residents of the city for all of its uses ; to be open every day, during 
stipulated hours ; to be under the control and management of a 
board of ten directors, five of them representing the city and five 
the life members of the Buffalo Library, as previously constituted; 
these latter having been incorporated with the power of perpetual 
succession, and having the control and management of the Library 
real estate. 

"On the 9th of March this corporation of life members of the 
Buffalo Library was organized by the election of Nathaniel W r . Nor- 
ton, president; George L. "Williams, vice-president; Joseph P. Dud- 
ley, James Frazier Gluck and Charles E. Wilson, managers. These, 
with the Mayor of Buffalo, the Corporation Counsel, the Superin- 
tendent of Education, and two citizens, John D. Bogardus and Ma- 
thias Rohr, appointed by the Mayor, formed the first board of di- 
rectors of the Buffalo Public Library, with Mr. Norton to pre- 
side." 

No man strove harder to consummate this improvement in 
library affairs than Mr. Josephus N. Larned, who for twenty 
years had been its superintendent; and he anticipated eagerly the 
reorganiaztion of the Library, with a view to the institution of a bet- 
ter service to the reading public; "but a few weeks of experience 
convinced him that he could not work in harmony with the presiding 
officer of the new board of directors, and in April he resigned." Mr. 

24 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

Henry L. Elmendorf was appointed in his place. Mr. Elmendorf 
died in July, 1906, and his assistant, Walter L. Brown, became chief 
librarian. He still is at the head of the Buffalo Public Library, 
-which has consistently continued to expand its scope of public use- 
fulness, as will be realized by the following comparisons. When 
the Buffalo Library became "a free institution" in 1S97, it had 
upon its shelves about 90,000 volumes; at the end of 1919 it pos- 
sessed more than 400,000 volumes. In 1S9G, the last year under the 
old system of permitting books to be borrowed only by those who 
paid membership fees, the Library had 1,592 paying members; in 
1919, 130,000 individual borrowers made use of the books of the Buf- 
falo Public Library. There has been a notable extension in the 
work, for there are now seven other branch libraries open to the 
general public, and directed by the staff of the Buffalo Public 
Library; and in addition an original plan of school libraries. 

Merged in the Buffalo Public Library is another historic literary 
society of Buffalo. The German Young Men's Association was or- 
ganized on May 10, 184-1. Its main purpose is clearly stated in its 
original name, which was the German-English Literature Society. 
F. A. Georger was first president, John Hauenstein, vice-president, 
Carl Neidhardt, secretary; Jacob Beyer, George Beyer, George F. 
Pfeiffer, William Rudolf and Adam Schlagder founding members. 
Its full stated purposes were "mutual education in the different 
branches of German and English literature, science and art, the gen- 
eral spreading of useful knowledge, and the providing of a good 
library." The first meetings were held weekly, on Monday nights, 
"in a very plain room in the rear of Dr. Dellenbaugh's drug store, 
on Main near Court street." The room was used until 1843. On 
September 11, 1841, the name of the society was changed to the 
German Young Men's Association, and in some of its social activi- 
ties it followed the plan of the Young Men's Association. The 
German Young Men's Association had a library of 750 volumes in 
184G, when the first catalogue was printed. For a time after leav- 
ing Dr. Dellenbaugh's room the quarters of the German Society 
were in the Eagle Tavern, but in the winter of 1843-44 rooms in the 
Kremlin Block were rented. There the library was maintained 
until 1854. 

The first published report of the German Young Men's Associa- 
tion was that issued in January, 1851. It showed a membership of 

25 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

120, and a library of 1,090 volumes, 890 of which were printed in 
German. The German Colony of Buffalo had become the refuge of 
political exiles from Germany since 1818, and the German Young 
Men's Association quarters constituted a rendezvous for these dem- 
ocratic Teutons. Kinkel was given a reception in 1S51, and Kos- 
suth in 1852. In 1857 the membership was a very large one, but 
the monetary panic of September of that year had as disastrous an 
effect upon that society as upon others. In 1861 the German Young 
Men's Association had only 54 members. During the next two dec- 
ades it recovered, however, and brought many notable lecturers to 
Buffalo. 

In 1882 the Society engaged in a great undertaking. It agreed 
to provide a hall suitable for the accommodation of the Twenty- 
third Saengerfest of the German Saengerbund of North America, 
appointed to be held in Buffalo in 1883. Ground on Main, Franklin 
and Edward streets was purchased from the Walden estate, a build- 
ing fund was raised, and the project carried through with success. 
The hall was thereafter the headquarters of the Association, but not 
for long. On March 25, 1885, fire destroyed it, and with the build- 
ing, all but 381 of the 7,451 volumes which had constituted the 
library of the German Young Men's Association. Two days later, 
it was resolved to rebuild, and the cornerstone of the new Music Hall 
was laid in May, 1886. It was opened in November, 1887. Its 
cost was $246,600, an outlay which heavily burdened the Association 
with debt for some years, though the debt was reduced by more than 
$43,000 within a year. In 1891, the fiftieth of the Association's 
existence, occurred an especially noteworthy feature of its history. 
Its original president and vice-president, F. A. Georger and Dr. 
John Hauenstein, were in the same places of honor again. When 
after 1897 it was demonstrated that such collections of books as 
that of the German Young Men's Association could be used to 
greater advantage by the people of Buffalo if transferred to the 
"free public institution," the Buffalo Public Library, the subject 
was given due consideration by the directors of the German society, 
and the transfer duly followed. The Association thereafter di- 
rected its efforts to other functions of social service, in the depart- 
ment of higher culture. 

In the fifth volume of the "Publications of the Buffalo Historical 
Society" are some interesting "Notes on the Earlier Years" of that 

26 






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BUFFALO PUBLIC LIBRARY 






LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

Society. They were compiled by its secretary, Frank H. Severance, 
L. II. D., editor of its "Publications," which have reached such 
hitch standing in historical societies, a standing, by the way, created 
for it mainly by the excellence of Dr. Severance's own contributions, 
which have since 1S96 been part of these "Publications." Dr. Sev- 
erance, in the notes referred to, put into record the facts related to 
him by the Hon. Lewis F. Allen as to "how the Historical Society 
was started." Mr. Allen in that conversation said: 

"I was coming up Court Street one day when I met Orsamus H. 
Marshall. I knew him well — knew that he was one of the few men 
in Buffalo who gave any thought to the preservation of the records 
or relics of our history. Marshall, you know, was a scholar. Put 
him on anything relating to our Indians, and off he'd go as long as 
lie could follow the trail. He spoke of something that he wanted to 
get, or that had been destroyed, I don't remember now just what. 
'Marshall,' I said, 'we ought to do something about these things. 
Somebody should take care of them.' It was a raw windy day 
early in the spring, along in March, 1862. He said: 'Come up to 
my office and we '11 talk it over. ' 

"The result of that talk was that we got a few others interested, 
and .published a call for another meeting to be held at Mr. Mar- 
shall's office. 'The rest of it,' said Mr. Allen, 'is matter of record.' 
We named a committee to draw up a constitution and by-laws, 
which were submitted to a meeting of citizens held in the rooms 
of the old Medical Association on South Division street. Millard 
Fillmore was made chairman of that meeting, and a little later, at 
our first election, he was chosen the first president of the So- 
ciety." 

The first meeting at which Mr. Fillmore presided was that held 
on April 15, 1862. The earlier meeting, that held in Mr. Marshall's 
office, was under the chairmanship of Mr. Lewis F. Allen, who be- 
came the first vice-president of the society. 

In 1873, Oliver Gray Steele reviewed the early history of the 
Buffalo Historical Society in an "entirely adequate sketch" which is 
preserved in the first volume of the society's publications. Dr. 
Severance, in volume V, picks out leading facts from that sketch, 
and adds an interesting memoir of particular outstanding transac- 
tions of the Buffalo Historical Society to 1902, in which year the 
society was installed in its new home in Delaware Park. Mr. Sev- 
erance found that Mr. Steele's sketch told "of the awakening of in- 
terest on the part of many of the older citizens, in matters pertain- 

27 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

ing to the history of Buffalo and Western New York ; and of the or- 
ganization of the society, the first election of officers being held on 
the first Tuesday in May (1SG2), Hon. Millard Fillmore being chosen 
president, and Hon. Lewis F. Allen chosen vice-president." Mr. 
Severance continued : 

"Oddly enough — when we note his zeal in the formation of the 
society — Mr. Allen was never its president, though he continued de- 
voted to its welfare throughout his long life (which did not end 
until May 2, 1S90, his 91st year). Mr. Steele has related how at 
the suggestion of Mr. Fillmore, 50 gentlemen bound themselves to 
pay $20 each per year for live years, as a maintenance fund for the 
society. This plan was later modified by the creation of a life-mem- 
bership class, the pavnient therefor being $50, increased in 1897 to 
$100. 

"For some time after its organization in 1862, the society had 
no home. Its record books and first collections — the nucleus of its 
present museum — were deposited in the office of Flon. William 
Dorshseimer, Xo. 7 Court street, and there, too, its early meetings 
were held. From 1S65 until January, 1873, the society occupied 
rooms, rent free, in the Young Men's Association building, south- 
east corner of Main and Eagle streets. That building was far from 
fire-proof; but the new building of the Western Savings Bank, 
northwest corner of Main and Court streets, constructed in 1871-2, 
did appear to offer the security sought for its possessions. The an- 
nual income of the society at that time was between $500 and $600, 
not enough to pay the salary of the secretary, and it is not strange 
that there was hesitancy about moving to quarters for which a con- 
siderable rent must be paid. The matter was placed in the hands 
of Orlando Allen, Orsamus H. Marshall and Gibson T. Williams; 
and this committee reported, December 10, 1872, that the Young 
Men's Association, in consideration of the surrender of the His- 
torical Society lease, would pay to it $1,600 in four years, in quar- 
terly instalments. The Historical Society accepted the terms, 
named * * a committee to circulate subscription papers 

* * ; and in January, 1873, feeling warranted in assuming the 
expense, moved to its new quarters. 

"Here the society's home continued to be until January, 1887, 
when it took possession of the more ample rooms — though again on 
the third floor, reached only for many years by wearying stairs — 
in the new building of the Young Men's Association, now Buffalo 
Library building; from which it migrated in April, 1902, to take 
possession, for the first time in its history and just forty years after 
its organization, of a home of its own. * * * 

"A word of appreciation may * * fittingly be written of 

28 









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BUFFALO HISTORICAL SOCIETY BUILDING 
From Delaware Park Bridge 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

the men who, through many years of cramped resources and the in- 
difference of a large part of the community, kept the society not 
only alive but progressive. The decade following the Civil War 
was not a propitious period for such an institution. There were 
times when very few men kept up the organization and 

carried on a work in which they would gladly have had the coop- 
eration of very many of their fellow-citizens. In this category of 
the faithful were Hon. James Sheldon, William Clement Brvant, 
Capt. E. P. Dorr, Hon. William P. Letchworth, William H. H. New- 
man, Hon. Elias S. Hawley, Hon. James M. Smith, William Hodge, 
William Dana Fobes, Emmor Haines, James Tillinghast, William 
K. Allen, George S. Hazard, Dr. Joseph C. Green, Julius H. Dawes, 
and others. * * After the death of Millard Fillmore and oth- 

ers who had shared in the founding of the society, its interests suf- 
fered a decline for a period. A more vigorous era was begun under 
the presidency of William D. Fobes in 1884, who, * * * retired 
from office 'leaving the society 20 per cent, better than he found 
it.' * * * It was during Mr. Fobes 's presidency that the Fill- 
more family library passed into the possession of the 
society. The arrangement which was made in April, 188-4, with the 
Young Men's Association for free occupancy of the third floor of its 
projected building, was a great financial help. Prior to its removal 
to what is now the Library building, the society had been paying, 
since 1873, $100 a year rent for its quarters in the Western Sav- 
ings Bank building. 

"The board meeting of January 4, 1887, was the first which the 
society held in the new Young Men's Association building. It was 
at this meeting that Judge Sheldon, then completing his last term 
as president, proposed the name of Andrew Langdon for life mem- 
bership. Mr. Langdon was duly elected, and at the annual meet- 
ing held on January 11th was chosen one of the board of council- 
lors (now called board of managers). In 1894, Mr. Langdon was 
elected president, and he has been reelected to that office — more than 
once in opposition to his expressed wish — every year since. Mr. 
Langdon 's presidency marks a distinct era in the fortunes of the 
society. From the first, he took an active interest in its affairs, 
and worked with untiring zeal to promote its prosperity. Its need 
of a building of its own was early apparent to him, as indeed it 
long had been to others ; but none other was so constant in the 
effort to find a way — or if none could be found to make a way — 
towards the desired consummation. * * * In his efforts he was 
ably helped by others, who shall be duly named. 

"The building idea was an old one, and had many forms even 
before Mr. Langdon 's day. In his address on retiring from the 
presidency in 1S83, William Hodge offered as ' a sugestion : ' ' Would 
it not be pleasing to many to perpetuate the memory of relatives 

29 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

and friends * * * by giving some amount towards our building 
fund, or better still to purchase or erect a suitable building for the 
Buffalo Historical Society. Such noble deeds,' he added, 'have 
often been done.' He had long thought, he said, that the old Wal- 
don homestead, at Main, Edward and Franklin streets, was a suit- 
able house for the Historical and other societies of the city. 'The 
location may be considered by some to be too far up town, but to 
me it certainly seems not. ' How great would have been his wonder 
could he have been told that the society's first building of its own 
— and a marble palace at that — would be beyond the far Scajaquada. 
"The suggestion bore no fruit ; nor was there any tangible build- 
ing fund until on March 4, 1894, Judge James M. Smith 
gave to it five bonds of the Crosstown Street Kailroad, Nos. 19-23, 
valued at $5,000, 'as a nucleus for a building fund.' This was a 
profit-earning property. To it was added $3,000 received by be- 
quest from Mrs. C. L. Fobes, on October 6, 1898. These sums> 
with accrued interest, amounted to $11,064.39 on May 1, 1899, -when 
the account was closed. Prior to this time the society had begun 
to direct its efforts in a new channel. " 

Hon. Henry W. Hill introduced at the 1897 session of the State 
Legislature, of which he was then a member, representing the Sec- 
ond District of Erie county, two measures which sought power to 
construct a building for the Historical Society on park lands. Both 
bills became laws in that year. The first is Chapter 329 and the 
second is Chapter 310 of the Laws of 1S97. Other relative acts 
were passed, and inspection of park sites followed. The board of 
managers of the Historical Society favored a site then known as the 
Concourse, and now occupied by the Albright Art Gallery. The 
Board of Park Commissioners could not, however, reach a like 
unanimity of opinion, whereupon Mr. Bronson C. Rumsey offered 
to give the society a site for its building on land owned by him, 
adjoining the south side of the park, on the east side of Elmwood 
avenue. On May 8, 1897, the board o f managers met in Delaware 
Park, and decided to reject the offer, for munificent though it un- 
doubtedly was, the representatives of the Historical Society felt 
that by adhering to its purpose of seeking a site on park lands the 
future maintenance of the building would be upon a sounder basis. 
For a while, however, it seemed that the project would fail alto- 
gether, because of the disfavor with which the Park Board viewed 
the proposal to build on the Concourse. An opportunity to accom- 
plish the aims of the society, despite the opposition of the Park 

30 



LITERATURE OF BUFFALO 

Commissioners, was found in 189S. It had been planned to hold a 
ran-American Exposition in Buffalo in 1899, but the political situa- 
tion since the outbreaking of war with Spain had made a postpone- 
ment of the Exposition advisable. On March 14, 1S98, Assembly- 
man Henry W. Hill introduced a concurrent resolution in the State 
Assembly which sought not only to secure from the State Govern- 
ment, and through it from the Federal Government, approval of 
the postponement and promise of substantial aid in the project, but 
also that the moneys appropriated by the national, state, and city 
governments might be added to the building fund of the Buffalo 
Historical Society, and the whole used in the erection of a fireproof 
building, instead of a temporary exhibition building, with the view 
to the transference to the Historical Society of the said fire-proof 
building after it had served the purposes of the Pan-American Ex- 
position. The whole of this plan did not at once develop, but it is 
clear that such was the plan Mr. Hill and others sought to consum- 
mate when the concurrent resolution was moved in the Assembly by 
him. The plan was carried through, and eventually brought into 
the possession of the Buffalo Historical Society a magnificent build- 
ing of Greek Doric architecture and constructed of white Vermont 
marble, at a cost of $175,000, only $45,000 of which the Historical 
Society was called upon to provide. The State appropriated $100,- 
000 toward the cost, and the city supplied the other $30,000. The 
building is still the home of the Buffalo Historical Society, is known 
as the Historical Building, and is deservedly classed among the 
more beautiful of the public buildings of Buffalo. It stands on 
sloping land on the axis of a semi-circle, in the northwest corner of 
Delaware Park, adjacent to Elmwood avenue. It houses the valu- 
able museum of the Society, and also its library, which exceeds 
40,000 volumes. 







3i 



Connecticut College 

By Rev. Bex jam ix T. Marshall, 1). D., Peesidext of College 

HE foundations of Connecticut College were laid, not only 
in the fine purposes and industry of the incorporators, 
' i llf^l but also in the faith they held in women, and in their 
conviction that within the State of Connecticut there 
should be a modern, progressive college for women that should 
provide these forms of higher education for women to which in re- 
cent years they have aspired in increasing numbers, and for thf> 
privileges of which they have now for many years demonstrated 
their indisputable qualification. 

But there is also the glow and ardor of romance in the story of 
the college, for how else shall we describe the experience of the young 
institution whose hand was sought by a score or more towns and 
cities who also promised lavish gifts. Was it not romance, and was 
it not high gallantry, that moved New London to sue so ardently 
for the hand of the college and to present so promptly the gifts 
it promised, in the form of lands and funds? 

The college will never forget the splendid enthusiasm of New 
London, its corporate body, and its citizens, nor their significant 
and munificent gifts. The coming of the college afforded New Lon- 
don a chance to demonstrate a spirit of unity and of devotion to 
education which became in a real way the revival of a civic pride 
and spirit which has characterized the city unmistakably in these 
recent years. 

To serve and honor the city which has served and honored it, 
will be always a dominant factor in the purpose and life of the col- 
lege ; for it recognizes that by virtue of its character and purpose it 
should be the purveyor to the city of opportunities for culture 
through lectures, exhibitions, musical programs and conferences of 
various kinds, and seek to encourage the people of the city to avail 
themselves of its ever-widening and increasing privileges. 

The relations of city and college each to the other were begun 
under happiest auspices. May they never cease to be reciprocally 

32 



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LIBRARY, CONNECTICUT COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 









CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 

-joyous and profitable. "While the city goes about its daily business, 
the "College on the Hill" moves faithfully and eagerly forward in 
the prosecution of its program, in devotion to its distinctive ideal. 

What the college is and "what it aims for, how it does its work, 
and in what spirit and with what results, the following paragraphs 
aim clearly to state. They are presented as the official statement 
of the college through its president. 

1. The need for more women's colleges. For many years there 
had been among educators and all persons interested in the higher 
education of women a recognition that more women's colleges of 
high grade were greatly needed, since the women's colleges already 
existing were either filled to capacity or over-crowded. 

Connecticut College came into existence to meet, so far as it was 
able, that well-defined need of more high-grade centrally located 
colleges for women. It became, in fact, a necessity in this new era 
for women, which has given them the full rights of suffrage. With- 
in the State the need was accentuated by the fact that W T esleyan 
had determined to be solely a man's college; and in the mind of 
Wesleyan Alumna, and in the minds of friends whom she had gath- 
ered about her, the idea and purpose to have a woman's college 
within the State of Connecticut took root, assumed form, and be- 
came an established fact. 

2. The Specific Need. There was further recognized the need of 
colleges specifically for women, which should definitely contemplate 
the tastes, talents, aptitudes, ambitions, potential service and pos- 
sibilities of women in social, literary, educational, secretarial, busi- 
ness, professional and administrative positions ; and should, coupled 
with the cultural and literary and scientific studies which serve as 
backgrounds and resources, those subjects and that training in them 
which give a vocational emphasis, and stimulate and equip the stu- 
dent to become in a sane, balanced and concrete fashion, both socially 
minded and socially efficient. 

Courses coming under this description may be cited as those of 
home economics, fine arts, music, economics and sociology, secre- 
tarial studies and office practice, library science, physical education. 

3. The Purpose and Ideal of the College. The effort to meet 
these needs generally and specifically is expressed in the purpose 
of Connecticut College, namely: 

To offer college work of grade and value second to none; to 

33 



CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 

offer technical work worthy of college credit; to prepare for profes- 
sional work in all branches where women are needed. 

In short, to maintain, with high standards, and to conduct with 
highest efficiency, a curriculum prepared to develop each woman's 
peculiar talents toward her most effective life-work. 

4. The Practical Fulfillment of Purpose. The practical operation 
and demonstration of this purpose and ideal is seen in the inclusion 
in the curriculum of the familiar college subjects — the ancient and 
modern languages and literatures, mathematics, chemistry, physics, 
botany, zoology, history, political science, economics, sociology, 
philosophy, psychology, education, biblical history, and literature; 
and, with their specific technical, vocational, artistic, domestic and 
social values, the following: Music, fine arts (including drawing, 
painting, design, interior decoration, mechanical drawing and cer- 
amics) ; home economics (including foods, nutrition, household man- 
agement, institutional management) ; library, science, secretarial 
studies and office practice, physical education (required of all stu- 
dents throughout their course). 

It should be noted that there are courses, in their respective de- 
partments, for the training of teachers in Latin, English, French, 
music, physical education, besides the courses in education ; courses 
in chemistry are, some of them, conducted with reference to their 
applications of that science, and a course in psychological chemistry, 
in its relation to home economics, is a particularly progressive and 
timely piece of work; that courses in mathematics, such as the 
theory of investment and statistics, have a direct practical value ; 
that courses in economics and sociology are presented and prose- 
cuted with sympathy toward and understanding of the instincts, 
interest and aptitudes and specific adaptability of women to social 
problems and social work. 

The work in fine arts and in music is not merely theoretical, which 
method would tend to superficiality, but is also technical, coodinated, 
expressional, creative. Thus action and accomplishment are ele- 
vated to their rightful place in granting full credit to studio work ; 
and action (creative work) is seen to be as essential to any worthy 
sort of appreciation in the realm of art as laboratory work is essen- 
tial for the correct evaluation and esteem of any science. In this 
policy certain results are already unmistakably evident. There has 
come to be : (a) a respect for the use of the hand ; (b) a higher grade 

34 







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CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 

of work in the studio; (c) greater enjoyment and satisfaction in 
the work; (d) a realization that education does not mean cessation 
from all work of the hand. 

5. Broad and Balanced Curriculum, Values and Results. Because 
of the breadth of opportunity in major subjects offered in the pre- 
ceding list, the regularly accepted academic majors, complemented 
by the number of majors in technical courses we can demonstrate 
that: 

(a) There is a much larger percentage of students who find 
courses that lead to direct activity and expression, than in other 
colleges. 

(b) There is an appreciable increase in the educational value of 
the institution from the very distinct and varied types of mind and 
of personality that are attracted by a diversity of courses. 

(c) There is a more liberal and appreciative academic student, 
who has learned that arts are not superficial, but fundamental; and 
a more cultured and better technical student, by reason of required 
courses in foreign language, English literature, science, history and 
social science. 

The trustees and faculty are united and enthusiastic in the loyal 
undertaking of this program. They are convinced of its soundness, 
practicability, and high value. Their confidence and enthusiasm 
are justified by the superior quality and large number of students 
who have sought admission, a number which every year has ex- 
ceeded the capacity of the college. 

6. The college has attracted superior students in large numbers 
from several States. Students now enrolled in the college number 
approximately 380, the largest number, we believe, ever known in 
an American College in its seventh year. Students come from 
twenty-one different States. Several students have transferred 
from other colleges, to find in Connecticut College more nearly what 
they wanted and needed, than they could find elsewhere, and several 
girls have entered Connecticut College attracted by its offerings, 
who, from their early years, had fully purposed to enter other and 
older women's colleges. The college has graduated three classes, 
the class of 1919 with sixty-eight who received degrees, and the 
class of 1920 -with sixty-nine who received degrees, and the class of 
1921. We believe that no other college in America can cite such 
large figures for its first three classes. 

35 



CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 

7. Complete Student Self-government. No argument attempting 
to justify the existence and service of the college would be com- 
plete that did not stress the value and significance of the system 
of full student self-government, granted by the faculty to the stu- 
dent body from the first. The system provides for a complete con- 
trol of all the life and activity of the students, except in strictly aca- 
demic matters. It is organized as a representative democracy, and 
functions with reality, efficiency, good judgment, and, we believe, 
with increasing success. 

The counsel, suggestion, and experience of faculty and adminis- 
tration is always available, and is frequently sought, and in all more 
vital matters is always requested. 

In managing their own affairs as a real democracy, students are 
trained in responsibility, cooperation, initiative, in forming judg- 
ments, in making choices, in creating policies, in establishing tradi- 
tion, and maintaining college morale, and in official duties and com- 
mittee work learn valuable lessons in tact, appreciation, discrimi- 
nation and in administration and execution. 

8. The Spirit of the College — Loyalty, Enthusiasm, Coopera- 
tion, Confidence. The undoubted effect of this organization of the 
students has been to develop a spirit of true democracy, without re- 
ligious or social or class prejudices ; to stimulate respect for work 
in all its forms, particularly with reference to students working 
their way through ; there is tolerance and good will and sympathy ; 
the bases of the organization are work, responsibility, liberty, 
solidarity, and a type of girl is being developed who is entirely 
free from pedantry and cant ; she is open, sincere, unselfish and of 
sound judgment and initiative, able to deal with people and with 
situations, yet without conceit or assumption. 

Through all the activities of the college, both in its academic and 
social side, there breathes an intense spirit of loyalty and of enthu- 
siasm. From the beginning the students were made, by the admin- 
istration and the faculty, to realize how much the morale and spirit 
of the college were in their keeping, and they have grown in inten- 
sity of appreciation and responsibility for the highest character in 
college life. 

The spirit of cooperation is cultivated in the fact that the college 
does things together. It meets every day for Chapel, every Sunday 
for Vespers, every Tuesday for Convocation, as a college body, f ac- 

36 



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CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 

ulty and students merging; and it undertakes an interest and a 
support of outside activities in college-wide fashion. When called 
upon to give, as for instance during the war, to the Students' Friend- 
ship War Fund, to the United War Campaign, and more recently in 
aid of the students and professors of the colleges in Central Europe, 
it organizes its efforts as an all-college affair, pours its energy, its 
enthusiasm, its zeal, its gifts, into one common effort, and the result 
is issued with the seal and endorsement of the entire college upon it- 
There is in all the life of the college great confidence in the insti- 
tution, a splendid satisfaction in its work, great happiness in its 
fellowship, and a fine sense of challenge in the richness, variety 
and wholesomeness 'of its entire comradeship, student and faculty 
alike. 

The spirit of cooperation, understanding, unanimity, which pre- 
vails, may be expressed when we say that in the four years of the 
present administration there has not been in the board of trustees 
a single divided vote ; and in the faculty, on no vital point, any- 
thing but practical unanimity. 

9. Favorable and appreciative attitude of educators and institu- 
tions toward Connecticut College. The attitude and favor and good- 
will, confidence and commendation on the part of educators and of 
presidents of other women's colleges has been very cheering. With- 
out exception, the older colleges have welcomed Connecticut College 
into the sisterhood, have declared that it was greatly needed ; that 
the kind of work it is doing is essential and is well done, and that 
its future is bright and challenging. The comment of President 
MacCracken of Vassar is perhaps as significant as any, when, after 
speaking of several forward steps in the education of women in 
America in recent years, he says : 

Among these steps the most important is undoubtedly the found- 
ing of Connecticut College at New London, and all friends of higher 
education for women have welcomed its entrance into the field, 
because it is clear from the general trend of registration that women 
will in increasing numbers seek the college degree. 

Visitors to the campus, representing other colleges, presidents, 
deans, registrars, official committees of visitation with specific er- 
rands, have spoken uniformly of their pleasure in the visit, of the 
distinct impression of industry, vigor and worth in which the col- 

37 



CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 



lege work is done, and congratulated the college on its site, on its 
work, and on its prospects. Organizations, whose representatives 
have come to give counsel to the students with reference to future oc- 
cupation, representatives of social organizations seeking superior 
material for graduate study in schools of social service, have ex- 
pressed themselves in such language as this : 

"In conference, the students ask most intelligent questions." 
''Know what they want." 

"Have a knowledge of the factors in social and industrial situa- 
tions more than students of other colleges visited. ' ' 

The college has freely been granted the counsel of the Russell 
Sage Foundation, whose aid in planning various lines of community 
work under the auspices of the sociology department has been of- 
fered. 

Graduates of the college have gone forth to social work or to 
advanced study on the basis of the work done here, and have been 
given practically a year's credit in advance over the graduates of 
other institutions, whether in graduate study or in active positions 
on the staff of charity or social organizations. 

10. Record of Graduates. Variety in activity and service, and 
gratifying success. All that precedes, which is an effort to justify 
the existence of the college, finds its concrete and we believe unan- 
swerable justification in the quality of the product of the college in 
its graduates and in the nature and quality of the service they are 
rendering in their present fields. 

There are ISO alumnae of the college, graduates in the first three 
classes, 1919, 1920 and 1921. The director of the college appoint- 
ment bureau reports that these graduates are largely engaged in the 
work toward which their major work in college particularly fitted 
them. 

The success and gratifying service of such graduates, from whom 
we have received definite returns, is due not alone to the careful and 
able training by a competent faculty, but also to that spirit of enthu- 
siasm, of loyalty and cooperation which has characterized the college 
since its inception, a passion to do whatever they do worthily, and to 
count constructively by rendering a specific service to society. 

There is a profound confidence in the college on the part of the 
trustees, faculty, students and friends of the college alike. They 

38 



CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, NEW LONDON 

take pride in its genuine though modest accomplishment, and they 
feel confident of its future and hopeful and zealous of its mainten- 
ance and expansion along the lines projected from the beginning and 
faithfully followed to this moment, so far as years of war and rela- 
tively unincreased endowment have permitted. 

The preceding paragraphs, we trust, constitute a sufficient and 
genuine justification of the existence of the college. Our conviction 
is that the college was opened to meet both a general and a specific 
need, that it established for itself a splendid purpose and a high 
ideal, and it set itself vigorously and conscientiously to the practical 
fulfillment of that purpose. It has offered a broad and balanced 
curriculum of soundness, practicability, undoubted values and of 
high promise. It has summoned to itself superior students in large 
numbers from a wide area. It has cultivated in them a passion to 
do whatever they do worthily, and to count constructively, whether 
by helping to brighten a home and elevate the life of a family, or by 
rendering some more specific service to society at large. 

It has already developed a peculiar, significant and exalted spir- 
it, which is recognized as distinctive, strong and exceptional. It has 
Avon from the beginning and in increasing measure the welcome, 
the appreciation, the regard and commendation of its sister col- 
leges, their leaders and all educators who have come to know it ; and 
chiefly, and above all, it has contributed in its graduates a group of 
women who are undertaking specific tasks toward which the college 
unmistakably directed them, following their natural bent, ambition 
and equipment, and they are doing, each in her own place, the 
world's work in a way that is worthy, noble and commendable, to the 
credit of the college they love, to the honor of their own lives, and as 
a rare and distinctive contribution to the life of America. 




39 



-tfgfl 




The Narragansett Trail 

By Thomas W. Bickxell, Proyidexce, Rhode Island 

S THIS article relates to a celebrated New England In- 
dian Trail, I will introduce it by saying that we know lit- 
tle of the tribes of this section of New England prior 
to the arrival of the Mayflower, in 1620. 

The only reliable historic story prior to that date, is the ac- 
count of the Indians on the shores of Narragansett Bay, given by 
Giovanni de Verrazzano, who, under French patronage, explored the 
harbors of New York and Narragansett Bay in 1524, and wrote con- 
cerning the natives, with whom he had most friendly intercourse. 
He calls them hospitable; handsome, both men and women; well 
dressed and ornamented; generous, affectionate and charitable. 
"As to the religious faith of these tribes, not understanding their 
language, we could not learn by signs or gestures, anything certain. 
It seemed to us that they had no religion, nor laws, nor any knowl- 
edge of a first cause or mover, — that they worshipped neither the 
heavens, stars, sun, moon, nor the planets." 

In Southern New England, — the location of the Narragansett 
Trail, — the Mohegans and other small families occupied the Con- 
necticut Valley, and west to New York. The Pequod tribe, with its 
capital at Pequod, now New London, was a savage, mischief-mak- 
ing people, in Eastern Connecticut, on Long Island Sound. East 
of the Pawcatuck river, on the Sound, in Southern Ehode Island, 
were the Niantics, under the sachemship of the Ninigrets. 

The Narragansetts, the most powerful, wealthiest, the most in- 
dependent Indian nation of all New England, dwelt on the western 
bank of Narragansett Bay, occupying the lands, shores, bays and 
rivers from Point Judith on the south to Quinsniket and AVoon- 
socket on the north, including the Pawtucket or Blackstone river 
section of Rhode Island. The name of the tribe is from the Indian 
word "Naiaganset," "at the point," referring to the Point now 
known as Judith, named for Judith Hull, a later owner. 

Trumbull is good authority for the meaning of Narragansett. 

40 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

He says "Narragansett," as applied to country, bay and tribe, 
means "At the point." Roger Williams, on June 18th, 1682, wrote 
as follows as to the origin of the name "Narragansett." 

"I also profess that being inquisitive of what roots the title 
or denominative Nahigonset should come, I heard that Nahigonset 
was so named from a little island between Pittaquomscut and Mish- 
quomack, (AVesterly) on the sea and fresh water side. I went on 
purpose to see it, and about the place called Sugar Loaf Hill, I saw 
it and was within a pole of it, but could not learn why it was called 
Nanhigonset." 

The present accepted spelling of the name has been anglicized 
for nearly three centuries, — Narragansett. As to Mr. Williams' or- 
thography, it is seldom that the same Indian word, in his writings, 
was spelled twice alike, so that he is not an authority in the spelling 
or meaning of Indian proper names. In the initial deed of the great 
sachem in 1638, Mr. Williams wrote the name of Canonicus, the 
great sachem, "Cannaunicusse," and his associate Miantinomi, 
' ' Mianantunnomu. ' ' 

This Narragansett nation included the Niantics, the Potowo- 
muts, the Pawtuxets, and a part of the Nipmucky, while the Wam- 
panoags, with the Massachusetts and some scattering bands in Cen- 
tral New England were in some sense tributary to the government 
of the Narragansetts, whose chief sachem in 1620 was Canonicus, 
assisted by his nephew, Miantinomi. Canonicus was the ruler who 
sent a messenger to Plymouth, with a rattlesnake skin filled with 
Indian arrows, thereby showing his hostility to the white colonists 
and a challenge to battle. Governor Bradford's reply was brave 
and wise, when he returned the skin, filled with bullets. The strate- 
gy of Captain Myles Standish is seen in his curt and courteous re- 
ply. It was the same Canonicus and Miantinomi who deeded the 
Island of Aquidneck to William Coddington and his associates in 
1638, and at the same time gave to Roger Williams a life estate in 
the Providence plantations. At this later date, the Narragansetts 
had been converted to a friendly spirit towards the whites, and a 
generous attitude towards the Providence settlers. 

Godkin estimates the Indian population of New England after 
the great plague, to have been about forty thousand, of whom the 
great tribes of the Narragansetts constituted about one-third. This 
figure, however, is probably much too large. 

4i 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

It will be seen that the Narragansetts occupied the center of the 
coast line between the Abenakis of the Penobscot and the Mohawks 
•of New York, and that their commercial and tribal relations led 
them in both directions. Then again, Ehode Island territory had no 
large rivers, and hence the great trails lay near the shore of their 
home territory. Their whole life interests lay within fifty miles of 
salt-waters. The lands they cultivated were near the sea, while 
their game lands included the hill country in the rear, and their 
rich and abundant fisheries were close at hand to their village life 
along the coast of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. It may be safe- 
ly stated that the Narragansetts had the most interesting and at- 
tractive home-land of any of the North American tribes. The 
sea and ocean, with their wealth, were in front of them and near at 
hand, while in the rear of their teepees the hills rose in ascending 
series to nearly thousand-feet heights, and the forests that crowned 
them were full of game food. It was, indeed, an Indian paradise for 
the noblest, the strongest, the richest, of the red race. It is a won- 
der that no Parkman has studied the history and legends of this 
New England tribe ; that no Cooper has woven the loves and hates, 
the human tragedies, of this throng of lovers, patriots, warriors; 
that no Whittier has written the bride of Aspanansuck, Wawaloam, 
and that no Longfellow has immortalized King Tom Ninigret, or 
portrayed drama of Miantinomi and his Nipmuc bride. 

"Still stands the forest primeval, but under the shade of the branches, 
Dwells another race, with other customs and language." 

The Narragansetts were great travellers by land and by sea. 
While they traversed the coast from Narragansett, their capital, 
i,v the Hudson *on the West, over Long Island Sound, their birch 
canoes or dugouts could also be seen at the mouths of the Merrimac, 
the Androscoggin and the Kennebec, even as far east as Mohegan 
Isle and the Penobscot. They were bold navigators, and defiant 
warriors when war was in the ascendant. 

Their land travels were as extended as their sea voyages, reach- 
ing to the Mohawks on the west on Lake Erie, to St. Johns on the 
east, and to Champlain and Montreal on the north. They were 
great land voyageurs, along the foot-paths on trails which their 
revered but long-forgotten ancestors had made and used ages be- 
fore the generations of Canonicus, Sassacus and Chickataubut. It 

42 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

is worth remembrance that the lines of our State, interstate and 
other American routes of travel were laid out by Indian engi- 
neers, in the earliest occupation of the territory by the aboriginal 
people. The skill of woodcraft, the routing, crossing of streams at 
fordable points, avoidance of hill climbing, avoidance of sands and 
boggy lands, the use of moraines, the establishment of guides, the 
study of customs, all these and more made the ancient Indian races 
our teachers in the art of road structure. The American red-man 
was the first American road-man — the great American traveller, the 
pioneer footman of the world. The Narragansett Indian was the 
superior walker, climber, runner of his age — and why? 

The chief seat and centre of the Narragansett nation was on 
the west shore of Narragansett Bay. Their capital town was Nar- 
ragansett, near or at Wickford, on the bay. A careful study of the 
geology of this west shore shows the entrance of many fresh water 
brooks and rivers flowing from the high lands on the west into inlets 
and coves along the sandy shore. The shores of the bay at low water 
expose a large area of sand, the home and breeding places of shell- 
fish, especially the soft-clam, mya abrenaria; the hard or round 
clam, Venus mercenaria; periwinkles, littorina; mussels, nytilus 
edulis; scallops, P. irradians; and oysters, ostrea virginica. These 
shellfish were most abundant in the Indian and Pilgrim periods, and 
in some parts of the bay are still plentiful. Boiled, stewed, fried or 
baked, or raw, the Indian found his most valuable food at no cost 
save the labor of digging from the sand. While the food was rich 
and sustaining, the Narragansetts turned the clam and other shells 
to their use in the manufacture of peag, a sort of money consisting 
of beads made from the ends of shells, rubbed down, polished, and 
strun into belts on necklaces. Black or purple peag was worth 
twice as much as white. The peag was so large and so well made 
that the Narragansett peag or wampum excelled in the coin realm of 
the natives, and gave the Narragansetts first place as manufactur- 
ers, financiers, and merchants. Narragansett (Wickford) was the 
mint for the making of Indian coin for the Algonquin tribes of New 
England, but for many years it was the currency of the white set- 
tlers in the Eastern colonies. 

Peag made trade and travel lively, and as all Indians were nat- 
urally on the go, the Narragansett Trail and its cross trails were in 
daily use by the male members of the various tribes on business or 

43 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

pleasure trips of longer or shorter extent. It is easy to see how a 
tribe with such a wealth producing business would easily outstrip 
all" the other neighboring tribes, making all tributary to it in secur- 
ing what to the Indian were the luxuries of savage life. Wigwams, 
utensils, tools, implements of warfare, foods, dress, ornaments, 
festivals, banquets, were common to all the nation, and it is said that 
among this people all were superior in their condition, and not a 
pauper was known in their borders. To carry on trade relations 
with other nations, to minister to tribal needs, to cultivate friend- 
ships, to establish and maintain social relations, to administer jus- 
tice, to hold councils and execute laws, — all these and other func- 
tions made the Narragansett Trail a primitive Broadway where bus- 
iness, fashion and folly found daily companionship. If New Eng- 
land had an estimated population of one hundred thousand Algon- 
quin Indians before the plague of 1618, the Narragansett Trail must 
have been a densely travelled highway for its own people and visit- 
ing tribes. 

The Indian was the first New England road-builder, at which 
business he was an expert. At road-making he outrivalled the 
elephant and the buffalo. The Indian roads or trails were varied in 
extent and purpose, and their routes were chosen with great skill and 
knowledge of the laws of locomotion. The first law of a great trail 
was to follow a straight line. A second was to go around rather 
than over hills and down valleys. On the long tribal and intertribal 
trails, rivers were crossed in their upper courses, where they could 
be forded at high or low waters. Water, sand and rocks were avoid- 
ed by circuitous detours, as the Indian was careful of his foot-gear 
and when running barefooted wanted a smooth hard path for speed 
and comfort. Cleared lands were preferred to woods for long 
trails. 

The long trails were for tribal and inter-tribal uses. These 
trails extended across the continent from north to south and east to 
west. Well known and well-worn paths extended from the Penob- 
scot to the Missouri, the Mississippi and the Columbia rivers. Trails 
are still traceable from Canada and the Great Lakes to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Sectional trails intersected the long avenues of travel, and 
served individual, village and tribal necessities. A well-traveled 
Indian courier was the guide, even to remote parts of our Western 
Continent. The old trails were as familiar to the Indian trader and 

44 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

hunter as are the railroad and auto routes to the twentieth century 
traveller. An. Indian news runner could make a hundred miles a 
day, after long training and anointing the limbs with oil. 

The sections of the long inter-tribal trails were known by the 
names of the provincial tribe in which they were located, as the 
Penobscot, Wampanoag, the Narragansett, the Pequot, the Mohawk, 
trails. As the Narragansetts were the chief New England tribe, we 
may assume that the termini of the Narragansett trail were at Bos- 
ton, on the northeast, and New York on the southwest. Later, the 
prominence of the Pequot tribe, with its capital at Pequot (now New 
London) led. to the appropriation of the name Pequot to that portion 
between Stonington and New York, the name it now holds. The old 
Indian trail from Stonington, Connecticut, east to Narragansett 
Pier, north to Providence and northeast to Boston, may now prop- 
erly be called the Narragansett Trail, as the Wampanoags and Mas- 
sachusetts Indians were subject tribes of the Narragansetts from a 
time far beyond the knowledge of the first white settlers of New 
England. 

A trail was a well-beaten path or road, its surface usually a 
few inches below the level of the ground it traversed. As the In- 
dians travelled single file, the trail never exceeded twenty-four 
inches in width. There is the remnant of an Indian trail in South 
Kingstown, from the Chepuxet river, leading towards the Indian 
fort in the Narragansett swamp, a half mile in length, which was 
built up about two feet above the surface of the land across which it 
passed. So far as known to the writer, this is the only existing trace 
of a real Indian trail in Rhode Island. 

"When the Pilgrims landed in New England in 1620, they tra- 
versed the country along the Indian trails leading out from Ply- 
mouth, on foot. With the introduction of neat cattle, the men and 
women would ride on the backs of heifers, steers, cows and bulls. 
The poet Longfellow, in "The Courtship of Myles Standish," tell3 
us that after the wedding of John Alden and Priscilla, the groom 

"Brought out his snow-white steer, obeying the hand of its master, 

Led by a cord that was tied to an iron ring in its nostrils, 

Covered with crimson cloth, and a cushion placed for a saddle. 
****** 

Gayly, with joyous laugh, Priscilla mounted her palfrey." 

William Blackstone, who died in 1675, when too old to walk to 
Cocumscussuc to preach on the Sabbath, rode on a trained white 

45 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

bull along the trail from Wawaypoonseag to the Richard Smith 
trading house, a distance of about sixteen miles, over the old Narra- 
gansett trail. After the introduction of horses, the trails were fol- 
lowed on horseback. On Aquidneck, highways and bridges were 
built at the outset of the settlement, in 1638, but the other towns did 
not construct roads and introduce carts, oxen and horses, until twen- 
ty-five or thirty years later. Prior to that time, all travel and traffic 
was along the narrow Indian trails, of undated lay-out and use. 

The Narragansett Trail began at the Pawcatuck river at 
Westerly, the stream which separates Rhode Island from Connecti- 
cut, and the western bound of the Niantic lands. The Pequots oc- 
cupied the territory west of the Pawcatuck towards the Connecticut 
river, including the South Valley of the Thames or Pequot river. 
Near the passage of this river, the trail divided into three — one 
trail going south to the shore of the sound at Watch Hill ; one going 
north over the high lands on the east bank of the Pawcatuck towards 
the Nipmuck lands north of Hope Valley. The other, the main trail 
through the Niantic country, continued on a direct easterly course, 
along the sandy bottom of the morain uplands, on the north as far 
as Matunuck. Side trails ran to Weekapaug, Quonochontaug and 
the several ponds on the south shore, adjacent to the waters of the 
Atlantic. The main trail was about two miles from the ocean. 

The Indian name for the western section of the Niantic lands 
was Misquamicut, — "a place for catching salmon," — and was pur- 
chased and settled by a colony of Baptists from Newport, in 1661, 
forming the towns of W esterly, Hopkinton, Richmond, and a part 
of Charlestown. 

At Matunuck the main trail took a northeasterly direction 
towards the head of Point Judith Pond, passing through the present 
village of Wakefield, in South Kingstown; it then turned easterly 
along the south end of Tower Hill, till it reached the Pettaquamscutt 
river, when it turned north, following the west bank of that river 
to its head, near the foot of Hammond Hill. Here, at the Gilbert 
Stuart house, the trail divided, one of the two trails going east to 
join a trail at the north end of Boston Neck, above Barber's 
Heights. This East or main trail continued north, crossing the 
Annaquatucket river near its mouth, and entered the capital town, 
Narragansett, now Wickford, within a quarter of a mile of the bay. 
The western section of the trail, from the Gilbert Stuart house at 

46 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

the head of Pettaqnamscutt river, ran northwest over Hammond 
Hill, and at the northern base of the hill ran straightway to the 
north and joined the easterly section at Narragansett-Wickford. 

From Narragansett, the main trail ran north in a direct course 
from a half mile to two miles from salt water, till it reached Hunt's 
river, at the head of Potowomut peninsula. The ford at this river 
was near the present bridges south of the Nathanael Greene birth- 
place. The Great Trail here turned to the northwest, to the south 
end of Greenwich Cove, where it turned to the north, running in a 
direct course to Apponaug, passing through Chepiwanoxet and 
Coweset, both Indian villages. 

At Apponaug the trail again divided, one trail running nearly 
north through Hill's Grove to the Pawtuxet river ford, whence it 
continued along the line of the present Elmwood avenue to Broad 
street, Providence. Here it was united with an East trail from Ap- 
ponaug, which ran to the head of Warwick Cove, thence north by 
Posnaganset Pond to Pawtuxet. Here, the Pawtuxet was forded at 
the Falls, and the route continued on the old lines of Broad street 
to its union with the North trail at the junction of Broad street and 
Elmwood avenue. The Trail then followed Broad and Weybossett 
streets, swinging to the south of Weybosset Hill, where the Arcade 
now stands. The ford across the head of Providence river was be- 
tween Turk's Head, Providence, and the foot of Steeple street. 
When the tide was high, the Woonasquatucket was forded, west of 
the present site of Brown and Sharpe shops, and the Moshassuck 
was forded at Wapwayset, under the hill at the foot of Olney street. 

At Providence the Trail followed the present line of North 
Main street, along the site of the old Sayles Tavern (Pidge House) 
to Pawtucket Falls, Pawtucket. Here, were two fords, one below 
the Falls and the other above the present railroad bridge, at Central 
Falls. 

From Pawtucket river in Massachusetts, the Narragansett 
Trail passed through Pawtucket, North Attleboro, Wentham, Wal- 
pole, Dedham, Roxbury, into Boston, by the road now known as 
Washington street, to Boston. This was the old post and stage road 
from Providence to Boston as laid out and measured by Benjamin 
Franklin as Colonial Postmaster in 1753. From Providence to New 
York, the post road of Franklin followed the Narragansett and Pe- 
quot Trails. Some of the stone markers set by Franklin are still 

47 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

standing. One in Pawtueket, Rhode Island, is inscribed "2 M. to 
C. H.," which interpreted means that by the rotary measurement 
of Franklin's shay wheel, it was two miles from that stone to the 
court house at Providence. 

The length of the Narragansett Trail from Boston to Provi- 
dence by the stage route was about forty-two miles. The length of 
the Trail from Providence to "Westerly Bridge, as travelled by the 
Indians, was nearly sixty miles. The total mileage was not far from 
one hundred, a day's run for an Indian messenger. Add the Pequot 
Trail from Westerly to New York, and we have two hundred and 
seventy-four miles for the two trails from New York to Boston. 

I find a record of the year 1697 which gives distances in miles 
and all the places between New York and Boston ''where travelers 
could find entertainment for man and beast :" 

"From New York to Boston it is accounted 274 miles, viz: 
From the Post Office in New York to Jo. Olapps, in the Bowery, is 
2 miles (which generally is the baiting place, where gentlemen take 
leave of their friends going so long a journey), and where a parting 
glass or two of generous wine, if well applied, make their dull 
horses feel one spur in the head is worth two in the heel. ' ' 

From said Clapp's (his tavern was near the corner of Bayard 
street), to half-way house, 7 miles: thence to King's Bridge, 9: 
to old Shute's at East Chester, 6: to New Roehel Meeting-House, 4: 
to Joseph Norton's, 4; to Denhams, at Rye, 4: to Knap's, at Horse- 
neck, 7: to Belden's, at Norwalk, 10: to Burr's, at Fairfield, 10: to 
T. Knowles', at Stratford, 9: to Andrew Sanford's at Milford, 4: to 
Captain John Mills', at New Haven, 10: to the Widow Frisbie's, at 
Branford, 10: to John Hudson's, at Guilford, 9: to John Grissets, at 
Killinsworth, 10: to John Clarke's at Seabrook, (Saybrook) 10: to 
Mr. Plum's, at New London, 18: to Mr. Sexton's, 15 : to Mr. Pember- 
ton's, in the Narragansett country, probably at Westerly, 15: to the 
Frenchtown, Mr. Havens, 24: to Mr. Turpin's, Providence, 20: to 
Mr. Woodcock's, North Attleboro, 15: to Mr. Billings' farm, 11: 
to Mr. White's, 6: to Mr. Fisher's, 6: and from thence to the great 
towne of Boston, 10, where many good lodgings and accommoda- 
tions may be had for love and money." 

This was the pioneer Indian Trail from Boston to Manhattan, 
and was the shortest overland route, the best laid and conditioned, 
and the most travelled overland route for foot or horseback travel. 

Mention should here be made of two other Indian trails from 
Boston, which were tributary to the Narragansett and Pequot Trail, 

48 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

One, the Nipmuck, ran southwest through the Nipmuc country, by 
the great fishing lake, Chargogagogmanchaugagogchaubunagunga- 
maug, thence south down the Quinebaug and Thames Valley, to Pe- 
quot or New London, there intersecting the trail to New York. The 
other, "the Bay Path," ran from Boston west through Central Mas- 
sachusetts to Springfield; thence southerly by Hartford to Long 
Island Sound, intersecting the New York Trail at Saybrook, at the 
mouth of the Connecticut. The subject of New England Trails, 
Bridal Paths, Roads and Old Taverns, may engage my pen later. 
Now I must confine myself to the Narragansett Trails. 

The Narragansetts were not nomadic. They had beautiful home 
lands on the west shore of the Bay, and owned and occupied the 
principal islands in the Bay, which was abou^ ten miles in width 
from Narragansett to Pocassett, the territory of the Wampanoags, 
of which Massassoit was chief sachem at the advent of the Plymouth 
settlers in 1620. Their tillage land, five miles in width from the bay 
and richly fertilized by bay products of seaweed and flshs, bore 
abundant crops of corn, beans, squashes, pumpkins and tobacco, un- 
der the cultivation of the women, the serfs of the tribe. The men 
found their sports and labors in hunting, fishing and trade with 
neighboring tribes, while the occupation of making wampum from 
the abundance of shells occupied much of the time and labor of both 
sexes. The Narragansetts were also skilled in making soapstone 
basins, kettles, pipes, etc., from a quarry near Neutakonkanut hill, 
in Providence. They also made necklaces, girdles and bracelets of 
beads, with regalia for the sachems and other dignitaries of the 
tribe, all of which industries point to a strong commercial life on 
the Bay. Narragansett ("Wickford) was the centre of the tribal life 
of this prosperous people. This was their capital and longest set- 
tlement. Sea voyagers set out from the land-locked harbor, and 
barter of all descriptions was carried on in the midst of multitudes 
of teepees. 

Concerning the villages of the Narragansetts, we have small 
knowledge. Champlain reported large Indian wigwam villages and 
fields of corn along the New England coast in 1637. Verazzano 
writes that a single wigwam was often the home of twenty-five men, 
women and children. Of the thickly settled centres of population, 
we may readily assume that, while the whole coast line was well 
peopled, village centres were established, at Pettaquamscutt, Nam- 

49 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

cook, Boston Neck, Saunderstown, Barbers Heights, Hamilton, 
Wickford, Quonset, Allen's Harbor, the Devil's Foot, Aspanansnck, 
Quidnesset, Potowomut, East Greenwich, Chepiwanoxet, Moshanti- 
cnt, Coweset, Apponaug, Nausauket, Buttonwoods, Tunckatucket, 
Pomhara, Warwick Neck, Shawomet, Conimicut, Qccupassuatuxet, 
Pawtuxet, Pontiac, Natick, Posneganset, Setuat, Auburn, Elmwood, 
Moshassuck, Pawtucket, Chepachet, and a large settlement and 
tribal council chamber under and east of Cawcawnjawatchuck. It 
it; fair to assume the existence of fifty Narragansett villages between 
Westerly on the south and Womsocket on the north, including those 
of the Niantics and Nipmucs. Mr. Williams wrote, "a man shall 
come to many towns, some bigger, some smaller, it may be a dozen 
in 20 miles travel." It was the custom of the Indians to spend the 
spring, summer and autumn months on and near the shore and their 
corn lands, but in the winter they would quickly change their abodes 
to the thick, warm, wooded valleys, not far distant. This change of 
residence was made in a single day, all the people joining in the la- 
bor of moving their wigwams and other belongings. As the tribal 
lands were a common possession, there were no ownerships to de- 
termine the place of habitation of each family in the forests. As to 
planting lands, each family took up its accustomed fields, by 
courtesy. Few land contests ever occurred, as land was plentiful 
and the women attended to the location of the planting, the labor of 
breaking up the soil, planting seed, cultivating and harvesting crops, 
— all except tobacco, which the men took pleasure in cultivating and 
smoking. 

Having located the residence of the Narragansetts and the great 
Narragansett Trail from the Pawcatuck river to Boston, it is my 
purpose to tell the story of some of the principal events that oc- 
curred on or near the Trail after the arrival of Plymouth settlers in 
1620. I hope also to introduce some of the principal Indian actors in 
scenes transpiring on or near the Trails during the first seventy- 
five years of colonial history. 

Narragansett (Wickford), has already been referred to as the 
capital of the Narragansett nation. Concerning it, little more can 
be said, than that it was the chief town and the centre of the business 
interest of the people. Commerce of a primal sort was carried on 
from this port; tribal counsels were held in the neighborhood, and 
governmental authority issued hence for the nation. It was no small 

50 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

matter to govern a native population of twenty thousand. Brinley 
says the tribe numbered thirty thousand men ; Roger Williams says 
the tribe could raise live thousand warriors, and Hutchinson, that 
they were the most numerous of all the tribes between Boston and 
the Hudson river. As to trade, Hutchinson says "they were con- 
sidered a commercial people, and not only began a trade with the 
English for goods for their own consumption, but soon learned to 
supply other distant nations, at advanced prices, and to receive 
beaver and other furs in exchange, upon which they made a profit; 
they were the most curious coiners of wampum peag, and supplied 
other tribes with pendants, bracelets, tobacco pipes of stone, some 
blue, some white, earthen vessels and pots, stone axes, tomahawks, 
mortars, pestles, arrowheads, etc." 

Canonicus was the chief sachem of the Narragansetts. He was 
the son of Tashtassuck, who had but two children, a son and a daugh- 
ter, whom he joined in marriage because he could find none worthy 
of them out of his family. Four sons were born of this marriage, of 
whom Canonicus was the oldest. He was born in 1574 and died in 
1648, at Narragansett. The youngest of the four brothers was 
named Mascus, whose son, Miantinomi, was an associate in the gov- 
ernment with his uncle. Canonchet, alias Nanno, was the son of 
Miantinomi, and. succeeded to the sachemship at the death of Canon- 
icus. 

Miantinomi married Wawaloam, and lived with his queen at 
Aspanansuck (Exeter Hill), until his execution in Connecticut in 
1643, while yet a young man. Had he survived his uncle, he would 
have been a worthy and able ruler of the Narragansetts. Of these 
braves, three have monuments to perpetuate their names, Mianti- 
nomi in Connecticut, Canonchet at Providence, and Wawaloam in 
Exeter, Rhode Island. 

Canonicus was a really great ruler, and widely known as a wise 
and sagacious man. His home was at "The Devil's Foot," on 
the Trail, about two miles north of AVickford. This long, rocky 
cliff is indented with hoof-like impressions, suggesting the name 
the ledge still bears. Forests now cover much of the formerly open 
prairie lands about the sachem's teepee. Here was the Council 
Chamber of the Narragansetts, and here were decided civil, military 
and criminal affairs of the whole nation. This great ledge of rocks, 
still unbroken, stands as the only permanent monument to the Na- 
si 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

tion of which this locality was the capital. But Indian royalty has 
passed and left no sign. "The Devil's Foot" issues no secret of 
the transactions it witnessed in the days of Narragansett su- 
premacy. 

Richard Smith was the first white settler among the Indians at 
Narragansett. Smith, "a Puritan of the moderate school," born 
1596, left England in 1637, and was admitted an inhabitant of New- 
port, R. I., the 20th of the 3d, 1638-9. Mr. Williams writes of him: 

"Richard Smith, who, for his conscience toward God, left a fair 
possession in Gloucestershire and adventured with his relations an 
estate to New England and was a most acceptable and prime lead- 
ing man in Taunton, Plymouth Colony; for his conscience sake, 
(many differences arising), he left Taunton and came to the Nahi- 
gonsik country * * and j3ut up in the thickest for the Barbarians 
the first English house amongst them." 

The date of Smith's house-building was probably 1639, although 
authorities differ. There is no doubt that he built a block-house at 
Cocumscussuc, north of Wickford, "purchasing a tract of land of 
the Narragansett sachem, among the thickest of the Indians, (com- 
puted at thirty thousand people), erected a house for trade, and 
gave free entertainment to travellers ; it being the great road of the 
country." (Mass. Hist. Coll. 1, 216). This tract of land extended 
a mile west from the salt water. Later, Smith and his son Richard 
made purchases on long leases of Indian lands, south and west of 
the first purchase. About 1613-5 Richard Smith, Sen., left "Smith's 
Castle" at Cocumscussuc in care of his son Richard, and with 
other colonists founded the town of Newtown, on Long Island. Be- 
ing assailed by savages, the Smith family fled to New Amsterdam 
(New York), where they made the acquaintance of Gysbert Op Dyck, 
an emigrant from Germany, in 1638. Later, Mr. Op Dyck married 
Katherine Smith, daughter of Richard, and soon the Smiths and 
Op Dycks returned to the "Smith Castle" home at Narragansett. 
Thereafter the Updikes became one of the leading families of Rhode 
Island, and of the South County. 

In the long contest as to the western bounds of Rhode Island 
colony, Mr. Smith espoused the cause of Connecticut against Rhode 
Island and held the office of constable under a commission from Con- 
necticut; and in 1673 his son Richard was commissioned as presi- 
dent of the council for the royal domain for the King's Colony. 

52 



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FLOOR TIMBERS AND SOUTH AXD WEST CELLAR WALL OF ROGER 
WILLIAMS' TRADING HOUSE 

Built in 1644. Note unhewn timbers of the floor set in the wall. Window in southwest corner 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

Although the Smiths were of the Puritan stamp, Episcopal ser- 
vices-were held at the castle once a month, conducted by Rev. "Wil- 
liam Blackstone, a minister for the Church of England, riding from 
his home in Cumberland, on his trained mouse-colored bull, to and 
from, a distance of forty miles. Mr. Potter states that Air. Wil- 
liams often preached at Cocumscussuc. 

Richard Smith, senior, died in 1666, having led, as his eulogist 
says, "A sober, honorable and religious life;" dying "in his own 
house in much serenity of soul and comfort, he yielded up his spirit 
to God, the Father of Spirits, in peace." His property at the castle 
descended mainly to his son Richard. 

In 1643 Mr. Williams, fearing the loss of Providence Planta- 
tions in the territorial claims of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay and 
Connecticut colonies, made a voyage to London to intercede with 
the Colonial Commissioners, of whom Sir Harry Vane was one, to 
grant him a patent for the plantations. As the trip was at his own 
expense, and his absence occupied a good part of a year, always 
poor, he returned in 1644 with his much coveted parchment, to find 
himself in very straitened circumstances. It occurred to him that 
a second trading house was needed at Narragansett, and repairing 
to his friend Canonicus and making known his wishes, the sachem 
gave him a tract of land at "Devil's Foot," north of and near the 
royal teepee, on which to build a dwelling and a store under one 
roof. A house about sixteen feet square was built on the east side 
of the Trail, with a cellar the size of the house, with a stone chimney 
on the north side. Of that house, two sides of the cellar wall are 
now standing, as built by Mr. Williams. The floor timbers, roughly 
hewn on the upper side, are still in their original position. At the 
southwestern corner, the cellar still shows a port hole for light for 
that store room and possible living room. A trading house was the 
natural gathering place and business centre for the neighborhood, 
and at Smith's and Williams' houses could be bought, in barter or 
with peag, sugar, tobacco, pipes, corn, cloth, house and land utensils, 
ammunition, traps for hunting, "strong liquors," English-made 
tools, etc., etc. While the laws were strict as to the sale of intoxi- 
cating liquors to the Indians, they were able to obtain it freely. 
Canonchet was the first sachem to petition the white traders not to 
sell "strong water" to his tribe, and so far as our records attest 
was the first prohibitionist in New England. 

53 



. ^HE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

The present gainbril-roofed house, standing on the site of the 
Williams trading house and protecting the ancient relics, is more 
than a century old, and is owned and occupied by Mr. Almon C. 
Ladue and his family. It stands on the east side of the Narragan- 
sett Trail, and about forty rods north of the Devil's Foot. The 
photograph of the southwest corner of the Ladue house shows the 
rough floor timbers, resting on the stone cellar wall. The open 
space for a small window as an outlook from the cellar to the 
south, appears in the picture. 

In 1649, Mr. Williams "had leave to sell a little wine or stronge 
water to some natives in theare sickness." Prior to that date, trad- 
ing houses were allowed to sell at wholesale or retail to the natives, 
under a license system. 

It is probable that Mr. Williams and his family lived at Nar- 
ragansett from 1644 to 1651, for all his correspondence to Governor 
Winthrop of Pequot, Connecticut, and others, was dated at Narra- 
gansett. 

The earliest extant deed of Narragansett land, to Richard 
Smith Sen., is that of Roger Williams, dated, "Newport, the 3rd of 
ye 7th month soe called 1651." By it, Williams conveys to Smith, 
for fifty pounds, "my tradeing house at Narragansett, together 
with two Iron Guns or Murderers there lying as alsoe my fields and 
fenceing aboute the s'd House as alsoe the use of the litle Island for 
goates which the old Sachem deceased Lent mee for that use." At 
this time Smith, Sen., was residing at Portsmouth, Rhode Island. 

It is believed that the cellar walls and floor timbers of the Wil- 
liams Trading House are the only relics, in situ, of any one of the 
old New England houses of that type, and for that reason should 
be preserved. They also may be treated as a memorial of the only 
clearly proven relic of the handiwork and residence of Roger Wil- 
liams. Here he lived for at least seven years, from 1644 to 1651. 

The Havens Tavern was the first hostelry on the Rhode Island 
section of the Narragansett Trail. It was located in North Kings- 
town, on the east side of the Trail, about one mile north of the Smith 
Trading House. The house now standing on the cellar of the old 
Tavern may and probably does contain timbers of the old house, 
built by Thomas Havens of Newport, who bought the land and erect- 
ed the first house before 1700. A sign of the later tavern belongs to 
Col. H. Anthony Dyer, of Providence. 

54 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

These early public houses were fitted to feed, entertain and 
lodge the travellers on the post road, and also had a bar-room and 
public bar, over which were sold to the neighborhood and transients, 
on foot or by horse, all liquors, now known as "wet goods," such as 
vine, rum, gin, brandy and cider. Not a householder in the country 
failed to patronize the Havens bar, from which the chief profits 
sprang. A blazing wood fire and bountiful dinners were not to be 
slighted on frosty days and stormy nights, and a mug of cider, a 
bowl of "toddy," "punch," or "flip," or even a glass of West India 
rum, added warmth and cheer to the old Rhode Island bar-room, and 
made the tavern of the grandfathers a place of universal resort in 
all seasons and weathers. Here it was that general news was re- 
tailed to every comer, for the dailies had not appeared. The good 
men of the nsighborhood here met to discuss town politics in March, 
crop prospects in July, harvesting in November, hog and beef kill- 
ing in December, and news and gossip of the home folks, small and 
great, every day in the year. 

A very interesting story is told of the Havens Tavern by Mrs. 
Sarah Kemble Knight, wife of Richard Knight, of Boston, who made 
the journey from Boston and New York on horseback by way of the 
usual and best route, the Narragansett Trail, in 1704. Madam 
Knight passed her late years in Norwich, Connecticut, possessed 
considerable real estate, and "stood high in the social rank, and was 
respected both in the church and in mercantile affairs." The fol- 
lowing is from Madam Knight's Journal and relates her return trip 
from Boston, on horseback to New York, in 1704: 

"Tuesday, October ye third, * * * about three afternoon 
went on with my Third Guide who Rode very hard; and having 
crossed Providence Ferry, we came to a River (Pawtuxet) wch they 
Generally Ride thro', But I dare not venture; so the Post got a 
Ladd and Cannoo to carry me to tother side, and hee rid thro' and 
led my Hors. The Cannoo was very small and shallow, so that 
when we were in she seem'd redy to take in water, which greatly 
terrified mee, and caused me to be very circumspect, sitting with my 
hands fast on each side, my eyes steady, not daring so much as to 
lodg my tongue a hair's breadth more on one side of my mouth than 
tother, nor so much as think on Lott's wife, for a long thought 
would have oversett our wherey : But was soon out of this pain, by 
feeling the Cannoo on shore, wch I as soon almost saluted with my 
feet ; and Rewarding my sculler, again mounted and made the best 

55 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

of our way forwards. The Rode here was every even (Warwick) 
and ye day pleasant, it being now near Sunsett, But the Post told 
mee we had neer 14 miles to Ride to the next stage, (where we were 
to lodge.) (Havens Tavern). I askt him of the rest of the Rode, 
foreseeing wee must travail in the night. Hee told mee there was a 
bad River we were to Ride thro', wch was so very firce a hors could 
sometimes hardly stem it; But it was but narrow, and wee should 
soon be over. I cannot express the concern of mind this relation 
sett me in; * wee entered a Thickett of Trees and 

Shrubbs, and I perceived by the Hors's going, we were on the 
descent of a Hill, wch as were come nearer the bottom, 'twas totally 
dark with the Trees that surrounded it, But I knew by the Going of 
the Hors wee had entered the water, wch my guide told me was the 
hazzardous River (Hunt's at Potowomut) he had told me off ; and 
hee Riding up close to my side, Bid me not fear — we should be over 
immediately. * * * So as the Post bid me, I gave reins to 

my Nagg; and sitting as stedy as just before in the Cannoo, in a 
few minutes got safe to the other side, which hee told mee was Nar- 
ragansett country. 

"Here AVee found great difficulty in Travailing, the way being 
very narrow, and on each side the trees and bushes gave us very 
pleasant welcomes wth their Branches and bows, which wee could 
not avoid, it being so exceeding dark. * * I on a suden was 

Rous'd * * * by the Post's sounding his horn, wch assured 
mee hee was arrived at the stage, where wee were to Lodge. * * * * 

"Being come to Mr. Havens' [Tavern] I was very civilly re- 
ceived and courteously entertained, in clean comfortable House ; and 
the good Woman was very active in helping off my Riding Clothes, 
and then askt what I would eat. I told her I had some Chocolett, if 
she would prepare it ; wch with the help of some Milk, and a little 
clean brass kettle, she soon effected to my liking. I then betook me 
to my Apartment, wch was a little Room, parted from the Kitchen 
by a single bord partition; where, after I had noted the occurrences 
of the past day, I went to bed, wch, tho' pretty hard, yet neet and 
handsome. But I could get no sleep, because of the Clamor of some 
of the Town tope-ers in next Room, Who were entred into a strong 
debate concerning ye signifycation of the name of their Country, 
(viz) Narraganset. One said it was named so by ye Indians, be- 
cause there grew a Brier there, of a prodigious Highth and bigness, 
the like hardly ever known, called by the Indians Narragansett ; And 
quotes an Indian of so barbarous a name for his Author, that I 
could not Write it. His Antagonist Replyed no — It was from a 
Spring it had its name, wch hee well knew where it was, wch was 
extreem cold in summer, and as Hott as could be imagined in the 
Winter, Wch was much resorted too by the natives, and by them 
called Narragansett, (Hott and Cold,) and that was the originall of 

56 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

their places name — with a thousand Impertinences not worth notice, 
-\vclr He uttered with such a Roreing voice and Thundering blows 
with the fist of wickedness on the Table, that it peirced my very 
head, I heartily fretted and wish't 'em tongue tyed; * * * * 
I set my Candle on a Chest by the bed side, and setting up, fell to 
my old way of Composing my Resentments, in the following man- 
ner: 

"I ask thy Aid, O Potent Rum! 
To charm these wrangling Topers Dum ! 
Thou hast their Giddy Brains possest — 
The man confounded with the Beast — 
And I, poor I, can get no rest. 
Intoxicate them with thy fumes : 
O still their Tongues till morning comes 1" 

"Wednesday, October 4th. About four in the morning, we set 
out for Kingston, (for so was the town called.) * * This 

Rode was poorly furnished wth accommodations for Travellers, so 
that we were forced to ride 22 miles by the Post's Account, but neer- 
er 30 by mine, before wee could bait so much as our horses, well I 
exceedingly complained of. * * * From hence we proceeded 
* * * through the Narragansett Country pretty Leisurely; 
and about one afternoon came to Paukataug River, (Pawcatuck at 
Westerly, E. I.)" 

Elizabeth Spring was a bountiful Indian spring, at the south- 
west bank of Greenwich Cove, at the head of Potowomut Neck. It 
still exists, in reduced condition. This spring now bears the name 
Elizabeth, from Elizabeth "Winthrop, wife of Hon. John Winthrop, 
Jr., Governor of Connecticut, son of Governor John "Winthrop of 
Massachusetts. Governor "Winthrop 's home was at Pequot (now 
New London, Connecticut), and Mr. Williams held frequent corres- 
pondence with him from his Narragansett trading house. Mrs. 
John Winthrop, Jr., was accustomed to ride from Pequot to Boston, 
horseback, along the Narragansett Trail, stopping for news, traffic 
or social intercourse at the W 7 illiams House of Trade and at the 
Indian Spring for water for herself and her entourage. Mrs. Win- 
throp died in 1672, and Governor Winthrop, Jr., in 1676. After 
Elizabeth's death, Roger Williams wrote to the Governor: 

"Sir: I constantly think of you and send up one remembrance 
to Heaven for you, and a groan from myself for myself, when I 
pass Elizabeth's Spring. Here is the Spring, say I, (with a sigh), 
but where is Elizabeth? My Charity answers, She is gone to the 
Eternal Spring and Fountain of Living W 7 aters. 

"Roger Williams." 
57 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

A stone at the Spring bears the inscription, penned by Mr. Wil- 
liams. This spring can be seen, under the bank at Greenwich Cove, 
at the head of Potowonmt Neck, just east of the railroad bridge over 
the main road. The old Narragansett Trail followed the line of this 
road from Green's Forge, on Hunt's River, about a half mile to the 
South. 

Garrison-houses were also located on or near main Indian trails. 
These were usually built of wood, with small windows and small 
port-holes on all sides, through which hostile Indians could be seen 
and from which guns could be fired, these houses being built for safe- 
ty in times of danger, and were large enough to hold and protect a 
number of families. It is said that sixty or more persons found 
room and protection in the Bourne garrison, in Swansea, in the open- 
ing days of Philip's War, in June, 1675. The Richard Smith house at 
Cocumscussuc was both a trading house and a garrison, as its size 
would accommodate many people. It served as the rendezvous for 
the soldiers before and after the Narragansett Swamp Fights, De- 
cember, 1675. 

The Jireh Bull house was also a Garrison. This house was lo- 
cated west of the Pettaquamscutt river, at the old Tower Hill trail 
and north of the east and west trail leading across the Pettaquam- 
scutt River, from ''Boston Neck" at Middle bridge. It was but a 
short distance from both trails. Jireh Bull was the oldest child and 
only son of Gov. Henry Bull, of Newport, born 1638. He bought 500 
acres of land at Pettaquamscutt in 1666, and was a resident of Kings 
Town, and a town officer in 1669. 

The Bull garrison house was the rendezvous of the neighboring 
settlers, when conditions in the Indian country at Narragansett 
threatened the safety of the whites. In December, 1675, raids of 
King Philip's warriors alarmed Rhode Island settlers. Providence, 
Warwick, Greenwich and other settlements were attacked by the 
Confederate Indians, houses burned and the people scattered. While 
the Indian warriors were gathering at their stockade fort in the 
Narragansett Swamp, in December, 1675, a band of savages attacked 
the Bull garrison, and set the house on fire. Hubbard in his story 
of Philip 's war, says : ' ' Captain Prentice, with his troop, being sent 
to Pettaquamscutt, returned with the sad news of burning of Jerry 
Bull's Garrison house and killing ten Englishmen and five women 
and children, but two escaping in all." This was the first overt act 
of war on the part of King Philip's warriors on Rhode Island soil. 

53 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

The "Stone-Greene Castle" in Warwick was built as a House 
of Refuge in case of danger. This was located north of Warwick 
Cove, on the Warwick section of the Narragansett Trail. 

The Field garrison house, on the "Towne Streete" in Provi- 
dence, was the only protectorate and house of armed defence in the 
town, and in it a remnant of the inhabitants took refuge, when Philip 
burned the town in 1676. The Field garrison stood near the site of 
the present Providence Savings Banks, on South Main street. 

The most noted garrison in the Narragansett Trails was the 
Woodcock garrison and tavern at North Attleboro. The license 
reads: "July 5th, 1670, John Woodcock is allowed by the (Ply- 
mouth) Court to keep an Ordinary at the ten-mile river (so-called) 
which is in the way from Rehoboth to the Bay; and likewise enjoined 
to keep good order that no unruliness nor ribaldry be permitted 
there." 

The Woodcock garrison was torn down in 1S06 to make room 
for Hatch's tavern, built on the site. When torn down, the timbers 
were perfectly sound, although pierced by many bullets fired by the 
Indians in Philip's War. 

Taverns, ordinaries or inns, as houses of refreshment were 
called, corresponding somewhat to our hotels, were set up, in the 
early days, on or near Indian trails and also near Indian villages. 
They sold "strong water," as all intoxicating liquors were called, 
to the Indians and whites alike, and refreshed weary and hungry 
travellers with beds and meals. Until the early years of the eigh- 
teenth century, horse-back travel was the usual mode of locomotion, 
as public highways had not been established and the Indian trail 
was a safe roadway for horse and rider. In fact the trail was the 
most expeditious route, as it was not obstructed by fences, gates or 
bars, as were the early New England roads. 

When the cart, wagon and two wheeled chaise were introduced 
the roadway must needs be widened, and the Indian Trail was us- 
ually used as the base for the new order of travel and the new high- 
way. The Narragansett Trail is a noted example of the conversion 
of a trail to a road for carriages. The present automobile road from 
Boston to New York follows practically the Narragansett Trail 
along Washington street from Boston, through Dedham, Walpole, 
Wrentham, Attleborough, Pawtucket, Providence, Pawtuxet, War- 
wick, East Greenwich, North Kingstown, Tower Hill, South Kings- 

59 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

town, Cliarlestown, Westerly, Stonington, Groton, New London, 
New Haven to New York. From New Haven to New York, the old 
path is called the Pequot trail. The changes in the road from the 
Trail line are due to the shortening of the line or the avoidance of 
difficult passages over rocks or across streams. An instance occurs 
on Tower Hill in South Kingstown. The Trail in crossing the hill 
from north to south led down the east side of Tower Hill by the 
Jared Bull Garrison, which stood on the level land north of the Mid- 
dle Bridge road and west of Pettaquamscutt River. Instead of 
that detour, the road now follows a south and southwest course into 
the village of Wakefield, through which the Trail passed. With the 
individual ownership of lands along the Narragansett Trail, we 
find the creation of obstructions to public travel by the establishment 
of gates or bar ways on the lines separating the properties of large 
owners. These barriers existed on some important old trails and 
roads well into the nineteenth century, when these private ways be- 
came public property of towns by gift or purchase of the owners. 

The Narragansett Sachems: Canonicus, Teepee at "Devil's 
Foot:" died 1647. Miantinomi, son of Mascus, brother of Canon- 
icus, Teepee at Aspanansuck; slain, 1643. Pessecus, son of Mascus, 
slain 1676. Wawaloam, Queen, wife of Miantinomi; Teepee at As- 
pauansuck,— Exeter Hill. Canonchet, son of Miantinomi, slain, 
1676. Quaiapen or Magnus, Queen, wife of Maxamo and sister' of 
Ninigret, Sachem for the Niantics, a tribe subject to the Narra- 
gansetts. 

The Niantic Sachems : Ninegret, cotemporary with Canonicus, 
Teepee near Cliarlestown Pond: died about 1676. Ninegret's sis- 
ter Quarapen married Maxanno, the son of Canonicus. Ninegret's 
daughter became queen after her father's death. At her inaugura- 
tion, peag and other presents were given and a belt of peag was 
formed into a crown. Ninegret (2nd), succeeded his sister; he died 
about 1722. Charles Augustus and George Ninegret, (sons of N. 
2nd), succeeded to the crown, the latter dying in 1746. "King Tom" 
Ninigret, son of George, succeeded his father as chief in 1746. See 
story of "King Tom's Palace." "Queen Esther," sister of "King 
Tom" was crowned on a large boulder, north of "King Tom's Pal- 
ace," about 1770. An eye-witness said, "she was elevated on a large 
rock, so that the people might see her ; the royal council stood around 
the 'Coronation Rock.' There were present about twenty Indian 

6o 



1 ' 1 






■ 
i 



i 
\ 

! 



■■--'•■?•• - ' , ■ 

..'..■ . • 



a 



< ' ' ■ ,~ 



i 






CORONATION ROCK. KING TOM FARM, CHARLESTOWX, R. I., ON 
WHICH QUEEN ESTHER WAS CROWXED 

Air. Bicknell, author of this narrative, at left 




' ■ ,- . 
ARXOLD1A REEICS. CHARLESTOWX, R. I., EXHUMED 1921 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

soldiers with guns, who marched to the rock. The Indians nearest 
the royal blood, in the presence of her Counsellors, put the Crown 
on Esther's head. It was made of cloth, covered with blue and white 
peag. When she was crowned the soldiers fired a royal salute and 
huzzaed in the Indian tongue. Then the soldiers escorted the 
Queen to her house and fired salutes. There were five hundred In- 
dians present, besides others." 

Queen Esther left one son, named George Ninegret. He was 
the last of the Niantic chiefs to wear a crown. 

"King Tom's" Palace, built about 1760, has an interesting 
story. It seems that young "King Tom" desired an English educa- 
tion and went to London to acquire it. While there, he decided to 
live in a framed house, instead of a tribal cabin, and, by the aid of 
an architect, planned a two-story dwelling, of American style, and 
not expensive to build. On his return to his tribe, he built a sub- 
stantial two-story house, on his tribal lands, near and south of 
Coronation Rock, in the town of Charlestown, near the great Salt 
Pond. 

In 1761, King Tom married Mary Whitefield of Newport, and 
lived in the "Palace," until his death before 1770, when the crown 
and "Palace" descended to his sister, Queen Esther, his successor 
as chief of the Niantics. During "King Tom's" reign much of the 
Indian land was sold and a considerable part of the tribe emigrated 
to New York State. 

"King Tom" should be remembered for his petition for a free 
school in Charlestown for his tribe, closing his letter with the 
prayer, "that when time with us shall be no more, that when we and 
the children over whom you have been such benefactors shall leave 
the sun and stars, we shall rejoice in a superior light." 

The "Palace" and a large estate came into the possession of the 
Kenyon family, by whom the house has been enlarged and modern- 
ized and made a delightful South County residence on the Narra- 
gansett Trail. By a sad fortune this interesting old Indian house 
went up in flames in the autumn of 1921. "King Tom's Palace" is 
no more. Coronation Rock still stands in its firm setting. 

The Indian burial ground on the hill, north of Cross's Mills is 
the ancient burial place of the Niantic Tribe, not the Narragansetts. 

Arnoldia is a large estate, between the Narragansett Trail and 
Charlestown, on Pawaget Pond, and is owned by Mr. Thomas Ly- 

6i 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

man Arnold of New York, a descendant of William Arnold, the first 
settler at Providence, in 1636. These coast lands are a glacial de- 
posit and were probably the corn lands of the Niantics. Though the 
tides and seas have destroyed the great Charlestown or Pawawget 
Pond as a harbor, it was probably three centuries and more ago 
safe and deep anchorage for large vessels. 

In making excavations for a cellar, forty feet square, Mr. Arn- 
old's workmen exhumed "A remarkable find," in October, 1921. 
About three feet below the surface their picks struck the butt of a 
breech-loading cannon. When clear of the encrusted soil, it proved 
to be a gun of the fourteenth century type, one-half of the muzzle 
end gone — broken or rusted off. The well-preserved trunnions show 
a mounted field-piece, the weight of the relic being 119 pounds, and 
four inches bore. The double collar near the broken end probably 
marked the middle of the gun's length. The gun lay at an angle of 
45 degrees from the horizon. Below the cannon, at the depth of 
about five feet, a skeleton was exhumed, the skull and many of the 
bones being hard and well preserved. This man was of the Euro- 
pean type, not less than forty years of age. The thigh bones were 
eighteen and one-half inches long and the other bones were of un- 
usual size, thereby indicating a man of more than seven feet in 
height — possibly seven and one-half feet tall. In this grave was a 
two-edged sword, over five feet long, with an elaborate wrought- 
bronze hilt, of the ancient Italian type. The sword indicated its own- 
er, a military officer of rank. Near this grave, three copper vessels 
were found, — one, 5>4-inch diameter, a quart measure,— -the second, 
6-inch diameter, a two-quart measure, — the third, 10-inch diameter, 
a four-quart measure. The two smaller vessels are still usable for 
liquids. Further digging brought to light several Indian skulls, 
quantities of bones, beads, wampum, the bowl of a silver spoon, blue 
glass, a piece of cloth, some pottery, the jawbone of a cat, and a part 
of a child's jaw-bone showing the second teeth. 

The photographs reproduced herewith, taken by Mr. John R. 
Hess, of the "Providence Journal" staff, shows a part of this inter- 
esting subterraean "Find." The whole offers a study for the phy- 
siologist, the psychologist and the historian. It may be that the 
smaller skulls were of African slaves, not native Indians. 

Near Cross's Mills, in the Niantic Country, there are old earth- 
works, indicating an early fortification. As the position com- 

62 



THE NARRAGANSETT TRAIL 

mands Pawawget Pond and its entrance, it must have been thrown 
up for offensive and defensive military operations by white men 
and not by Indians. A commission of»the State Assembly has erect- 
ed a monument to show that it was an Indian fortress. But it is 
too evident to be denied that the earthworks were made for defence 
by gunmen of the white race. Indians never fought behind earth 
structures, — their defenses were forests, rocks, etc., — natural pro- 
tectors. The red man never trusted a narrow barricade of earth or 
stone. He fought in the open, and trusted his arrows and toma- 
hawks to do their deadly work. 

This fort was Spanish, French or Dutch and implied occupants 
and assailants. The fort probably had some connection with the 
Arnoldia antiquities. The story of the early white occupation of the 
Niantic country awaits later discoveries. 

The limits of a magazine article forbid accounts of the Pequot 
"War, Manisses, The Warwick Purchase, Potowomut Purchase, 
Squamicut Settlement, Major Atherton's Purchases, Boston Neck, 
Aspanansuck, The Swamp Fight, Queen Quariapen and Her Fort, 
Frenchtown, The Cowesets, The Warwicks, The Nipmucks, Bishop 
McSparran, St. Paul's, Post Roads, The Greenes, Settlers on the 
Trail, Public Highways, Post Roads, etc. 







6.3 



The Golden Chain of Memory 

Famous Old Cape May, New Jersey 
By Caemita de Solms Joxes, Philadelphia, Penn - . 




^!HE OLD enemies of the Deerslayer, the Lenni-Lenapes of 
¥\ the Algonquins, came down from Ottawa, and in their 



r 






fmji wanderings reached the shore of the Delaware Bay at 
M^i the point that is now Cape May. Here they rested, for, 



unlike the refugees from the flood, they had no ark, and before them 
stretched too wide "a river to cross." The Lenni-Lenapes, or Del- 
awares as they were often called, were hunters, and were attracted 
to this region by the great variety of game and birds. Wilson, the 
ornithologist, says: "If birds are good judges of excellence in cli- 
mate, Cape May must have the finest climate in the United States, 
for it has the greatest variety of birds." Living at Cape May were 
the Kechemeches, a subdivision of the tribe who gave to New Jersey 
the name of Schaakbee, or Scheyichbi, and to the River Delaware 
that of Whittuek. With noiseless tread they roamed, two hundred 
years ago, over a spicy carpet of pine needles, through a wilderness 
of dense forests destined to echo in future years with the hum of 
the saw mill. 

One of the few Indian deeds in existence is or was in the pos- 
session of Charles Lucllam, Esq., of Dennisville, New Jersey. It is 
dated January 1, 1687, and was given to John Dennis for some 
land near Cape Island, as the town of Cape May was called. The 
mark of Panktoe, the Indian giver of the deed, resembles a Chinese 
character. The witnesses were John Carman and Abiah Edwards. 
New Jersey boasts that none of its soil was ever taken from its orig- 
inal Indian owners or their successors either by force or fraud. 
The Dutch, Swedes and English acquired the land in turn by pur- 
chase. 

In 1623 Captain Cornelius Jacobson Mey, in the ship Blyde 
Broodschap (Glad Tidings), was sent to this country, accompanied 
by two other vessels carrying a party of settlers, by the States 

64 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

General of Holland. He explored the coast, where he had been 
preceded by Hendrick Hudson, and arriving at Cape May, to which 
he gave his name, found there a lookout which had been left four 
years previously by Cornelius Hendrichsen, of the ship Onrest. Of 
the names given to various points visited by Captain Mey, onry one, 
that of Cape May, has been retained. 

Crossing from Cape Henlopen, called Cape Cornelius by Mey, 
to Cape May, Pieter Heysen, skipper of the Walrus, bought four 
miles along the bay and four miles inland. The deed, dated June 3, 
1631, is preserved among the colonial archives. Here among the 
marshes, where ''the inland waters were found to abound in oysters, 
clams, crabs and other shell fish," Pieter Heysen settled down to 
the life of a whaler. Later a plan was organized to colonize the 
Delaware shores, to raise grain and tobacco, and establish seal and 
whale fisheries. These proving unsuccessful, the colonists lost heart 
and returned to Holland, thus ending the Dutch occupation of New 
Jersey. 

English colonists came from New Plaven in 1638, to engage in 
whaling, and some of their descendants are among the present in- 
habitants of the county. The increase in the importance of this in- 
dustry in 1691 induced the building of a town as a haven for the 
whalers who had come from further north. This, the first town in the 
county, had among its earliest dwellers Christopher Learning, Thom- 
as Caesar Hoskins, Samuel Hand, Jonathan Osborne, Cornelius 
Shellinks (Schellinger), Thomas Hewes and John Richardson. That 
they carried on the pursuit of whaling for many years is shown by 
the following extracts: The "Boston News-Letter" from March 17 
to 24, 1718, says: "Philadelphia, March 13.— We are told that the 
whale men catch 'd six whales at Cape May and twelve at Egg-Har- 
bour." The "Pennsylvania Gazette" of* March 13 to 19, 1729-30, 
says: "On the 5th of this Instant March, a whale came ashore dead 
about 20 mile to the Eastward of Cape May. She is a Cow, about 
50 Foot long, and appears to have been killed by Whalemen; but 
who they are is yet unknown. Those who think they have a Prop- 
erty in her, are advised to make their Claim in Time. ' ' 

The Swedes purchased the island for the second time about 
1641. According to Campanius, a Swedish minister who lived from 
1642 to 1648 on the banks of the Delaware, "Cape May lies in lati- 
tude 38° 31'. To the south of it are three sand banks parallel to each 

65 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

other, and it is not safe to sail between them. The safest course is 
to steer between them and Cape May, between Cape May and Cape 
Henlopen. " 

Under the pen-name of "Beauchamp Plantagenet," Sir Ed- 
ward Plowden wrote in 1648 "A Description of New Albion" that 
contained an account of a visit to Cape May. He gives a copy of a 
letter from Lieutenant Robert Evelyn, who left England in 1643 
to explore the Delaware. Evelyn discovered that he had been pre- 
ceded during the years between 1609 and 1632 by no less than eight 
explorers. The Egg Bay spoken of by Evelyn is now Egg Harbor 
Bay. Dr. Maurice Beesley says: "Master Evelyn must certainly 
have the credit of being the first white man that explored the inter- 
ior as far as the seaboard, and his name should be perpetuated as 
the king of pioneers." Evelyn describes the abundance of fish and 
fowl, making special mention of a wild turkey that weighed forty- 
six pounds, and of "deere that bring forth three young at a time." 
The denizens of the magnificent virgin forests included bison, black 
bear, wolf, panther, catamount and deer, and among the smaller 
animals were opossum, raccoon, fox, mink, otter and beaver. For 
the skins of the latter the red men received a goodly amount of 
"sewan," the currency in use, from their English neighbors. 

The English took final control in 1664 and called the province 
"New Jersey" as a compliment to one of the owners, Sir George 
Carteret, who had been Governor of the Isle of Jersey. The date of 
the first settlement by the English has always been in question. Dr. 
Maurice Beesley claims that Caleb Carman was appointed a justice 
of the peace and Jonathan Pine a constable by a Legislature in ses- 
sion in 16S5. Other authorities declare the Townsends and Spicers 
to have come from Long Island in 16S0, and to have been the oldest 
English settlers and land owners. Richard, a son of John Town- 
send, was the first white child born in the county. 

It was the beginning of the eighteenth century when the set- 
tlers first devoted their attention to agriculture, and cultivated 
more than a door-patch. There is a long way between husbandry 
and piracy, but perhaps it was the domestic aspect that prompted 
Captain Kidd, the noted pirate, to take advantage of the unsuspic- 
ious character of the settlement to bury some of his treasure in the 
shifting sands. Years and the action of the ocean have so changed 
the locality that if the particular spot chosen for the hiding place 

66 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

was ever knov.ni, it is lost now, and the treasure lias become a tra- 
dition, if it is not actually a myth. 

The distinction of obtaining the first license to practice "Chir- 
urgery and Phisiq" in this locality belongs to an Esculapian named 
Richard Smith, who lived at Cape May, or Egg Harbor, and in 1705 
received this coveted honor. 

The awakening of a religious spirit in the community was due 
to the Baptists, who in 1712 built a place of worship. Following 
close upon them came the Presbyterians in 1714, and in 1716 the 
Quakers, who were under the care of Salem Meeting, and whose 
meeting house at Seaville is known as "Old Cedar Meeting House." 

The epicureans of today have cause to be thankful for the aspir- 
ing palates of their grandfathers. To them are to be credited the 
care and protection of the beds where grow that delicious oyster so 
popular in summertime, the Cape May salt, as on March 27, 1719, 
the first measures were taken to protect the oyster beds. 

The spirit of patriotism burned with an ardent flame amongst 
the men of this district. They played a notable part in the Kevolu- 
tionary War. Henry Hand was a lieutenant-colonel; John Hand a 
major; Eli Eldridge a first major; Thomas Learning an adjutant; 
and James Willets, Jr., a captain. Many other names memorable in 
the history of the county appear on the registers of officers and men 
in the ranks. The Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania 
paid Abraham Bennett on August 1, 1777, seven pounds ten shillings 
for "riding express from Cape May to this city" (Philadelphia), to 
report the movements of the British fleet. 

In the autumn of 1786 Jesse Hand was elected a delegate to the 
State Convention. "He created," says Dr. Beesley, "great aston- 
ishment with the people when he presented to their wondering eyes 
the first top-carriage (an old-fashioned chair) that was ever brought 
into the county. The horse cart was the favorite vehicle in those 
times, whether for family visiting, or going to meeting purposes, 
and any innovation upon those usages or those of their ancestors, 
was looked upon with jealousy and distrust." 

Many complaints about that ever fruitful source of complaints, 
the delivery of the mail, must have been registered, for prior to 
1804 there was no regular service, the mails being carried by private 
individuals. On January 30 of that year the post office was opened 
with Ellis Hughes as postmaster. The "Daily Aurora" of Philadel- 

6 7 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

phia, published June 30, 1801, contained the following advertise- 
ment of the hotel kept by Hughes, "The Atlantic," which later gave 
way to the "New Atlantic" situated at the foot of Jackson street. 

"The public are respectfully informed that the subscriber has 
prepared himself for entertaining company who use sea bathing, 
and he is accommodated with extensive houseroom, with fish, 
oysters, crabs, and good liquor. Care will be taken of gentlemen's 
horses. 

"The situation is beautiful, just at the confluence of the Dela- 
ware Bay and the Ocean, and in sight of the Light House, and af- 
fords a view of the shipping which enters and leaves the Delaware. 
Carriages may be driven along the margin of the ocean for miles, 
and the wheels will scarcely make an impression upon the sand. 
The slope of the shore is so regular that persons may wade a great 
distance. It is the most delightful spot citizens may retire to in the 
hot season. 

"A Stage starts from Cooper's Ferry on Thursday in every 
week, and arrives at Cape Island on Friday; it starts from Cape 
Island on Friday and Tuesday in each week, and arrives in Philadel- 
phia the following day. 

"Gentlemen who travel in their own carriages will observe the 
following directions: Philadelphia to Woodbury is 9 miles, thence 
to Glasshouse 10, Malaga Hill 10, Lehman's Mills 12, Port Eliza- 
beth 7, Dennis Creek 12, Cape May 9, the pitch of the Cape 15, is 84; 
and the last 18 is open to the sea shore. Those who chose water con- 
veyance can find vessels almost any time. 

"Ellis Hughes." 

The Old Atlantic was then the only hotel, and was the stopping 
place of the prominent and wealthy, among whom was Commodore 
Decatur, a frequent visitor. A large boarding house called Con- 
gress Hall was built in 1816 by Thomas H. Hughes, where Mecray's 
pharmacy now stands. When destroyed by fire two years later, it 
had grown to the proportions of two hundred by three hundred feet. 
It was not, however, until after the War of 1812 that Cape Island 
made much progress as a summer resort. Heretofore visitors had 
arrived by carriage or stage, but in 1815 a sloop sailed to and from 
Philadelphia. The pioneer in steamboat navigation on the Delaware 
was Captain Wilmon Whilldm, Sr., who was born in 1774, on land 
bought by his ancestors at the time of the settlement of the county. 
Captain Whilldin made a study of navigation, and in 1816 built the 
steamer Delaware, and was owner of several steamers on the Dela- 

68 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

ware and the Chesapeake. He was for a time a partner of the elder 
Commodore Vanderbilt. Early in life he went to Philadelphia, 
where he lived until his death in 1S52. His son succeeded him and 
continued the steamboat business until the Civil "War, when the 
boats were impressed into the Government service. Ephraim Hil- 
dreth had a packet running between Philadelphia and Cape May, 
and in his diary are records of the quick trips made, leaving Phila- 
delphia one day and reaching Cape Island the next. The steamboat 
Pennsylvania was added in July of 1824 to those running between 
Philadelphia and Cape Island, and a year or so later the line in- 
cluded the Delaware also. Until a very few years ago steamboats 
plied between the two points every summer. They used to touch at 
New Castle for the Southerners who came on the first railroad run 
in this country, the Frenchtown & New Castle railroad. Carriages 
brought the passengers from Baltimore to Frenchtown on the Sus- 
quehanna, near Havre de Grace, Maryland. Weekly trips were 
made by the steamboat Portsmouth in 1834 between Cape Island, 
Lewistown and Philadelphia. 

Many wrecks occurred off Cape May, and there are accounts of 
them to be found in the "Boston News-Letter" of September 17-24, 
1724; the "New York Gazette" of July 30, 1733, and other periodi- 
cals of the time. In February of 1809 the British ship Guatamoozin, 
with a cargo of silks and tea from China to New Y"ork, came ashore 
off Townsend's Inlet. This was probably the most disastrous, save 
one which happened some years later when the Perseverance was 
wrecked, that ever occurred on this shore. 

The ship builders, Jacocks Swain and his sons Henry and 
Joshua, of Seaville, Cape May county, gained fame for themselves 
and for the county by the invention of the centerboard, which has 
brought the crown of victory to America in many international 
yacht races. The Letters Patent, dated 1811, may still be seen. They 
are signed by James Madison, President of the United States, James 
Monroe, Secretary of State, and C. A. Eodney, Attorney General of 
the United States. 

The dawn of education broke in fitful gleams, the duties of the 
itinerant teachers carrying them north from Cape Island through 
the sparsely settled region, as far as Gloucester, now Atlantic coun- 
ty. When a school system was devised, the "rule of three" was not 
taught in "the little red school house" of fond memories, but under 

69 



THE GOLDEX CHAIN OF MEMORY 

the most primitive conditions, sometimes with no books at all. 
These intellectual struggles began about 1765. From 1810 to 1820 
Jacob Spicer (3rd) and Constantine and Joseph Foster were in- 
trusted with the difficult task of blazing a trail for the educational 
institutions of the future. Englebert Sternhuysen, who arrived in 
this country in 1659, was the first to wield the rod in New Jersey, 
but the first school house in the State was at Mullica Hill, and was 
known as Spicer 's school-house. It was built of cedar logs, and the 
windows were closed with oiled paper panes. The master was in 
all probability the grandfather of Jacob Spicer (3rd). 

The white flash from Cape May Light was the first to shed its 
beams over the Atlantic to guide the passing mariner. The Light 
House built in 1823 was rebuilt in 1859. Romantic tales that appeal 
strongly to the imagination have been written about these necessary 
and so often solitary habitations, but it is to the exact sciences that 
we must turn to determine the twelve and one-half nautical miles 
distance from Cape Henlopen, and the eighteen and three-quarters 
from Five Fathom Bank Light Ship. The latitude is 38° 55' 59", and 
the longitude 40° 57' 39". The tower, one hundred and forty-live feet 
in height, pierces the sky like a Cleopatra's needle with the sharp 
end in the sand. The light, one hundred and fifty-two feet above 
the sea level, is the needle's eye from which the first class lens throws 
its light at intervals of thirty seconds over eighteen miles of the 
sea's mysterious depths. 

Among a population numbering 4936 in 1830, there were but 
two hundred and twenty-eight colored persons, three of whom were 
slaves. The census shows that the county had many acres under 
cultivation and that numerous mills were in operation. Grain was 
shipped, as well as large quantities of cordwood. A writer in 1830 
says of Cape May: "Cape May Island is a noted and much fre- 
quented watering place, the season at which commences about the 
first of Jul} T and continues until the middle of August or first of 
September. There are six boarding houses, three of which are very 
large ; the sea bathing is convenient and excellent, the beach affords 
pleasant drives, and there is excellent fishing in adjacent waters." 

Picture to yourself, oh, gentle reader, the days when you were 
young and lived in the country, the particular day when that hireling 
of our Government, the census-taker, rang your bell, if you had one. 
Perhaps you went to the door yourself, or maybe you were curled 

70 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

in the hammock dozing in the sun and wondering about the outcome 
of the barbers' strike and "where you would next have your hair cut. 
Then that persistent hireling unrolled a yard or so of paper and 
asked you impertinent questions, as, were you male or female, where 
were you born, were you free, white, and twenty-one ? Remember 
the cut-and-driedness of it all, and then read the report of the cen- 
sus taker of 1S40, which delightful product is almost an essay on 
Cape May: 

"The village of Cape Island is a favorite watering-place in the 
southern part of this township, thirteen miles south of Court House. 
It began to grow into notice as a watering-place in 1812, at which 
time there were but a few houses there. It now contains two large 
hotels, three stories high and 150 feet long, and a third one, lately 
erected, four stories high and 100 feet long, besides numerous other 
houses for the entertainment of visitors. The whole number of 
dwellings is about fifty. In the summer months the Island is 
thronged with visitors, principally from Philadelphia, with which 
there is a daily steamboat communication. It is estimated that 
about 3000 strangers annually visit the place. The village is sep- 
arated by a small creek from the mainland; but its area is fast wear- 
ing away by the encroachments of the sea. "Watson, the antiquarian, 
in a MSS. journal of a trip to Cape Island in 1S35, on this point 
says: 'Since my former visit to Cape Island in 1S22, the house in 
which I stopped (Captain Aaron Bennett's), then nearest the surf, 
has been actually reached by the invading waters. * * * The 
distance from Bennett's house to the sea bank was 165 feet. In 1804, 
as it was then measured and cut upon the house by Commodore De- 
catur, it was 334 feet. It had been as much as 300 feet further off, 
as remembered by some old men who told me in 1822. ' ' ' 

Commodore Decatur began in 1S04 to estimate the encroach- 
ments of the ocean. His record shows that between that time and 
1829 the hungry sea had eaten away two hundred and seventy-five 
feet of land. Jeremiah Macray once told the Hon. Lewis Townsend 
Stevens that he remembered fields of corn growing where in 1890 
the pavilion of the iron pier had stood. 

"A large portion of the inhabitants of the village are Delaware 
pilots, a hardy and industrious race. About two miles west of the 
boarding houses is the Cape May Lighthouse," continues the census- 
taker. Among the seafaring folk these were, of course, those spec- 
ially skillful in guiding their vessels through the channels and be- 
tween the sand banks and reefs. These pilots became known to the 

71 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OE MEMORY 

captains of incoming vessels, who were always well pleased when 
luck enabled them to "pick up" a pilot from Cape May. 

" The Mansion House, the second large hotel to be built, was 
erected in 1832 on four acres of ground on "Washington street. It 
was the first lathed and plastered hotel, and was the property of 
Richard Smith Ludlam, who in 1S47 entertained there the famous 
Kentuckian, Henry Clay. Mr. Clay spent a week at Cape May in the 
latter part of August, when the summer visitors were nearly all 
gone, but so great was the enthusiasm created by his visit that boat- 
loads of people came to see him. Horace Greeley, of New York, 
United States Senator James A. Bayard, of Delaware, and Charles 
C. Gordon, of Georgia, were among the earliest to greet him. A 
large dinner was given in his honor at the Mansion House, and 
Beck's Band was brought from Philadelphia to furnish the music. 
A welcoming address was made to which "Harry of the West" re- 
sponded in a speech that fairly startled his hearers. Mr. Clay was 
fond of sea bathing, going into the water sometimes twice a day. 
It is said that it was ruinous to his hair, not because of the salt 
water but because the Delilahs of the day forced him into the role of 
Sampson. A short distance from the Mansion House was the Co- 
lumbia House, where the New York delegation was entertained. 

The seventh son of a seventh son is supposed to see into the 
future, but there is nothing in the tradition to mark such a one as a 
poet. Neither was there in the mind of Theophilus Townsend Price 
any idea that his verses would live. This seventh child of John Price 
and Kezia Swain Price, who was born at the Price homestead at 
Town Bank, Cape May county, when only twenty years old held com- 
mune with the Muses and through their aid immortalized himself as 
"the Bard of Cape May." Acceding to a playful request of some 
young friends, Theophilus Townsend Price wrote in 1848 an "Ode 
to Cape May" to be sung to the tune of "Dearest May," a popular 
song of that day. The Ode has been revised by the Hon. Lewis 
Townsend Stevens and appears in his interesting and comprehen- 
sive "History of Cape May County." 

The newspaper history of Cape May dates back to 1855, when 
the "Ocean Wave" broke upon the editorial sea. It was a small 
sheet, 12xlS inches, owned by a Colonel Johnson, who during its in- 
fancy sold it to Joseph S. Leach, by whom it was published until 
1863. By process of elimination it became "The Wave," and passed 

1* 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

through several hands. At present it is known as "The Star and 
Wave," having combined with "The Star," and is edited and pub- 
lished by a member of that same Hand family that has for so many 
years guided its course. In 1857 the following notice appeared in 
"The Wave:" 

"We need a daily mail. That we have no direct mail communi- 
cation between Cape May and Cape May C. H., our county seat, but 
once a week, is a fact known to all. A letter written here on Wednes- 
day may go direct to the Court House on Thursday, and an answer 
be returned on Saturday, by the Bridgton mail ; but at any other 
time in the week our letters must be sent up by the Bayside mail, 
on Mondays, Wednesdays or Fridays to Tuckahoe, and there stopped 
till the next down mail to the Court House, thus performing a jour- 
ney of nearly fifty miles, while distance is only thirteen miles from 
here to the Court House." 

Although many of the summer visitors came by water from 
Philadelphia and the points along the bay, it was to the accompani- 
ment of cracking whips and blowing horns that others arrived. A 
stage ran from Bridgton and Tuckahoe, and dust and delays were 
the causes of the traveller's woes rather than the cinders that 
poured from the steamboat's funnels. Sighs of relief were no doubt 
breathed when the last change of horses had been effected, and, on 
the outskirts of the town, the driver began to toot his horn. Cramped 
muscles straightened out, for the rough ride was over, the jolting 
ended. The traveller, already partially revived by the salt air blown 
across the marshes, shook his "duster," grasped his vari-colored 
carpet bag, and started out to see the town. The fare, one way be- 
tween Philadelphia and Cape May, was $3.50, about what we pay 
today for a round-trip ticket on a luxurious express train taking but 
two hours to make the trip between the same two points. In May 
of 1863 the Board of Freeholders passed a resolution which resulted 
in the opening by the Cape May & Millville railroad of a line to Cape 
May. In 1879 this road united with the West Jersey. The Penn- 
sylvania railroad has since secured control. Interest in the welfare 
of the town inspired Logan M. Bullitt of Philadelphia and James E. 
Taylor of Cape May to make an arrangement with the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, the Atlantic City Railroad Company and 
the Vineland Railroad Company, whereby a second railroad might 
be operated in connection with these companies. A regular service 
was established in 1894, and is known as the South Jersey railroad. 

73 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

The cily's streets follow their own sweet will, for the reason 
that they were laid out only when and where needed. They turn 
right or left, or run straight on, as the necessity of that day dictated. 
More than a hundred years ago Jackson street, the oldest street in 
town, was laid out and set the example for its successors by making 
a sharp turn at its upper end. From being a cow path, Lafayette 
street became a recognized public way, and for nearly its whole 
length "Washington street runs parallel with it. Among the earliest 
streets were Delaware avenue, Franklin, Jefferson and Queen. 

Life Saving Stations began to occupy the attention of the pub- 
lic in ISIS. Congressman William A. Newell of New Jersey secured 
from Congress an appropriation of $10,000 to "provide surf boats, 
rockets, carronades and other necessary appurtenances for the bet- 
ter preservation of life and property from shipwreck." Heretofore 
whale boats had been used, but their weight and bulk made them un- 
wieldy. The new stations were provided with sleeping quarters for 
the Coast Guards, and were equipped with all necessary appliances. 
The Guards now patrol the beach for three miles during the night, 
exchanging metal checks with those at the next station, Cape May 
Point, to the south. During the day a lookout is on duty. The Sta- 
tion built in 1871 stood back beyond the dunes, where the beach 
curved inland. In recent years the sea has made ground there and 
the curve has to some extent disajDpeared. A modern house now 
stands among the cottages that surround the new "Hotel Cape 
May. ' ' During the bathing hours, from ten in the morning until six 
in the evening, from the fifteenth of June until the fifteenth of Sep- 
tember, ten Life Guards are stationed on the beach. There are two 
stations, one in front of the Stockton Baths and the other at old 
Congress Hall. Immediately to the south is the colored people's 
recognized bathing ground, guarded by a huge West Indian whose 
brown skin has turned black in the summer sun. Eecently a guard 
was stationed north of the pier for the protection of the cottagers. 
One is much needed at the southern end of the beach, where for a 
long distance no means of help is available. In the summer of 1919 
two young women were drowned whose lives might have been saved 
had a guard been near. The distance was so great that although an 
alarm was promptly given, too long a time elapsed before assistance 
came. Both were dead when they were brought ashore. 

The town has had the approval of America's chief magistrates. 

74 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

Both James A. Buchanan and General Grant were guests at Con- 
gress Hall during their terms of office. Franklin Pierce came in 
1855, and in 1883 the government steamer, the Despatch, arrived at 
Cape May bringing President Chester A. Arthur. After being cere- 
moniously escorted along the beach front, now Beach avenue, the 
President was welcomed at the Stockton Hotel by the strains of 
"Hail to the Chief," played by Hassler's orchestra and the Wec- 
cacoe Band. The cottage belonging to the Hon. John Wanamaker 
of Philadelphia, Postmaster General under President Benjamin 
Harrison, was loaned by Mr. "Wanamaker to Mr. McKinley for one 
summer. Later a cottage was built with money privately subscribed, 
and presented to the President. 

Old Cape May practically began at the summer station, at the 
foot of Grant street. Here stood net-covered horses drawing busses 
in every stage of repair or dilipidation, awaiting passengers and 
the dimes that were the fare "to any part of town." A small street 
car started its peregrinations beside the boardwalk and wandered 
along to the other end of town. For several years the cars have not 
run at all, and today jitneys and the old time busses, the Alpha and 
Omega of transportation, offer the only means of conveyance to 
those who do not own automobiles. 

In this vicinity a dozen or more commodious cottages had been 
erected on large plots of ground. They were frame and built in 
the southern style, with double porches, painted white and vine em- 
bowered. Well kept lawns with gardens and ornamental trees sur- 
rounded them, enclosed in their turn by hedges of a bush much like 
the tropical tamarisk. Among the bushes the white of marble statu- 
ary gleamed, and the calls of the many birds that have made of these 
secluded spots a feathered sanctuary, carried one far from the sea 
that broke at the end of the walk. Hydrangeas, that reach perfec- 
tion here, meet one's eye at every turn. In this delightful group of 
seaside homes were those of General William J. Sewell ; of the Sel- 
lers of Millbourne, and the Knight family. 

The first hotel beyond the station is the Windsor, a three-story 
clapboarded building with a long wing parallel with the sea. A 
porch runs inside the angle and across the end, while verandas hang 
from the upper story. Sheltered by the building there used to be 
a pebbled terrace with an ornate fence and "a fountain in the cen- 
ter." Broad wooden steps led down to the street level and gave the 

75 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

hotel an air at once imposing and unique. Now the pebbles have 
gone, the fountain is dry, and where once the water sparkled "in its 
gleaming marble rim," green paint has transformed the basin that 
is filled with soil in which geraniums (not lilies) grow. Grass plots 
separated by sandy walks replace the pebbles, and the only touch of 
its vanished beauty is in the groups of lovely hydrangeas that still 
grow upon the terrace. 

The solid wooden fence with its wide flat top, that guarded the 
ocean side of the boardwalk, has been replaced by modern gas pipe. 
In the past it was a convenient resting place, available at any mo- 
ment when fatigue threatened, when one cared to linger, or felt that 
consuming desiring that comes to the young, to commune, a deux, 
with sea and sky. 

Far back from the ocean stands Congress Hall. The large brick 
buildings were for years neglected. The porch roof hung in scal- 
lops between the tall square columns, one of which rested against 
the wall. Part of the roof lay, a mass of debris, on the floor. Brok- 
en window panes looked out like sad blind eyes, and even birds hesi- 
tated to build amid such evidences of decay. The hotel register con- 
tains many of the names that have made history. Statesmen, artists, 
travellers and the great of many lands sought hospitality there, left 
their marks upon those "sands of time," and went again into the 
unknown. Recently the house has been renovated and is now open 
to the public. The tragic atmosphere of decay that for so long per- 
vaded the building has been dispelled. 

Visitors passing the old Columbia, near the corner of Wash- 
ington street and Ocean avenue, lingered to hear the colored wait- 
ers sing. The crooning musical voices of the negroes in their own 
weird melodies have a strong appeal. They seem to reach out and 
set a heart-string quivering with a vague longing for something yet 
unknown. 

In 1876 fire, which has been an active enemy of Cape May, de- 
stroyed the then Columbia House and made a place for its succes- 
sor, the New Columbia. Of all the old hotels the Columbia House 
showed most plainly the prevalent influence of the South. It might 
have been a huge plantation home transported from some far off 
southern scene and set down by the sea. 

The New Columbia was a brick structure, moderate in size and 
of commonplace type. It too, was burned, and the place of the two 

76 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

Columbias is filled with small cottages built in a Close, surrounded 
by grass and hedges and hydrangeas, with a common entrance and 
exit to the sea. Baltimore Inn is near. Shining in white paint, with 
shading awnings and flowers in boxes on the porch, it looks inviting. 
Above the old bath houses are the same names as in years gone by. 
Maguire's, and further on Shield's. From under one of them a 
huge rat scampered and ran across the drive. There was that pecu- 
liar fetid odor of old wood rotting in salt water. 

A second generation of Japanese conduct the "Art Store," but 
a touch of modernity is given by "Arnold's Hotel" where before 
the era of prohibition good dinners and "good times" were to be 
had. Still in the window rests the frame of scarlet lobsters, an en- 
ticement still, but inside the gayety is subdued to the level of the 
refreshment now offered, "near beer." 

On Decatur street, a little way back from Arnold's is Zillinger's 
Cafe. Beside the house a garden invites the hungry, and between the 
large leaves of the vine that clings to the latticed roof with its spiral 
tendrils, are pendant bunches of green and purpling grapes. 

The remains of the pier voice the old question : "If I am so soon 
done for, I wonder what I was begun for-" Cut off abruptly in 
mid-air a few feet from the entrance, it juts into space. At low tide 
jagged rusty supports stick up from the saiid, but at high tide the 
water covers them and hides the danger they have become. The 
pier was built in 18S5, at the foot of Decatur street, and was for 
many years the only amusement place in town. Now it houses a 
shop where ice cream cones and salt water taffy are sold; a moving 
picture theatre ; a Japanese rolling ball game ; and a shop where 
commonplace embroidered cotton kimonos are shown. At the en- 
trance years ago a giant sword fish hung, its long serrated sword 
striking terror into young hearts. Beyond was a merry-go-round, 
and further out a theatre, and then a fishing platform with a lower 
deck where boats landed. Light opera and musical comedies were 
given on the pier by stars like Jennie Prince, who shed their his- 
trionic light on Cape May in the summer time. 

Across from the pier is the Lafayette, a relic of Cape May's 
gay old days. Theatrical people frequented it and it was thought a 
"livery" place. On the next corner are the cottages originally owned 
by the late William "vVeightman, of Philadelphia. They were con- 
sidered the finest and most modern houses at the Cape. Now, paint- 

77 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

ed a dull battleship grey and overshadowed bj' the newer residences, 
they are unremarkable. On Ocean avenue, near the beach and over- 
looking the Stockton Baths, is the Colonial, a medium size house of 
the "middle age;" and "run" in unpretentious fashion. Opposite 
is Star Villa, a house of the same type. 

The Stockton Hotel was the hub of Cape May, but the Stockton 
Baths were surely the most important spokes. They cover one end 
of the block between Ocean avenue and Stockton row, and are the 
last remnant of the Cape May property of the late John C. Bullitt, 
of Philadelphia, the framer of the Bullitt Bill. Always painted yel- 
low with brown trimmings and red tin roofs, they are today just as 
they were years ago. In the center is a small house, its porch sur- 
mounted by a clock, in which are office and store rooms. The bath 
houses extend in rows on either side. This was the daily meeting 
place for all socially inclined. At eleven o'clock on any summer 
morning the porch was filled with daintily dressed women and men 
in flannels. In those days girls were mermaids and went into the 
sea with flowing locks, regardless of the damage Father Neptune 
might do. The popularity of a girl was measured by the number 
of men who asked to dry her hair. A very popular one had to "cut" 
the drying, as her modern sister does her dances. 

At the end of the bath houses is a small photograph gallery 
where the princii^al business used to be taking tintypes of bathing 
parties. An examination of those early pictures would be like turn- 
ing back the pages of a biographical history. The women wore dark 
blue flannel suits fastened up to their necks, the tape trimmed ruf- 
fles almost covering their hands and clinging closely round their 
ankles at the end of the long full pantalettes. A wide coarse straw 
hat, tied under the chin in the shape of a poke, completed the cos- 
tume. What woman could be beautiful in such garb? But in those 
days sunburn was crime. The men wore loose, flapping, one-piece 
garments very like the women's, only, of course, without the long 
wide skirts. Heads bald and well thatched were alike covered with 
a small skull cap or a straw hat held in place by a string of turkey 
red. But custom changes, and from being over-dressed they went to 
the other extreme. Clothes became so abbreviated as to be a matter 
of concern to the municipal authorities. Now an executive council 
meets in solemn conclave to decide upon the propriety of stockings 
or bare legs for bathing girls. 

78 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

Dominating the town and its activities stood the Stockton, a 
large clap-board structure built in the shape of a capital "T" with 
the top. laid towards the street. The ground was owned by the Bctz 
estate, but the hotel was built in 1SG0 and run for many years by the 
Pennsylvania railroad. Following the custom, a high roofed porch 
with great square columns ran round the house. Immediately in 
front was a gravelled space, with posts connected by festooned 
chains. Towards the sea stretched a large lawn at the end of which 
stood a ruined two-story pavilion, where in the palmy days the 
Marine Band played on summer afternoons. In the Exchange hung 
a large oil portrait of Commodore Stockton, after whom the hotel 
was named. It gave the house a dignity perceptibly felt, although 
perhaps unrecognized. On the right was the ball room, where Simon 
Hassler played, and back in the huge wing the entire space was given 
over to the dining rooms. 

; At night the porches were so crowded it was difficult to find 
one's way between the chairs. Some time during the day or evening 
all found their way to the Stockton, if only to walk through. Beside 
the hotel, in a building connected with it by a porch, was a billiard 
room "with a bowling alley at the back. The kitchen and service 
rooms were in a separate building close alongside. Various mana- 
gers played the part of boniface, but perhaps the most noted were 
the Cakes, and "Plunger Walton," so called because of his opera- 
tions as a stock speculator. His daughters married David S. Chew, 
of the Chews of Germantown, and William E. Bates, a descendant of 
Francis Guerney Smith. All trace of the hotel has been removed, 
and grass grows where flying feet once danced. At the upper end 
of the lot is a small Baptist church, built of white stucco, and a 
modern cottage. The rest is vacant, emblematic of the emptiness of 
life of Cape May since its mainspring was removed. Life no longer 
runs so merrily on through the sunny summer days. Chimes of 
laughter are not so often heard, even the echoes of those long past 
peals exist only in memory or imagination. 

Here in the golden days had come the wealth and fashion of 
the South, as well as the elite of Philadelphia and New York. Belles 
and beaux occupied the armchairs on the porch and posed with lan- 
guid grace. They brought with them their retinues of colored ser- 
vants, their richly harnessed horses and luxurious carriages that so 
well suited those wide skirts and veiled faces. Jewels flashed and 

79 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

feathered fans waved as southern beauties coquetted in their inimi- 
table way. Men in stocks and broadcloth made elegant bows and 
kissed the white hands that the sun had never touched. The stately 
minuet was danced in that ball room whose passing has spared it 
the humiliation of witnessing the "shimmy." The ball room brings 
back memories of the Hasslers, Simon and Mark, who had their 
orchestras and played respectively at the Stockton and Congress 
Hall. Every visitor to Cape May will remember them and the 
dreamy waltzes that they played. 

The bathing hour was but a preliminary to the visit to the 
Stockton, where in the small cafe to the left of the office and beyond 
the barber shop, were served such drinks as "horse's necks," 
"brandy floats," and the best claret punches that were ever made. 

Back of the Stockton stood the Chalfont, popular as a family 
hotel, and unchanged today. There was the Page Cottage, too, a 
"genteel boarding house" much patronized by exclusive Philadel- 
phians. From there Stockton avenue runs north. Marine Villa, an- 
other sacrifice to Vulcan, belongs to the past; its place is empty. 
Close to its site is the new Stockton Villa, which accommodates but 
few guests, but is to be relied upon to have those guests exactly what 
they should be. 

Old Cape May ends here, and turning from the sea the streets 
run inland and wander among the cottages that surround the Stock- 
ton. There on the corner lived George D. McCreary, of Philadel- 
phia, with "the little McCreary cottage" next door. Diagonally 
across the street is the large house of the Scott family, who still 
spend every summer there. Not far away is the cottage where Mrs. 
Bowen entertained her brother, Archbishop Ryan of Philadelphia, 
whose droll stories and brilliant conversation were so delightful. 
On Washington street, removed from the daily crowds brought by 
the incoming trains, the residence of the late Dr. Phillip Sygn Phy- 
sic stands alone and secluded. The house is frame and conveys an 
impression of dignity and generous hospitality that is not lessened 
by the lack of paint. Fine trees and rare shrubs thrive there and the 
sun filters through the leaves, dappling the ground with gold. A 
wide open lawn beside the house is surrounded by a hedge whose 
impenetrability secures privacy. 

On the corner of Washington street and Ocean avenue stood 
Hand's Market. The Hand family belong to the original settlers, 

80 



THE GOLDEN CHAIX OF MEMORY 

and Cape May owes much to their moulding. In the past the name 
frequently appeared upon the street signs and in the town's business 
life. Today there are but few members of the family left. The name 
is still over the jewelry store at the end of the street, down by Con- 
gress Hall, where Cape May diamonds may be had. It is over the 
office of "The Wave and Star.". The market is now Mecray's. 

Opposite to the market is the Reading railroad station, and a 
new building on one corner houses a Savings Fund. Beside the 
station is the rectory of the Catholic Church of Our Lady, Star of 
the Sea. The original rectory is still in use, a small gray building, 
its ornate trimmings painted white. The little church of years ago 
seemed crowded and over-decorated; the tall sharp spires and nar- 
row arches above the altar were of white painted wood, cut and 
fretted and tortured into intricate designs. The impression created 
by the new church is of breadth and nobility of treatment, of white 
purity and sanctity, and a retirement from the beat and glare out- 
side. It is conducive to prayer and meditation. The small columns 
of the altar and the central part of the communion rail are white 
marble with brown markings. There are a few stained glass win- 
dows whose dominant tone is a cool deep green, but in the whole 
church there is no jarring note. 

The Episcopalians have two churches, St. John's, the village 
church, and the Church of the Advent, for summer visitors. Here 
every week an address is made by some notable visiting churchman, 
as Ethelbert Talbot, Bishop of Central Pennsylvania, and the Rev. 
Floyd Tompkins, rector of Holy Trinity, Philadelphia. The Presby- 
terians have a handsome church at Decatur and Hughes streets, 
where the air is cooled by electric fans and an accousticon is sup- 
plied for those w T ho have difficulty in hearing. The Baptists, Metho- 
dists and Hebrews have their places of worship too. 

The old tower is standing on Perry street, marking the oldest 
part of town and a monument to its decay. Close to its foot nestles 
an automobile accessory shop. Built of wood and long unpainted, 
with advertising signs disfiguring its sides, the tower rears its worn 
head like an old man's whose hair has paid tribute to the flight of 
time. The Ocean House, one of the very old hotels and famous in its 
day, was nearby; it was burned in 1878. It was characterized by a 
balcony that ran around the third floor, high above the porch. From 
the roof, which was continuous from its apex to the edge over- 
Si 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

hanging the balcony, dormer windows sprang 1 , breaking the monot- 
ony. Close by was Center House, a simpler type. Its large gabled 
wings were connected by a recessed central building with a high 
roofed porch. 

In the vicinity was the famous Mount Vernon Hotel, which had 
taken the then unheard of time of two years to build and which was 
said to be the largest hotel, at that time, in the world. Its dining 
room seated three thousand people. Fatality followed in the wake 
of the fire that consumed it in 1S56, the proprietor and four others 
losing their lives. Early in the following summer the Mansion 
House and Kersal, an amusement pavilion, followed it, and years 
ago this once exclusive neighborhood fell into disrepute amongst 
the white visitors, the remaining hotels and large boarding houses 
being given over entirely to the use of the colored population. At 
present the better class of colored visitors go to the Hotel Dale, a 
hotel run by a famous Philadelphia caterer exclusively for his peo- 
ple. 

Back of Congress Hall and round about the corner where is 
now Mecray's drugstore, the first houses for the summer visitors 
were built. The Philadelphians who came were wealthy men who 
were attracted by the fishing and the opportunity to do a little quiet 
gambling. It is said that the first millionaire in America came here. 
When the house he occupied was torn down to make room for mod- 
ern improvements, many coins were found under the floor where 
they had fallen and been forgotten. In the attic were old pistols and 
small arms that had been undisturbed for many years. Later years 
brought the great luxurious hotels of a few decades ago. The at- 
mosphere of the place changed, and the wealthy from all parts of the 
country came as regularly to this Mecca of fashion as the true 
Southerner used to go to "The Whites" or Saratoga Springs. 

South of the summer station is the site of the United States 
Hotel. Four stories high, it had a continuous porch on every floor 
and was surmounted by a cupola from which floated the Stars and 
Stripes. Fire destroyed it in 1869. Near the hotel was a race track 
that was in occasional use as late as 18S7. 

A narrow guage railroad started at the southern end of town 
and ran to Cape May Point. The train was drawn by an engine 
with a funnel-shaped stack of the same type as "Old Baldwin," now 
reposing quietly in the station at Chattanooga. The lessening of its 

82 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

patronage and the deterioration of the track and rolling stock re- 
sulted in the failure of the company. The engine and cars were 
sold to junk dealers, and the track torn up and put to other uses. 
Busses carried the visitor to Schellinger's Landing, where in the 
shadow of the old pavilion he embarked in a Hat-bottomed row boat 
and wound his way between the mud banks in search of hard shelled 
crabs ; or, on a rainy day in early fall, he went in a sneak box, a bird 
gun laid across the bow, to hunt for rail or reed birds. From Sew- 
ell's Point he sailed about the bay, or, crossing the bar, went sea- 
ward in search of wild adventure. 

The name Cape Island, as Cape May was originally known, was 
first used in 1699, when the causeway connecting the island with the 
mainland was built by George Eaglesiield. Following its history 
step by step, we turn the pages of the Indian occupation, of the 
Swedish purchase, the Dutch, the second Swedish, and the final 
purchase by the English. Perhaps traces of these differing national- 
ities may still be found, but the most lasting impression was made by 
the English whaling folk who came during the fishing season and in 
some instances settled here. Gradually the fishing village became a 
summer resort and large hotels sprang up beside the lowly cottages. 
The period of its greatest prosperity was just prior to the Civil 
War, when to the rich Philadelphians and New Yorkers were added 
Baltimoreans and travellers from many other southern cities. 
Sweeping the wealth of the South into the realms of memory, the 
war deprived Cape May's most luxury loving visitors of the means 
of travel, thus taking from her one of her greatest sources of revenue 
and advertisement. For many years these have been missing, and 
the town has suffered a consequent decline in prosperity. The de- 
structive fires that at intervals have wrought such havoc robbed 
her of the great hotels that made her famous. 

About 1908 a number of capitalists interested in promoting 
Cape May endeavored to regain for her her past prestige. A large 
brick hotel, The Hotel Cape May, was built on the upper end of 
the beach towards Sewell's Point. Many handsome cottages sprang 
up around it. The Government was induced to make an inland pro- 
tecting harbor in the bay, with a wide channel to the sea, in which 
ships might anchor. Much of the marshland was drained and filled. 
A golf course of nine holes was laid out back of the town, with ten- 
nis courts adjoining it. The Corinthian Yacht Club established its 

83 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF MEMORY 

summer quarters on Cape Island creek, which empties into the har- 
bor. The Cape May Yacht Club was organized, and an attractive 
club house was built. A Marine Casino furnishes amusement in the 
form of moving pictures and a merry-go-round. The "Red Mill," 
as it is picturesquely called, is the nightly gathering place for the 
devotees of Terpsichore. Opposite the site of the Stockton is Con- 
vention Hall, a dance hall on a pier. 

The plan laid out for the New Cape May is most attractive, 
with its wide central avenue and streets sweeping round it in long 
oval curves bisected by others leading from the sea to the harbor. 

During the World War the new Hotel Cape May was General 
Hospital Number 11, and was filled with wounded men from over- 
seas. Camp Wissahickon was established as a Naval Base, and 
was located between the hospital and the harbor. Many soldiers 
were in barracks. An aviation field with a huge hangar that houses 
a dirigible balloon, still adds to the interest of the section devoted to 
the different branches of the Service represented here. At intervals 
the whirr and drone of an aeroplane are heard, and all eyes turn up- 
ward and search the sky until the birdman appears, flying in a long 
straight line and then turning and circling in the wide sweeps of the 
eagle. The wounded have been taken away and concentrated in a 
few hospitals scattered throughout the country. Soldiers, sailors 
and marines have been demobilized and sent home. The Govern- 
ment intends to keep only about one hundred and fifty men on duty 
at the camp. 

Cape May has tasted all the delights of giddy youth, the com- 
forts of middle life, and now, in her old age, she is like a woman 
struggling to recapture her lost youth. The attempted grafting 
of Philadelphia conservatism on Southern democracy was unsuc- 
cessful. The peculiar condition existed of Northern capital and 
energy promoting a settlement which Nature herself, whether by 
placing it south of Mason and Dixon's line, or by some intangible 
influence, confirmed in its easy-going attitude. Because of its won- 
derful beach and its central position between the North and South, 
the tremendous initial impetus carried it on for many years. Since 
the Civil War its decline, gradual, it is true, has been continuous. 
The cordial yet restricted social life of the South was overwhelmed 
by Northern reserve, and the summer visitors being of mixed types 
and varying social standing, found between them an icy wall as im- 

84 



THE GOLDEN CHAIN OF .MEMORY 

passable as the shoal water between the ocean and the bay and as 
dangerous to those who recklessly attempted to cross. They still 
assemble on the beach, the only common, meeting ground, but they 
do not gather together, for there is hand writing on the wall, plainly 
visible to those who running, read: "So far mayst thou go, but no 
further." 

Lying Avhere the bay and ocean meet, at the southern extremity 
of the State, Cape May has enjoyed an unequalled position. Its 
beach is said to be the finest in the world, smooth and gradual, and 
free from the sea-cut ledges that mar so much of the Jersey coast. 
On clear nights the light from Cape Henlopen may be seen across 
the bay, answering the flash that streams out from Cape May. Land 
breezes are impossible, for when the wind comes from that direction 
it blows over more than a mile of water and is freshened and puri- 
fied. 

With better train service and easier access, the resorts north 
of Cape May have made rapid progress to her detriment. The old 
residents feel that she has been discriminated against, that when the 
railroad cut down the train service and the last of the great hotels 
was torn down, the monument was erected upon her burial place. 
It remains for some one in whose heart sufficient love for Cape May 
endures, to write a fitting epitaph. May there be one whose tender 
recollections will inspire his pen to do full justice, to pay full tribute, 
to Cape May. She can never be excelled or equalled. 



, — ag ■~ = =&3r 



85 



Early Discoveries and Explorations 

By Frank R. Holmes, New York City 

flpPrnlilj! HE discovery of the Western Continent by Columbus 
11hHrv<)'l placed Spain as the foremost European nation in com- 
il^'l'fc::! mercial enterprise. This was followed, 1493, by the 
&!& AA¥ &^ edict of Pope Alexander VI, a native of Spain, who with 
all the lofty pretensions of the Bishop of Rome as sole ar- 
biter of the world, divided the unexplored portions of the globe 
between Spain and Portugal. This bull of the Pope met with con- 
tempt in England and France and stimulated those nations to com- 
pete in the explorations and discoveries in the Western World. 
Portugal's claim was based on a former proclamation by the same 
authority, specifying a line supposed to be drawn from pole to pole 
at a distance of one hundred leagues westward of the Azores Is- 
lands, previously explored by that nation, and that all the countries 
east of this imaginary line not in possession of a Christian prince 
were given to Portugal, all westward of it to Spain. This partition 
raised dissension, and the line was fixed two hundred and seventy 
leagues further west. 

The first nation to show dissatisfaction with the Pope's bull was 
England. Henry VII, the reigning monarch, decided to compete for 
those rich prizes ready to the hand of the venturesome, and he 
accepted the offer of John Cabot, a Venetian merchant residing at 
Bristol, England, to fit out several ships for exploration. He issued 
a patent in the spring of 1496 authorizing Cabot and his three sons 
"to sail to all parts, country s and seas of the East, of the West, 
and of the North," under the banner of England. This was one of 
those curious commissions so common in those days, when the sov- 
ereign allowed private adventurers to use their own money on con- 
dition that the Crown should receive one-fifth of the profits of the 
undertaking. The patent was not, however, as one-sided as it 
seemed, as the Crown had to pay for the wars which invariably 
resulted. There is no positive evidence that John Cabot took 
advantage of this charter, as his death occurred in 1498. In that 



Note. — This narrative is a chapter from "History of Bergen County, New Jersey," 
now in press. (Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York and Chicago). 

86 







S A. O WA C 7x A 

Afav Ybr£ £fl^ 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

year his son Sebastian received a commission from the king to 
depart on a voyage of discovery, and two caravels were fitted out 
for the expedition. Cabot sailed from Bristol, England, in May, 
14-9S, his object being to search for a northwest passage to India, 
but he was stopped by the ice pack in Davis' Strait. Sailing south- 
west, he discovered the shores of Labrador and traversed the coast 
of the continent to the 60th degree of latitude, when again the ice 
barred his way. He then sailed southward until he discovered a 
large island which he named New Found Land (Newfoundland) ; 
thence he coasted as far as the shores of Maine, and some historians 
contended even to the coast of Florida, to which he gave the name 
Prima Vestal. On his return to England, Henry VII did not receive 
him with open arms of welcome, as he failed to bring back gold from 
America. His report of the abundance of codfish near the coast of 
Newfoundland caused in the next five or six years the fishermen of 
England, Brittany and Normandy to gather rich harvests in the 
waters surrounding this island. Cabot subsequently became Chief 
Pilot of the Realm at the Spanish Court, and Edward VI made him 
Great Pilot of England. He died in comparative poverty and ob- 
scurity in the city of Bristol, at the age of eighty years. 

The next nation to disregard the Pope's donation to Spain was 
Portugal. An expedition was fitted out in 1500 to explore North 
America under the navigator Gasper Cortereal. He first touched 
the northern shores of Newfoundland, discovered the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, and sailed along the coast of the American Continent to 
the 60th degree of latitude. Landing on the coast he named Labra- 
dor, he captured fifty of the natives and carried them to Portugal, 
where he sold them as slaves. The profits from this source excited 
the cupidity of Cortereal and Emanuel the Great, Portugal's reign- 
ing sovereign ; and a second expedition was fitted out, setting sail in 
1501 to carry on an active slave trade with Labrador, but the vessel 
with all on board was lost at sea. Emanuel the Great declared that 
Cortereal was the first discoverer of the American Continent, and 
caused a map to be published in 1508 on which the coast of Labrador 
is called Terra Corterealis, or Cortereal's Land. 

In the last decade of the fifteenth century and the early part 
of the sixteenth century, Spain and Portgual were active in fitting 
out voyages of discovery to the New World. The rumors of the 
abundance of gold and precious stones in the southern extremity of 

87 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

the Western Continent encouraged their navigators to penetrate the 
southern seas to rob the Incas of South America and the Mexicans 
of the valuable treasures in their possession. Alonzo de Ojeda, who 
was with Columbus on his first voyage, sailed from Seville, Spain, in 
May, 1499, and reaching the northeastern coast of South America 
discovered mountains on the coast, and sailing along the shores he 
named the country Venezuela. The Carribbean Sea was crossed 
and Santo Domingo visited. Ojeda returned to Spain in 1501, and 
the Spanish monarch divided Central America into two provinces, 
making Ojeda governor of one, and Diego de Nicuesa of the other. 
The proclamation of Alexander VI, which justifies the murder 
and robbery of those that opposed its enforcement, and receiving 
the sanction of the Church and State, indicated the spirit of most 
of the Spanish conquerors. The natives delaying in their submis- 
sion were slaughtered, and those made captives were pressed into 
slavery. The outraged Indians retaliated, slew the Spanish soldiers, 
Ojeda was joined by Nicuesa, and a desolating war was commenced 
on the natives. Ojeda and his forces took to their vessels and were 
stranded on the southern coast of Cuba, where although they were 
treated kindly by the pagans they rewarded them with the same 
fate received by the natives of Santo Domingo. The pious Ojeda 
told of the wealth of the Cubans, and though a chapel was built and 
Christianity introduced into the island, it soon became over-run with 
avaricious adventurers who soon turned a paradise into a pan- 
demonium. 

The caravel Nina, on the first voyage of Columbus, was com- 
manded by Vincente Yaiiez Pinzon. In December, 1199, in command 
of four caravels, he sailed from Palos, Spain. Land was first 
sighted at Cape Augustine, in what is now Brazil, South America. 
Pinzon took possession of the country in the name of the ruling 
house of Castile. Sailing northward he discovered and named the 
River Amazon. 

A squadron consisting of thirteen ships, commanded by Pedro 
Alvarez Cabral, was sent in 1500 by Emanuel the Great, King of 
Portugal, from Lisbon to the Indies. The fleet sailed so far west- 
ward that land was discovered on the coast of Brazil, on the shores of 
which they erected a cross and named the country "The Land of 
the Holy Cross. ' ' Cabral took possession of the country in the name 
of his king. This resulted in a controversy between the crowns of 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

Spain and Portugal concerning; rights of possession which, however, 
was settled amicably; Portugal was to possess that portion of the 
continent from the Biver Amazon to the River De La Plata. 

A native of Florence, Italy, Americus Vespucius, sailed with 
Ojeda as geographer. On his return to Spain in 1501, he entered the 
service of the King of Portugal and sailed in May of that year for 
the Western Continent, exploring the coast of Brazil. Two years 
later, as captain of a caravel attached to a squadron, he again sailed 
for the New World. Off the coast of Brazil he parted company with 
other vessels of the squadron, and sailing along the coast discovered 
the Bay of All Saints. He returned to Portugal in 1501, loaded with 
a cargo of wood from the forests of Brazil. By a falsely dated let- 
ter, a friend of Vespucius in 1506 proposed to the Academy of 
Cosmography at Strasburg to give the name America to the Wes- 
tern Continent, in compliment to its first discoverer. This was done, 
fraudulently depriving Columbus and Cabot of the honor of having 
their names associated with the title of this continent. 

Spain still continued her voyages for discovery and ill-gotten 
gains. The Spanish governor of Cuba, Don Diego Valasquez, en- 
couraged by the discovery of Yucatan and a part of Mexico by 
Francisco Hernandez Cordova in 1517, sent Hernando Cortez at 
the head of an expedition to conquer and colonize Mexico. He 
founded Vera Cruz, and in November, 1519, entered the City of Mex- 
ico and compelled Montezuma, the reigning sovereign, to acknowl- 
edge himself and subjects vassals of Charles V, of Spain. Velas- 
quez, in fear of the ambition of Cortez, sent another expedition 
under the command of Pamfilo De Narvaez to supersede Cortez. 
The latter gave him battle, defeated him, the vanquished troops 
joining the army of the victor. The Mexicans in the meantime had 
risen in revolt against the Spanish and drove them from the City of 
Mexico. Cortez reinforced his army with natives, gave battle, and 
after a gallant defence of the city of seventy-seven days the Mexi- 
cans capitulated and Cortez entered the city in triumph. 

The other early Spanish explorers of note were Vasco de Bal- 
boa Nunez, who went to Santo Domingo in 1501, afterwards to the 
Isthmus of Darien, and November 26, 1513, from a bold rocky sum- 
mit of a mountain beheld a mighty sea. Wading into the water, 
Nunez took formal possession of the great ocean in the name of his 
sovereign, naming it the South Sea. This was the Pacific Ocean, 

89 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

that laves many a league of the western coast of the United States. 
The discoverer of Florida, Juan Ponce de Leon, was a distinguished 
Spanish cavalier. He accompanied Columbus on his second voyage, 
later was made commander of a portion of Santo Domingo, after- 
wards governor of Porto Kico. He sailed north from the latter 
island in March, 1513, in pursuit of a "Fountain of Youth" whose 
waters were supposed to have the power to restore youth to the 
aged. He failed to find the fountain, but landed at the present site 
of St. Augustine in Florida, to which he gave the name of Pasora 
de Flores, taking possession of the country in the name of the Span- 
ish monarch. In strong contrast to this eminent gentleman was 
Francisco Pizarro, a low born Spaniard, imprisoned for debt in his 
native country. He crossed the Atlantic Ocean in 1530, accompanied 
by his four brothers, bearing a commission from Charles V to con- 
quer Peru. Leaving the Isthmus of Panama the following year, he 
landed on the shores of a bay on the borders of the Empire of Incas. 
There was at that time a civil war raging, two brothers contending 
for power, and one had just made the other a prisoner. Pizarro 
pretended friendship with the successful Inca, and treacherously 
made him prisoner. The Inca's army fled in dismay, and the 
emperor offered for his ransom to fill the room he was in with gold. 
The precious metals and golden ornaments of the temples when 
melted down represented more than $17,000,000, which was laid at 
the feet of Pizarro. The treacherous Spaniard caused his royal 
captive to be murdered. Pizarro then founded a new capital (now 
Lima) near the coast, married a daughter of the slain ruler, and the 
empire of Incas lay prostrated at the feet of the Spaniards, with 
Pizarro as ruler. This led to a revolt and the Spanish ruler was 
attacked in his palace and slain. 

A protege of Davila, governor of Darien,was Fernando De Soto. 
He accompanied Pizarro to Peru as his chief lieutenant, and was 
prominent in achieving the conquest of that country. After the 
capture of the Incas' capital, he returned to Spain, having acquired 
great wealth. He was favorably received by Charles V, but longing 
to rival Cortez and Pizarro in the brilliancy of his deeds and believ- 
ing Florida richer in precious metals than Mexico or Peru, he 
offered to conquer that country at his own expense. To this agree- 
ment the king readily agreed, and commissioned him governor of 
Cuba. He sailed from Spain in April, 1538, and in May of the fol- 

90 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

lowing year his expedition to Florida set sail, consisting of nine 
vessels bearing a thousand followers, cattle, horses, mules and 
swine, the first of the latter seen on the American Continent. The 
expedition met with opposition from the natives, who still remem- 
bered the cruel treatment they had received from Narvaez. Winter 
quarters were established east of the Flint river, near Tallahassee, 
on the borders of Georgia. A northward course was taken the next 
spring to the headwaters of the Savannah river. The Spaniards 
practiced the most cruel treachery towards the friendly natives. 
De Soto was, however, rewarded in kind not long afterwards, when 
in a terrible battle on the present site of Mobile the expedition was 
nearly ruined. Turning northward with the remnant of his forces, 
he reached the upper waters of the Yazoo river late in December, 
where he wintered in great distress. Moving westward in the spring, 
De Soto discovered the Mississippi river, crossed this mighty 
stream, and still went westward in his fruitless search for gold. He 
spent a year in the country towards the eastern slope of the Rocky 
Mountains, and returning to the Mississippi in May, 1512, died of a 
fever on its banks. De Soto was buried in the turbid waters of the 
river he had discovered; his body was encased in a trough made of 
a trunk of a live oak, and sunk at midnight in its depths to prevent 
it being desecrated by the Indians. 

Francis I, of France, though engaged in warfare with the 
Emperor of Spain, fully realized the importance of discoveries and 
settlements in the New AYorld. In the second decade of the seven- 
teenth century he engaged Giovanni Da Verrazzano, a Florentine, 
to explore the unknown West. This new aspirant for exploration 
honors sailed late in 1523 in the ship Dauphin, and claimed to 
have first touched America at the mouth of the Cape Fear river, 
thence coasting north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and entering 
the harbors of Delaware, New York, Narraganset and Boston. 
There is, however, something mythical in this statement, which is 
included in letters written by the explorer to Francis I. Their auth- 
enticity is questioned by American historians, who claim they were 
forged by one of his countrymen anxious to secure for Italy the 
glory due to Cabot for the discovery of the North American Conti- 
nent. There seems to have been at this period a Verrazzano who 
was a noted corsair, who captured in 1522 a treasure ship sent by 
Cortez to Charles V, loaded with the spoils of Mexico valued at 

9i 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

$1,500,000. This, with other depredations, aroused both Spain and ' 
Portugal. He was captured in the autumn of 1527, and soon after- 
wards executed at Puerto del Pico, Spain. Some writers say that 
Verrazzano the navigator sailed again for America in 1525 and was 
never heard from afterwards. "Whether these were two separate 
identities or it was one and same person, has not been clearly de- 
fined. 

France, however, was not to be left in the explorations of the 
"West. Jacques Cartier, a native of that country, sailed from St. 
Malo, France, in April, 1534, entered the Straits of Belle Isle, and 
touching the coast of Labrador, formally took possession of the 
country in the name of his king. He erected a cross on the main- 
land, upon which he hung the Arms of France, returning to his 
native country to avoid the autumn storms. In the middle of May 
of the following year the king provided him with a fleet of three 
vessels which met at the appointed rendezvous in the Straits of Belle 
Isle. In July the vessels sailed up the St. Lawrence river to the 
present site of Quebec, and here, taking his smallest caravel, Cartier 
ascended the river to the Huron village called Hochebaga, the pres- 
ent site of Montreal. 

For the next fifty years, European explorations and coloniza- 
tions were at a standstill owing to continual warfare between the 
different nations. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Walter 
Ealeigh was dispatched to effect a settlement in Virginia. There 
were several other unsuccessful attempts, and a permanent settle- 
ment was not effected until 1607, when Jamestown, on the right bank 
of the River of Powhatan, in Virginia, was chosen for the capital of 
the new colony. Several attempts were made to colonize what is 
now New England, as many hardy men hitherto engaged in warfare 
sought new fields of enterprise and adventure in the New World. 
Others also engaged in mercantile pursuits, as well as artisans and 
followers of the plough, became interested in the new country. Dur- 
ing the last years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Bartholomew 
Gosnold in attempting to find a direct course to Virginia reached the 
Massachusetts coast and landed on a promontory, naming it Cape 
Cod. This is the first spot in New England ever trod by an English- 
man. 

Into this period of exploration a new factor was to appear. On 
a bright day in September, in the year 1609, the Half-Moon, a 

92 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

vessel commanded by Henry Hudson, in the employ of the Dutch 
East India Company, a corporation legally organized by the States 
General of Holland, sailed into what is now the harbor of New York 
City. Hudson, proceeding north through the river which now bears 
his name, thought he had discovered the long sought passage to the 
Indies, but meeting fresh water at the Highlands, recognized he 
was mistaken. 

Thus we see that at the beginning of the seventeenth century 
territory in the northern portion of North America was claimed by 
three different nations. England based her rights of possession on 
the discoveries of Cabot and the settlement of Gosnold; France on 
the explorations of Yerrazzano and Cartier ; and Holland on Hud- 
son's discoveries and purchases made from the Indians. All these 
claims were based on the ruling of the English Parliament in the 
sixteenth century, that occupancy conferred title of possession by 
the laws of nations and nature. This remains a law of nations to 
the present day. 

The rise of the Low Countries in the sixteenth century as a com- 
mercial power is rivaled only by the scenes produced by a ma- 
gician's wand. At the time of the discovery of America, the Neth- 
erlands were in possession of the municipal institutions which had 
been saved from the wreck of the Roman world. The landed aris- 
tocracy, the hierarchy, possessed the political franchises, while the 
power of the people was unknown to the law. Charles V, Emperor 
of Spain, on account of the urgencies of war, the reformation, also 
with arrogance of power, often violated the liberties of the State. 
His successor, Philip II, his only son, to support the constitutions 
of the Netherlands formed a unity with the church, who thus became 
the sole guardian of the people. The political influence of the clergy 
rested on reverence for that order, thereby opening for the ambition 
of the plebeian the avenue to the highest distinction. The ward soon 
became stronger than the guardian, and a new political alliance 
was the consequence. Arbitrary power became arrayed against 
national liberty, and the contest in the Low Countries became one 
of the most memorable in the history of the human race. Despotism 
seized possession of the courts ; a commission was established with 
arbitrary power over life and property; mercenary soldiers over- 
awed the burghers and caused terror amongst the nobility; fugitives 
fled for an asylum to the pirate ships of the ocean, deserting village, 

93 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

city, court and camp that were held by tyranny. The establishment 
of arbitrary tribunals was followed by arbitrary taxation, and levy- 
ing of tax caused more commotion than the tribunal of blood. The 
time was ripe for an insurrection. Merchant, landholder, citizen 
and peasant, whether Catholic or Protestant, joined issues, and the 
States of Holland, creating the Prince of Orange their stadtholder, 
prepared to levy money and troops. Zeeland joined Holland in 
the demands for liberty, and united to drive Spanish troops from 
the soil. 

The union of the five northern provinces at L T trecht perfected 
the insurrection by forming the basis of a sovereignty, and the rude 
structure of a republic was the result of the revolution. The re- 
public of United Netherlands thus constructed was necessarily of a 
nature commercial ; the rendezvous of its martyrs had been the sea, 
the muster of its patriots was held on shipboard. Two leading 
members of the confederacy were, from their geographical situa- 
tion, obliged to seek subsistence only by water. Holland was a pen- 
insula intersected by navigable rivers, crowded by a dense popula- 
tion on a soil saved from the depths of the ocean by embankments 
and kept dry by pumps driven by windmills. Zeeland was composed 
of islands, her inhabitants mostly fishermen, her villages built on the 
margin of the sea. Both provinces were the nursery of sailors, 
every house a school for mariners. Their commerce connected hem- 
ispheres, and into their harbors were gathered the fruits of the 
whole world. Holland, producing almost no grain, was the best 
supplied granary of Europe ; without a field of flax, she numbered 
amongst her people an infinite multitude of weavers of linen; des- 
titute of sheep, she became the center of all woolen manufactories ; 
and while she had no forests, she built more ships than all Europe 
combined. Her enterprising mariners displayed the flag of the 
republic from Southern Africa to the Arctic circle. Amsterdam was 
the first commercial city of the world, fleets of merchantmen lay 
crowded together at her docks. Holland gained the commerce of 
Spain by its maritime force and secured the wealth of the Indies by 
traffic. 

Years rolled away, and success of English commerce in the west 
awakened the jealousy of the Dutch. The United Provinces 
abounded in mariners, also in unemployed capital ; America alone 
offered great inducements to exhaust the energy of her seafaring 

94 












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COMMUNIPAW— FROM AN OLD PRINT 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

population and the wealth of her merchants. The States General 
was urged to incorporate privileged corporations for conquest 
and commerce, but declined the adventure, though it offered no ob- 
stacles to private enterprise. The first efforts of the Dutch mer- 
chants to share in the commerce of Asia were accompanied with the 
desire to search for a northwest passage. Twice they made unsuc- 
cessful attempts, but with the establishment of the Dutch East India 
Company, with unlimited power for conquest, colonization and gov- 
ernment, they covered the seas of Asia with fleets of Indiamen. 

In the autumn of 1608, Henry Hudson, who had made two voy- 
ages for the Muscovy Company of London, England, was called to 
Amsterdam, and there, after many vacillating negotiations, was 
placed in command of the Half-Moon, with a mixed crew of 
eighteen or twenty Englishmen and Hollanders. On the fourth day 
of April, 1609, he left the Texel and set sail again to find the north- 
western passage. Masses of ice impeded the navigation towards 
Nova Zembla, and passing beyond Greenland and Newfoundland he 
proceeded down the coast of Acadia, and probably anchored at the 
Penobscot river. Following the track of Gosnold, he sighted the 
promontory of Cape Cod, and, believing he was its first discoverer, 
gave it the name of New Holland ; this was afterwards claimed by 
the Dutch "West India Company as the northeastern boundary of 
New Netherlands. Still steering a southerly course, Hudson found 
himself opposite the entrance into the bay of Virginia. He then 
turned north, discovered the Delaware river, and without going 
ashore took note of the aspect of the country. It was on the third of 
September, 1609, that the Half-Moon anchored at what is now 
Sandy Hook, after a week's delay sailed through the Narrows, and 
ten days were employed exploring the river. The Half -Moon 
proceeded up the river two miles above the present city of Hudson, 
where, taking small boats, an advance was made to a short distance 
beyond the present site of Albany. The same summer Champlain, 
the noted French navigator, was making his way south through the 
waters of the lake bearing his name, in a vain search for an outlet 
to the South Sea ; the two navigators were only the distance of about 
twenty leagues apart. The Half-Moon weighed anchor for the 
Texel on October 4, 1609 ; she was seized by the English government 
November 7th of that year at Dartmouth, England, and her crew 
detained. Hudson forwarded to his Dutch employers the account 

95 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

of his discoveries, but the Dutch East India Company refused to 
make any further search for the northwestern passage. Though the 
voyage fell short of Hudson's expectations, it served many pur- 
poses important to the "world. 

The right of possession was claimed by the Dutch East India 
Company of the lands discovered by their agent. In the year 1611 
the merchants of Amsterdam fitted up a ship to traffic with the 
natives in the discovered country. The undertaking was a success 
and was renewed. Argall, a commander of the Colony of Virginia, 
on his return from an expedition against the French at Port Royal, 
visited the waters of what is now New York bay. Here he found 
three or four rude huts erected on the Island of Manhattan for a 
summer shelter for the few Dutch mariners and for traders whom 
private enterprises had stationed there. The Dutch continued their 
profitable traffic, even remaining on Manhattan during the winter. 
The first rude fort was erected on the southern extremity of the 
island in 1614. Hudson's discovery formed a wedge between the 
English colony at Jamestown, Virginia, and the later settlement of 
the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth, Massachusetts, which for a half 
of a century was to be an eyesore to the covetous English govern- 
ment. At this early day the government of the United Netherlands 
made no claim to the territory. The tardy progress of civilization 
was due to several reasons; prominent among these was that the 
independence of Holland brought with it no elective franchise for 
the people ; the municipal officers were either named by the stadt- 
holder or were self-elected, on the principle of close corporations. 
The municipal officers elected delegates to the provincial states, and 
these in turn elected representatives to the States General. 

This soon caused a division of parties which extended to every 
question of domestic politics, theology, and international inter- 
course. The followers of the stadtholder asserted sovereignty for 
the States General, while the party headed by Johan Van Olden 
Barne veldt, Grand Pensionary of Holland, and his friend and co-pa- 
triot, Hugo Grotius (or De Groot), claimed sovereignty exclusively 
for the provincial assemblies. The stadtholder favored coloniza- 
tion of America; the aristocratic party, fearing the increase of 
executive power, opposed it, believing it would lead to new collisions. 
The Gomarists, the party of the people, denied personal merit as a 
quality, attributing every virtue and capacity to the benevolence of 

96 



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EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

God; the creed of the Anninians or Remonstrants ascribed power 
and merit to man, and was commended by the aristocratic party. 
Tims the Calvinists, popular enthusiasm, and the stadtholder, were 
arrayed against the provincial states and municipal authorities. 
The colonization of the Dutch possessions in New Netherland there- 
fore depended on the issue of the struggle. The imprisonment for 
life of Grotius and the execution of Barneveldt was to hasten the 
permanent settlement of Manhattan. A short time after these first 
acts of violence and triumph over the intestine commotions, the 
scheme of the Dutch West India Company was incorporated by the 
States General. "While the Dutch planted colonies only under the 
auspices of chartered companies, the States General would never 
undertake the defense of foreign possessions. The Dutch West 
India Company, therefore, became the sovereign of the Dutch pos- 
sessions in America. The company was incorporated for twenty- 
four years, with a pledge of a renewal of its charter, and was 
invested with the exclusive privilege in traffic and planting colonies 
on the coast of Africa from the Tropic of Cancer to the Cape of 
Good Hope ; also on the coast of America from the Straits of Magel- 
lan to the utmost north. The States General gave the company a 
half million g;uilders as an encouragement, and subscribed for a half 
million guilders of its stock, the stock subscription book open to men 
of all nations. The chartered company through its franchises held 
the power to act with independence; the States General did not 
guarantee its possession of any specific territory, and in case of war 
were to be known only as allies and patrons. The company might 
conquer provinces, but at its own risk. England in its patents made 
the conversion of the natives a prominent feature ; the Dutch were 
only intent on promoting trade; the English charters gave protec- 
tion to the political rights of the colonists against the proprietors ; 
the Dutch, having no popular liberty at home, bestowed no thought 
on colonial representation; the company subject to the approval of 
the States General had absolute power over its possessions. 
Branches of the company were established in the five principal cities 
of Netherlands, and the charge of New Netherland was given to the 
branch at Amsterdam. The government of the Dutch West India 
Company was intrusted to a board of nineteen directors, eighteen of 
whom were from the branches, and one was named by the States 
General. The main object of the incorporation of the company was 

97 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

not the colonization of the territory on the Hudson; New Nether- 
. land was not even described in the charter, nor by any special act of 
the States General at that time. The company was to prosecute its 
own plans and provide for its own protection. Yet there were jeal- 
ous efforts taken by the company for colonization, and the country 
from the southern shore of Delaware bay to New Holland or Cape 
Cod became known as New Netherland. Around the new block house 
on Manhattan Island in 1621 the cottages of New Amsterdam began 
to cluster, and the country began to assume the form of a colony. 
These rude beginnings of New Amsterdam were to cast an influence 
over the surrounding territory, to invade the outlying contiguous 
surroundings, and effect settlements on its soil. 

It was in 1C29 or 1630 that the council of the Dutch West India 
Company adopted plans for a more extensive colonization of New 
Netherland. They granted to certain individuals extensive seigni- 
ories or tracts of land, with feudal rights over the lives and persons 
of their subjects. These tracts were granted with the provision that 
a settlement was to be effected within a specified time, besides other 
conditions. Under these provisions Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a pearl 
merchant of Amsterdam, secured a tract of land miles in extent, 
comprising the present counties of Albany, Rensselaer and part of 
Columbia. Our wealthy patroons obtained large grants for similar 
seigniories in other portions of New Netherland. 

The first Indian deed to territory along the west side of New 
York bay and Hudson river is dated July 12, 1630. It was for a pur- 
chase made by the Director-General and Council of New Netherland 
for Michael Pauw, Burgomaster of Amsterdam and Lord of Ach- 
tienhoven near Utrecht, Holland. The burgomaster also in the same 
year obtained a deed for Staten Island. The purchase on the Jersey 
shore of the Hudson was named Pavonia. The colony established 
by Pauw was not a success, and his interests were purchased by the 
directors of the Dutch West India Compan3 r , and it became known as 
the West India Company's Farms. 

David Pieterson de Vries, who had made two unsuccessful at- 
tempts to establish Dutch settlements on the shores of Delaware, 
turned his attention in 1640 to New Netherland. He purchased in 
that year of the Indians a tract of about five hundred acres at Tap- 
pan, on the Achter Kull shore of the Hudson, and gave it the name 
of "Vriesendael." Located along the river side, sheltered by high 

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EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

hills, a stream wended its way through the center, supplying mill 
sites. It had all the charms of nature, and with the erection of build- 
ings became an ideal home where the energetic owner lived for sev- 
eral years. Settlements were also made at Communipaw, Hoboken, 
Ahasimus, Paulius Hoeck; and throughout the territory were indi- 
vidual settlements, many of which were, however, destroyed in the 
Indian War of 1644. 

The policy of the Dutch government was to encourage the settle- 
ment of colonies or manors similar to lordships and seigniories of 
the Old World by men of large fortunes, to be known as patroons, 
to whom peculiar privileges of trade and government were accorded. 
These tracts were sixteeen miles in extent along the seashore or 
banks of some navigable river, or eight miles when both banks were 
occupied, with an indefinite extent inland, the company, however, 
reserving the island of Manhattan and the fur trade with the 
Indians. These patroons were within four years from the granting 
of the tract to settle them with fifty persons upwards of fifteen years 
of age, and upon all trade carried on by them were to pay live per 
cent, to the company. They were also to extinguish the Indian titles 
to the land; their tenants were not to acquire a free tenure to the 
lands, and were prohibited from making any woolen, linen or cotton 
cloth or to weave any other material under a penalty of banishment. 
This restriction was to keep them dependent on the mother country 
for the most necessary manufactured goods, which was in spirit with 
the colonial system adopted by all the nations of Europe. This 
scheme of colonization met with favor, and several members of the 
Dutch West India Company elected and purchased the most desir- 
able tracts both on the North and South rivers, as well as the whole 
neck opposite New Amsterdam as far as the Kills, together with 
Staten Island. 

The colonization of New Jersey was deferred by the ravages of 
the Indians, which was a check to making any permanent settlement. 
Treaties, however, were consummated with them, and the territory 
repurchased by Governor Stuyvesant, with the intention of erecting 
a fortified town. There had, however, been no village located prior 
to 1660, but in the month of August of that year the right to estab- 
lish a village in Achter Kull was granted to several inhabitants. It 
was named Bergen, from a small village in Holland, eighteen miles 
north of Antwerp. The village, located on a hill now called Jersey 

99 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

City Heights, grew rapidly, and in May, 1661, there was not a vacant 
lot inside of the fortifications. This was the first permanent settle- 
ment on the soil of New Jersey. At the time of the dismemberment 
of New Netherland by the English in East Jersey, outside of the 
settlement at Bergen, savages roamed at will, undisturbed by the 
white man. In Smith's ''History of New Jersey," he says that a 
score of years later, on the side of Overpeck creek adjacent to Hack- 
ensack river, the rich valleys were settled by the Dutch; and near 
Snakehill was a fine plantation owned by Pinhorn and Eickbe. There 
were other settlements on Hackensack river, and on a creek near it 
Sarah Kiersted had a tract given her by an old Indian sachem for 
services interpreting between the Indians and Dutch ; on this tract 
several families were settled; two or three miles above this point 
John Berrie had a large plantation, and nearby was his son-in-law 
Smith and a person by name of Baker, from Barbadoes. Opposite 
to Berrie, on the west side of the creek, were other plantations, but 
none more northerly. There was a considerable settlement in Ber- 
gen Point, then called Constable Hook. Other small plantations 
were improved along Bergen Neck to the east between the point, 
and a little village of twenty families. Further along lived sixteen 
or eighteen families, and opposite New York about forty families 
were seated; southward from this a few families were settled to- 
gether at a place called the Duke's Farm, and further up the country 
was a place called Hobuck, where there was a mill. Along the river 
side on the north were lands settled by AYilliam Lawrence, Samuel 
Edsal, and Captain Beinfield. The plantations on both sides of the 
Neck, also those at Hackensack, were under the jurisdiction of Ber- 
gentown, which contained upwards of seventy families. 

The emigrants from Holland were of various lineage, for that 
country had long been the gathering place of the unfortunate. Kef- 
ugees from persecution flocked to her boundaries from England and 
Continental Europe. She housed from the heart of Bohemia those 
who were swayed by the voice of Hus, the Separatists from Eng- 
land, the Huguenots from France, the Protestants from the Refor- 
mation, the AYalloons from Belgium — all came to her hospitable soil, 
and from there emigrated to the New Eldorado in the Western Con- 
tinent. 

The Dutch settlers were reluctant to make acquaintances with 
strangers, lest they should be imposed upon, but when a friend- 

ioo 



EARLY DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS 

ship was formed it proved lasting. They were clanish in their rela- 
tions to each other. When one of the community was wrongly in- 
volved or in trouble, especially in litigation, they were as one man. 
At the time of the subjection of New Netherland by the Eng- 
lish the Dutch colonists were satisfied, a very few embarked for Hol- 
land, it seemed rather that English liberties were to add to the 
security of their property. The capitulation of the Dutch and 
Swedes early in October, 1664, placed the Atlantic seacoast of the 
thirteen original colonies in possession of England. The country 
had become a geographical unity. 




101 




Marquette s Monsters 

By Jacob P. Dunn, Secretary of Indiana Historical Society, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 

ITHOUT ANY imputation of either superstition or timid- 
ity to Father Marquette, it is safe to say that when he 
made his celebrated first voyage down the Mississippi 
he was prepared to see things that might arouse his 
''special wonder. " The Menominees had tried to dissuade him from 
the venture, assuring him that he would encounter "Nations who 
never show mercy to Strangers, but Break Their heads without any 
cause ; ' ' and further : ' ' They also said that the great River was very 
dangerous, when one does not know the difficult Places ; that it was 
full of horrible monsters, which devoured men and Canoes To- 
gether; that there was even a demon, who was heard from a great 
distance, who barred the way, and swallowed up all who ventured to 
approach him. ' ' 

Marquette tells us : "I thanked them for the good advice that 
they gave me, but told them that I could not follow it, because the 
salvation of souls was at stake, for which I would be delighted to 
give my life ; that I scoffed at the alleged demon ; that we would 
easily defend ourselves against those marine monsters ; and, more- 
over, that We would be on our guard to avoid the other dangers 
with which they threatened us." Nevertheless he was on the look- 
out, for he says : "On another occasion, we saw on The water a mon- 
ster with the head of a tiger, a sharp rose Like That of a wildcat, 
with whiskers and straight, Erect ears ; The head was gray and The 
Neck quite black; but We saw no more creatures of this sort." 

This was quite natural from any standpoint. He was encoun- 
tering new and strange forms of animal life every day, and had 
scientific basis for even greater wonders, for Champlain had not 
only included "the dragon" in the fauna of the country, but had giv- 
en an authentic picture of it. True, this was a rather amiable look- 
ing dragon, but dragons are dragons. Moreover, the world had not 
outgrown belief in the supernatural in earthly affairs. Marquette 

102 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

was contemporary with Cotton Mather; and he wrote nearly a cen- 
tury 'before Sir William Blackstone defended the British laws 
against witchcraft. The Bible gave assurance that Satan and his 
imps could take terrifying forms, and while the righteous had ample 
spiritual protection against these evil ones, it was merely an applica- 
tion of "safety first" to be ready with exorcism if they appeared. 

When Marquette reached the vicinity of Alton, Illinois, he re- 
corded : 

"While Skirting some rocks, which by Their height and Length 
inspired awe, We saw upon one of them two painted monsters which 
at first made Us afraid, and upon Which the boldest savages dare not 
Long rest their eyes. They are as large As a calf; they have Horns 
on their heads Like those of deer, a horrible look, red eyes, a beard 
Like a tiger's, a face somewhat like a man's, a body Covered with 
scales, and so Long A tail that it winds all around the Body, passing 
above the head and going back between the legs, ending in a Fish's 
tail. Green, red, and black are the three Colors composing the Pic- 
ture. Moreover, these 2 monsters are so well painted that we cannot 
believe that any savage is their author; for good painters in f ranee 
would find it difficult to paint so well, — and, besides, they are so high 
up on the rock that it is difficult to reach that place Conveniently to 
paint them. Here is approximately The shape of these monsters, 
As we have faithfully Copied it. [A sketch accompanied this nar- 
rative. — Editor.] 

"While conversing about these monsters, sailing quietly in 
clear and calm Water, we heard the noise of a rapid, into which we 
were about to run. I have seen nothing more dreadful. An accumu- 
lation "of large and entire trees, branches, and floating islands, was 
issuing from the mouth of The river pekistanoui (Missouri) with 
such impetuosity that we could not without great danger risk pass- 
ing through it. So great was the agitation that the water was very 
muddy, and could not become clear." 

This description put subsequent travelers on the qui vive, but 
none of them was so much impressed as Marquette. Father Henne- 
pin, who passed the place in the spring of 16S0, says he had been told 
by the Illinois that at this point "there were some Tritons and other 
Sea Monsters painted which the boldest men durst not look upon, 
there being some Inchantment in their face." But, he adds: "I 
thought this was a story, but when we came near the place they had 
mentioned we saw instead of these monsters a Horse and some other 
Beasts jDainted upon the rock with Red Colors by the Savages. The 
Illinois had told us likewise that the rock on which these dreadful 

103 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

monsters stood was so steep that no man could climb up to it, but 
liad we not been afraid of the savages more than of the Monsters we 
had certainly got up to them." 

On September 2, 16S7, Father Douay and Henri Joutel reached 
the rock on their way home from the fatal expedition of LaSalle. 
Father Douay wrote : "It is said that they (Marquette's party) saw 
painted monsters that the boldest would have difficulty to look at, 
and that there was something supernatural about them. The fright- 
ful monster is a horse painted on a rock with matachia (obsolete 
word, supposed to be of Indian origin, signifying colors, and used 
specifically for strings of colored beads; cf. Old French matacher, 
"to tattoo," and matachin, a masked jester dancer), and some other 
wild beasts made by the Indians. It is said that they cannot be 
reached, and yet I touched them without difficulty. ' ' 

Joutel was even more scornful, saying: "The 2nd we arrived at 
the place where the figure is of the pretended monster spoken of by 
Father Marquet. That monster consists of two scurvy figures 
drawn in red, on the flat side of a rock, about ten or twelve feet high, 
which wants very much of the extraordinary height that relation 
mentions. However, our Indians paid homage by offering sacrifice 
to that stone ; though we endeavored to give them to understand that 
the said rock had no manner of virtue, and that we worshipped 
something above it, pointing up to heaven ; but it was to no purpose, 
and the}' made signs to us that they should die if they did not per- 
form that duty. ' ' 

Both Hennepin and Douay speak of the Indians offering sacri- 
fices, and say they had a legend that a number of Miamis, pursued 
by Michigamia enemies, w T ere drowned at this place, and that there- 
after the Indians made these sacrifices to appease the Manito. After 
the American occupation, this legend was improved on by having 
the Miamis devoured by the monsters ; and a new and more romantic 
legend was concocted in which the monster was slain. In this period, 
however, was recorded the significant fact that passing Indians used 
to fire their guns at the picture and shout at it. 

In recent years there has been a somewhat amusing revival of 
interest in the subject on a quasi scientific basis, which grows out 
of the researches of "William McAdams. He was a farmer who re- 
sided in the vicinity, and became interested in antiquities, and read 
a paper on this pictograph at the Ann Arbor meeting of the Ameri- 

104 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

can Academy of Sciences, in 1885. The paper was not printed in the 
Proceedings, it being announced that it would appear in the "Amer- 
ican Antiquarian"; however, it did not appear in ''The Antiqua- 
rian," and in 1SS7 McAdams published a book on the subject, with a 
voluminous title beginning, "Records of Ancient Races in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley." It is rather interesting, but so indefinite that it is 
almost impossible to verify his authorities. 

McAdams gives the later legend of the destruction of the mon- 
ster, which he calls "the Piasa Bird," and states that he got it from 
a magazine article by Professor John Russell. It avers that the 
Manito came to death through the wiles of Ouatogo, "the great chief 
of the Illini," (strange that he is not mentioned by any of the early 
French chroniclers), who exposed himself as a lure to the Piasa, 
which was killed by poisoned arrows from his concealed warriors. 
In his "Early Settlement of the Mississippi Valley," published in 
1890, F. A. Rozier gives the same legend, stating that he got it from 
"Sketches of St. Louis," by Rev. W. II. Hill, and that Hill had it 
from Father DeSmet, who said he had it from a Potawatomi chief 
in 1838. McAdam says he wrote to Russell about the legend, and 
that Russell replied that there was a "somewhat similar tradition 
among the Indians," and that his own story was "somewhat illus- 
trated." 

The one thing certain is, that no legend of a Manito being killed 
by poisoned arrows and having sacrifices made to it to appease its 
wrath after it was extinct, ever came from an Indian. McAdam 
identifies the monster with "the Thunder Bird," and has been fol- 
lowed in this by several later writers. One of the latest presenta- 
tions of the subject, with its accumulations of the last century — 
"Piasa," "Thunder Bird," "Ouatogo," and all— was in "Art and 
Archaeology" for September, 1922, and this was noticed at length 
in the "Literary Digest" of October 7th. 

The recent discussion indicates a woful ignorance of Indian 
mythology, and any intelligent inquiry into it requires first the 
identification of the words. Xotwithstanding the statement of Mc- 
Adams that "Piasa" is "Indian, and signifies, in the Illini, 'The 
bird which devours men,' " there is no such word in the Illinois or 
Peoria language ; and, if there were, it would not have that mean- 
ing. It has been corrupted in American usage, and is now in its sec- 
ond stage of metamorphosis. In the Executive Journal of Indiana 

105 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

Territory is an entry: "January 1st, 1807. A Liscence was granted 
to Eli Langford to keep a ferry on the east side of the Mississippi in 
St. Clair County above the mouth of the Missouri and two miles 
from Pyesaw Rock." (Ind. Hist. Soc. Pubs., Vol. 3, p. 138). 

In his "Sketches of Louisiana," published in 1812, Amos Stod- 
dard says that this pictograph, "known to the moderns by the name 
of Piesa, still remains in a good state of preservation." McAdam 
says the word is given "Piasau" in Patterson's "Life of Black- 
hawk," as the name of Blackhawk's father. In reality the name is 
there given "Pyesa." It is not uncommon as a proper name, its earli- 
est recorded use in that way, to my knowledge, is as the name of a 
Kaskaskia friend of LaSalle, (Mason's "Chapters from Illinois 
History," p. 118), when the French chronicler made it "Paessa." 
The proper Indian form is Pa-i-sa (pronounced pah-ee-sah). and 
the change from that to the early American form is quite slight, as 
anyone may see by pronouncing the two. 

If you should ask a Miami or Ojibwa Indian what a Paisa is, he 
would probably answer that it is a dwarf; but patience and perse- 
verance would probably elicit the information that it is a little man, 
with supernatural powers, corresponding exactly with the elves and 
gnomes of the old world. These Paisas (the Indian plural is Pa-i- 
sa-ki) although somewhat mischievous, are not unfriendly to men 
unless annoyed in some way. On the contrary, two of them come to 
guide the spirit of a dead Indian to the happy hunting grounds. 
Father Le Mercier gives an interesting account of the Indians get- 
ting flints on the shore of Lake Champlain, which they believe to be 
furnished by these "little men." As the point could easily be identi- 
fied, some enterprising geologist might find in this submerged flint 
workshop a clue to the age of man in America. (Jesuit Relations, 
Vol. 51, pp. 182-3). 

But the Paisaki have nothing to do with the monster, unless per- 
haps the Indians thought they had put up the picture as a warning 
of a dangerous place in the river. If you should give its description 
to a Miami Indian, just as given by Marquette, he would tell you it 
was Len-ni-pin-ja, while an Ojibwa would tell you it was Mi-ci-bi-si 
(Michybiehy), which is the same thing under another name, to wit, 
the Manito of the Waters. Micibisi is the ordinary word for a pan- 
ther, but in this usage it means the Spirit Panther (literally the big 
cat) ; and Lennipinja is literally the Man Panther, or as one of the 
French chroniclers makes it, I'Homme Tyger. 

106 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

Primarily it rules the "waters, living usually in deep and danger- 
ous-looking places, especially where the water boils up, which is 
supposed to be due to the waving of its tail. If one were to look up 
the references to it in the index to the Jesuit Eelations, he would find 
evidence of tiie missionaries being grieved by the persistence of the 
Indians in offering tobacco to it (all intelligent manitos appreciate 
tobacco), whenever they wanted good fishing, or thought they were 
in danger on the water. But it has another important function. It 
corresponds to the Fire Dragon of old world myths ; and when the 
old Miamis see a meteor crossing the sky, they say it is Lennipinja 
going from one water to another. 

This was a general belief and this Manito furnishes to one of 
the Shawnee clans the name of "Manetuwi Msi-pessi, of which it is 
said: "The Msi-pessi, when the epithet miraculous (manetuwi) is 
added to it, means a 'celestial tiger', i. e. a meteor or shooting star. 
The Manetuwi Msi-pessi lives in water only, and is visible not as an 
animal, but as a shooting star." (Report of Bureau of Ethnology, 
1892-3, p. 6S2). The celebrated Shawnee chief Tecumtha belonged to 
this clan, which is the cause of the variant translations of his name. 
The word Tecumtha, of itself, means "he goes across," or "crosses 
over;" but, in connection with the clan name, it means "the Spirit 
Panther going across," or, in other words, a meteor. 

The recorded custom of the Indians firing guns at the picto- 
graph, and shouting at it, was the product of ancient experience. In 
the course of its aviation this Manito occasionally came into the vi- 
cinity of the moon or sun, and undertook to devour them, thereby 
producing eclipses. LePotherie recounts being attracted by the 
Indians beating drums, shouting, and shooting arrows at the moon, 
during an eclipse, and receiving this explanation from a chief : "Our 
old men have taught us that when the moon is sick it is necessary to 
assist her by discharging arrows and making a great deal of noise, 
in order to cause terror in the spirits who are trying to cause her 
death; then she regains her strength, and returns to her former con- 
dition. If men did not aid her she would die, and we would no long- 
er see clearly at night ; and thus we could no longer separate the 
twelve months of the year." (Blair's "Indian Tribes," Vol. 2, p. 
121). 

A striking application of this astronomical theory was made by 
Father Lafitau, who was deeply versed in ancient lore, and published 

107 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

a book entitled "Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains," devoted to a 
comparison of their views with ancient ideas of the old world. He 
found in this Indian explanation of eclipses a counterpart of the vi- 
sion of the dragon and the man-child, in the twelfth chapter of the 
Book of Revelation. He had this illustrated in a cut in which the 
uppei v part showed the Indians frightening away the dragon, who 
was preparing to devour the moon; and the lower part depicting 
John's vision. It is noteworthy that the early missionaries went to 
some lengths to bring Bible teachings in touch with savage traditions 
— a practice which has been found very advantageous in modern 
missionary work. 

The uniform success of this remedy fixed the common faith that 
spirits may be driven away by noise and carnal weapons ; and to this 
day Indians who are troubled by spooks, resort to it. If it is a ter- 
rifying noise, they shoot at the noise; but in a case of that kind the 
Miami custom is to rub the gun barrel with a plant which they call 
"black root," — I think it is Rudbeckia liirta, but am not certain. The 
object of firing at the pictograph was to scare away the Manito, 
which was somewhere in the neighborhood. This was not incon- 
sistent with the offering of tobacco, for the Indian has two forms of 
defense against supernaturals, sacrifice and terrorism; and, if the 
case is serious, he takes no chances, but uses both precautions. 

The later Indians add little of detail concerning this Manito. 
George Finley (Piankeshaw) informed me that one of its horns is 
white and the other blue. Gabriel Godfroy (Miami) said that it 
stayed in the water to avoid setting the world on fire ; but Finley 
said the reason for submerging was to escape danger from Tcing- 
wia, "The Thunder," who is its enemy. Thunder is personified as a 
sort of American Thor ; but lightning is regarded as the manifesta- 
tion of his blows. Consequently the Miamis never speak of anything 
being struck by lightning, but always as ' ' struck by Thunder. ' ' They 
have legends both of the water Manito 's dangerous character, and 
of its friendship to some individuals, for no Manito is either wholly 
beneficent or hopelessly evil. The Manitos are beings of super- 
natural powers, but with very human qualities. 

It is doubtful if any accurate reproduction of the Marquette 
pictograph is in existence, although there are some purporting to 
be, which are of widely divergent appearance. Parkman searched 
for the copy made by Marquette, and reported it lost. McAdams 

108 i 



MARQUETTE'S MONSTERS 

presented two copies, one marked: "Made by Wm. Dennis, April 
3d, 1825." This lias been elaborated into the conventional form 
now in use (Journal of Illinois State Hist. Soc, Vol. 7, p. 82), and 
corresponds more closely with the description given by Marquette 
and by the Indians than any other. The other is from a German 
publication, "Das Illustrirte Mississippithal"; and he says it was 
"taken on the spot by artists from Germany" and "published about 
the year 1839." This work, however, is listed by Sabin (under title 
Lewis, II.), as a translation of an English edition printed at Phila- 
delphia in 1S58. It seems to correspond more closely with Joutel's 
idea. Lewis is called in the title of the book "a landscape painter 
of St. Louis." 

Later artists have attempted to improve the monster by wrap- 
ping his tail around his body two or three times, and some criminals 
have even represented Marquette as saying of the tail: "It twice 
makes a turn of the body." The exact words of Marquette are : "It 
makes a complete circuit of the body, passing over the head and re- 
turning between the legs, ending in the tail of a fish;" — "Le queue 
si Longue qu'elle fait tout le tour d-u Corps passant par dessus la 
teste et retournant entre les jambes elle se t ermine en queue de 
Poisson." Eozier, who claims to have seen the pictograph in 1837, 
gives a picture of the rock which is quite impossible ; but it is in 
harmony with Marquette's statement as to inaccessibility. Eozier 
also states that the figure was "on the bluffs about twenty feet below 
the top of the cliff, and about sixty feet above its base." 

The chief objections to the conventional form are that it is too 
finished and too Oriental in type for Indian pictography. But that 
is not very material, as there is no more possibility of having an ac- 
curate portrait of an Indian Manito than of having one of Venus, or 
the angel Gabriel. The pictograph on the rock was some Indian ar- 
tist's ideal of the Manito of tribal tradition, and, by the usages of 
art, other artists are not only at liberty to present their ideals, but 
are under spiritual compulsion to express their oavu souls in the 
work. The Manito may have a reserved right to complain that the 
portrait does not do him justice, but it may be doubted that this right 
extends to persons who never saw him. 



109 



Pierson and Allied Families 

By Clyde F. Ryan, Los Angeles, California 

i^gPnv^Tl HE name Pierson is derived through, the French "Pierre" 
f%|-;<px'! anc * farther back from the Danish "Peterson." In Eng- 
III I lill ^ anc ^ ^ was usc ^ early in the fifteenth century in York- 
[^'v'^^J.k sliire, and throughout its history its spelling has been 
*" varied, Pierson, Pearson, Person, Peirson, and even Par- 
sons. 

The coat-of-arms of the family is as follows: 

Anns — Sable, three suns in pale or. between two pallets erminois. 

The founder of the line of interest here was Henry Pierson, who 
came from England, eventually becoming a leading settler of South- 
ampton, Long Island, probably coming to that place from Lynn, 
Massachusetts, as did Rev. Abraham Pierson, who was in all likeli- 
hood his brother. Rev. Abraham Pierson removed to Newark, Xew 
Jersey, but Henry Pierson remained in Southampton and was clerk 
of Suffolk county from 1CG9 to 1680, his death occurring in 16S0 or 
1681. He married and had issue: John; Daniel; Joseph; Henry, 
of whom further; Benjamin, died in 1731, removed to Elizabeth, 
New Jersev; Theodore, born in 1659, died May 7, 1726; Sarah, born 
January 20, 1660. 

Henry (2) Pierson, son of Henry (1) Pierson, was born in 1652, 
and died November 15, 1701. He was one of the early settlers of 
Bridgehampton, Long Island, member of the Assembly from Suffolk 
county, 1691 to 1695, and from 169S to 1701, and was called "Colo- 
nel." He married Susannah Plowell, who died in 1716. Issue: 1. 
John, born in November, 16S5, died January 15, 1701. 2. David, 

married Esther , who died in 1711, aged twenty-seven years. 3. 

Theophilus. 1. Abraham. 5. Josiah. 

Three brothers, David, William and Sylvanus Pierson, came 
from Bridgehampton, Long Island, and settled in Westfield town- 
ship, New Jersey. A David Pierson served in the Revolution, also 
William and Sylvanus. David Pierson, grandfather of Oliver 
Mooney Pierson, was first a tailor, and with- his brothers bought 
large tracts of land in Westfield township. Issue : 1. Susannah, 
married, in 1797, James Wade. 2. John, who served in the War of 
1812 as a captain. 3. Theophilus. of whom further. 

Theophilus Pierson, son of David Pierson, was born in West- 
field, New Jersey, August 9, 1791, and there his early life was 

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PIERSON AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

passed. He decided upon the acquisition of a trade, and on moving 
to New York City became a mason, later spending some time in 
Savannah, Georgia. On coming to Westfield he bought a large 
farm, his property extending from what is now Central avenue to 
West Broad street, the house having been built in 1801. He later 
bought a tract of land that extended to the Hettfield place, but after 
working both farms for some years he sold them and lived at his 
Broad street house for one year, working at his trade of mason. 
Later he was obliged to resume ownership of the old place. 

He married (first) Nancy Mooney, of Cranford, New Jersey, 
who died April 1, 1821; (second) Fanny Clark, of AYestfield, New 
Jersey, who died April 23, 1S41 ; (third) Abigail Connet. Issue by 
first wife : Oliver Mooney, of whom further. Issue by second "wife : 
Hetty C, Jonas, Edwin H., Eliza, John, Homer C, George H., Theo- 
philus S. 

Oliver Mooney Pierson, son of Theophilus and Nancy (Mooney) 
Pierson, was born in New York City, December 20, 1820, but the 
family removed to Yvestfield, New Jersey, when he was but three 
months old, on account of the health of the mother, who subsequently 
died there. Oliver M. Pierson inherited a part of the home farm, 
including the residence. He later bought the remainder of the 
property, and a number of years afterward sold that part which 
faced Central avenue, and upon which many beautiful houses have 
since been erected. Throughout his lifetime he was broadly inter- 
ested in development activities in various parts of the community. 
A Republican by political affiliation, Mr. Pierson was for many 
years treasurer of the town committee, and also of the Board of 
Health. He was prominent in all movements tending to promote the 
public welfare, and was a member of the Presbyterian church. His 
death which occurred April 24, 1903, removed from Westfield a citi- 
zen deeply loyal to the civic as well as the individual responsibilities 
which devolve upon every man, and his memory is warmly cher- 
ished. 

Mr. Pierson married Sarah Cory, of YTestfield, daughter of Wil- 
liam and Charity (Baker) Cory (see Cory line). Issue: 1. David 
T., now (1922) in the coal and lumber business in Madison, New 
Jersey. 2. Mary C, died December 23, 1910. 3. George Oliver, 
deceased. 4. Edward, died in infancy. 5. William, died in infancy. 
6. Hettie M., lives in the old house, which she has remodeled and 
made into a charming, modern residence. 

(The Cory-Corrie Line) 

The family of Cory has English and Scotch branches, the latter 
inclining toward the spelling "Corrie," and having two of their 
principal residences at Kelwood and Newby, Scotland. The coat- 
of-arms is as follows : 

in 



PIERSON AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

Arms — Gules, a saltire, and in chief a rose argent. 

(I) From Scotch ancestry was descended Joseph Cory, who 
resided upon land at Westfield, Xew Jersey, that descended to his 
grandson. Pie was an elder of the Westfield Presbyterian Church, 
and was a man of considerable influence in his community. He mar- 
ried Margaret Darby, of Scotch Plains, Xew Jersey, the Darby fam- 
ily founded in that place by Deacon William Darby, born in 1692, 
died February 26, 1775. Issue : 1. A son, unnamed, born January 
7, 1779. 2. Jonathan, born February 8, 1780. 3. Levi, born March 
1, 1782. 1. William, of whom further. 5. Martha, born July 30, 
1786. 6. Joseph, born December 21, 1788. 7. Sarah, born August 
9, 1791. 8. Jonath Levi, born August 29, 1793. 9. Abigail, born 
December 3, 1795. 10. A son, unnamed, born October 22, 1797. 

(II) William Cory, son of Joseph and Margaret (Darby) 
Cory, was born at the farm in Westfield township, Union county, 
New Jersey, February 16, 1781, and there died in 1866, aged eighty- 
two years. In his youth he learned the carpenter's trade, but later 
he returned to the farm and there engaged in its cultivation until 
the years grew heavy and he turned the management over to his 
son, Levi. He married Charity Baker, daughter of Jonathan I. 
Baker, of Westfield. (See Baker line). Issue: 1. Keziah Baker, 
born August 14, 1810, died July 23, 1837. 2. Margaret D., born 
February 12, 1812, died October 8, 1899; married Ephraim Clark. 

3. Mary Picton, born November 3, 1813, died February 18, 1836. 

4. Jonathan Baker, born November 26, 1815, died September 19, 
1826. 5. Levi, born July 2, 1819; married, February 12, 1851, Har- 
riet B. Clark, of Railway. He became the owner of the home farm 
in 1S67, and gave his after life to its cultivation. He was a Repub- 
lican in politics, served as a member of the township committee of 
Westfield, was an elder of the Presbyterian church, and a man of 
high character. He died January 3, 1895. 6. Abigail, born Septem- 
ber 24, 1821, died January 15, 1891; n arried George W. Pierson. 
7. Joseph, born May 31, 1824, died October 24, 1S25. 8. Sarah, born 
May 25, 1827, at the home farm, now Mountainside avenue, where 
she grew to womanhood, going hence as the bride of Oliver M. Pier- 
son. She occupied the old home until her passing, January 14, 1910, 
the same house now occupied by her only living daughter, Hettie M. 
Pierson. 

(The Baker Line) 

The name Baker is of occupational origin, and because of the 
large number of early immigrants named Baker and the similarity 
of their children's baptismal names, no family is more difficult to 
trace. But little has been discovered about the relationship of the 
immigrants. Before 1650 Alexander Baker settled at Gloucester, 

112 



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PIERSOX AXD ALLIED FAMILIES 

Massachusetts ; Edward Baker, at Lynn; Francis Baker, at Bos- 
ton; John Baker, at Charleston ; Launcelot Baker, at Boston; Na- 
thaniel Baker, at Watertown; Rev. Nicholas Baker, at Hingham; 
Richard Baker, at Dorchester; Robert Baker, at Salem; Thomas 
Baker, at Roxbury; Walter Baker, at Salem; William Baker, at 
Plymouth ; William Baker, at Charlestown ; and Thomas, of whom 
further. 

The Baker arms are as follows : 

Arms — Azure, on a fess, between three swans' heads erased or and ducally gorged 
gules, as many cinquefoils of the last. 

Crest — An arm embowed, habited with green leaves, in the hand proper a swan's 
head erased or. 

(I) Thomas Baker came from England to America in 1639, 
and settled in East Hampton, Long Island. He married, June 20, 
1643, Alice Dayton, born in 1621, died February S, 1708, daughter 
of Ralph Dayton, one of the founders of East Hampton. Issue: 1. 
Hannah, born June 26, 1650. 2. Thomas, born July 26, 1651. 3. 
Nathaniel, of whom further. 4. Abigail. 

(II) Nathaniel Baker, son of Thomas and Alice (Dayton) 
Baker, was born in East Hampton, Long Island, December 22, 1655, 
and died February 27, 1739. He married Catherine Schellinger. 
Issue: 1. Jonathan, born February 12, 1679. 2. Joanna, born July 
7, 1681. 3. Abigail, born March 15, 1682. 4. Henry, born April 16, 
1686. 5. Daniel, of whom further. 6. Hannah, born January 26, 
1694. 

(III) Daniel Baker, son of Nathaniel and Catherine (Schell- 
inger) Baker, was born in East Hampton, Long Island, August 21, 
1692. He married Abigail Osborn. Issue : 1. Daniel, married 
(first) Mary Osborn, (second) Mary Conkling. 2. Abraham. 3. 
Nathaniel, removed to New Jersey. 4. Henry, of whom further. 
5. Elizabeth, married Jeremiah Stratton. 6. Catharine. 7. Abi- 
gail. 

(IV) Henry Baker, son of Daniel and Abigail (Osborn) 
Baker, was early of Westfield township, Union county, New Jersey, 
coming with his brother, Nathaniel, from East Hampton, Long 
Island. He married Phoebe Jedges, of Long Island. Issue : 1. 
Daniel, born June 3, 1753, served in the Revolution. 2. Jonathan 
I., of whom further. 3. William, married Jemima Woodruff. 4. 
Henry. 5. Jeremiah, born June 28, 1770; married Mary King. 6. 
Phoebe, married Ziba Ludlow. 

(V) Jonathan I. Baker, son of Henry Baker, was born about 
1755. He married Keziah Clark, daughter of Jesse Clark, and his 
daughter, Charity, married William Cory. (See Cory line). 

(The Darby Line) 

The name of Scotch Plains is derived from the nationality of 
its original founders. In 1684 a number of Scotch emigrants settled 

"3 



PIERSON AND ALLIED FAMILIES 

there. The population increased, and about 1689 came the family of 
William Darby. The coat-of-arms of the family is as follows : 

Arms — Per chevron battelly or and azure, three eagles displayed counterchanged. 
Crest — Out of a tower argent two wings, the dexter or, sinister azure. 

(I) William Darby was of a group of English settlers from 
Elizabethtown and vicinity. William Darby married Elizabeth 

and lived for a number of years at Elizabeth, New Jersey, 

prior to removing to Scotch Plains. In 16S7 he bought forty-four 
acres of land at Elizabeth from Agatha White, widow, and in 1701 
he sold this land to John Blanchard. He was not a resident of Eliz- 
abeth then, and presumably he was of Scotch Plains. Among his 
children was William. 

(II) Deacon William (2) Darby, son of William (1) and Eliz- 
abeth Darby, was born in 1693, and died at Scotch Plains, New Jer- 
sey, February 26, 1775. He was a member of the Baptist church of 
Scotch Plains in 1747, the date of its organization. He married 

Mary , born in 1699, died April 13, 1761. Among their children 

was John, of whom further. 

(III) John Darby, son of Deacon William (2) and Mary 
Darby, was born about 1725. He married (second), after 1777, 
Margaret Stanberry, widow of Eecompence Stanberry, of Scotch 
Plains. She was born in 1729, died January 18, 1812, and is buried 
in Scotch Plains Cemetery. Issue of John Darby: 1. John, born 
about 1758 ; married Anna Stanberry. 2. Margaret, of whom fur- 
ther. 

(IV) Margaret Darby, daughter of John Darby by his first 
■wife, married Joseph Cory (see Cory line). 




114 



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Sir William Johnson, Indian Superintendent for all British North 
America. Born in Ireland, in 1715. and came to America in 1738. Ma- 
jor-General in British Army and made a Baronet for his services at 
Lake George. 











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L1YAJLjA\.A 

APRIL, 1923 



'"; 



Sir William Johnson 

His Character and Public Services 
By Charles A. Ingraham, Cambridge, New York 



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^ypp^ THOSE who, prominent in public affairs, are trusting 
jy| to the future for the perpetuation of their fame, the 
' v. r manner in which posterity has neglected the memory of 
'MLdi^jj Sir "William Johnson is not encouraging. Though in his 
day the most distinguished and influential man in the Colony of New 
York and with a renown extending throughout America, and though 
his public services were during a period of many years of the great- 
est importance, vitally and permanently benefiting the country, he 
and his work do not occupy the prominence and space in American 
history which is their due. 

There are, however, valid reasons for such seeming neglect, first 
among which is the fact that Sir William was a servant of the Eng- 
lish Crown in the government of the Colony of New York. In com- 
mon with other able men who served under British rule in the Amer- 
ican Colonies, his appeal to historians has been less than those pa- 
triots, who, in the closing years of his life, were beginning the great- 
struggle for independence. Another historical fact which militates 
against Johnson's popularity in American annals is that his son, 
Sir John Johnson, was a malignant tory in the Bevolution, who led 
the Iroquois Confederacy, with the exception of the Oneidas and 
Tuscaroras, against the Colonists in many a fearful massacre. 
Though it is claimed by some historical students that Sir "William, 
had he lived, would have been with the people in the war, the fact is 
that his family, who were better acquainted with his ideas and senti- 
ments, fought for the British. Johnson, however, was a truly great 
man, a unique character, and in his day popular ; had he and his kin, 

117 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

with their charges the Iroquois, stood with the Colonists in the Rev- 
olution, his name would be a shining light in American history. 

Unlike most of the distinguished men of our history, concern- 
ing whose characters the people have a clear conception, the individ- 
uality of Sir William Johnson was very diversified, and is to be un- 
derstood only after considerable study and meditation. For in- 
stance, the personal and intellectual characteristics of General Grant 
are easily comprehended ; — he was a quiet, plain, persevering man, 
with a genius for conducting military operations on a large scale, 
but lacking in ability for handling practical affairs ; but Sir William 
was a many-sided person, of brilliant parts, devoting himself with 
untiring energy to a variety of enterprises, and always successfully. 
His career in the Mohawk Valley, beginning in the year 1738 at the 
age of twenty-three years, exemplified the life of a swashbuckler, ag- 
riculturist, trader, major-general, superintendent of the Six Indian 
Nations and other northern tribes. He fostered religion and educa- 
tion in his primitive frontier territory, erected churches, encour- 
aged missionaries and school teachers to labor among the settlers 
and Indians ; founded the village of Johnstown, and built its court 
house and other buildings, erected two fine, baronial mansions, both 
of which are still standing, and died in the harness on the 11th of 
July, 1774, from the over-exertion of addressing for the space of 
two hours a delegation of six hundred Iroquois Indians. An idea of 
his multiplied activities may be derived from his manuscript letters 
and other documents, (many of which have been lost), which may be 
seen in the New York State Library ; they number 6,550 and are con- 
tained in twenty-six cumbrous volumes. 

William Johnson was born in County Meath, Ireland, in the 
year 1715. His father, Christopher Johnson, was a scion of a long 
and honorable line, while his mother, Anne Warren, was a sister of 
Sir Peter Warren, in later years distinguished as an admiral in the 
British navy. Having been made commandant of a British war-ship, 
Captain Peter Warren later established his home in New York City, 
where he erected a fine mansion at No. 1, Broadway, which in its day 
was a beautiful and magnificent dwelling. In after years it was the 
residence of Nathaniel Prime, and still later was employed as the 
Washington Hotel. In the Revolution, while the city was in the pos- 
session of the British, it was the headquarters of Sir William Howe 
and other commanders; here Major Andre dwelt in the family of 

118 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

Sir Henry Clinton when he made his fatal journey to West Point to 
arrange with the traitor Arnold for the surrender of that fortress. 
Captain Warren married a daughter of Stephen De Lancey, a 
wealthy merchant of New York, whose son, James De Lancey, be- 
came very distinguished in the judicial and political annals of the 
colony. 

These remarks are introduced to elucidate the beginning of the 
career of Sir William Johnson in America, and to show the advan- 
tages which he gained from the assistance of influential relatives. 
Having been employed by his uncle, Captain Warren, to serve as 
agent for the tract of fourteen thousand acres of land which he had 
purchased in the Mohawk Valley, young Johnson reached New York 
in December, 1737, and spent the winter with his aunt, the wife of 
Captain Warren. Here he met and formed a warm friendship with 
her brother, James De Lancey, who with other prominent persons 
with whom he became acquainted at this time, served to advance his 
interests in later years. 

He took up his residence on his uncle's tract in the summer of 
1738, making his home about one-half mile east of Amsterdam, and 
on the south side of the Mohawk river. Thus, Sir William Johnson, 
a mere boy in years and experience, begins in rough, primitive and 
dangerous obscurity his notable career. It was a plunge from the 
cultured social plane in which he had passed the winter, to the 
coarse life in log houses of the frontier, where his neighbors, far 
apart, were German settlers and Mohawk Indians. But, as has 
been remarked, there was a rough element in the nature of the 
young land agent, and he adapted himself to his surroundings with 
seeming relish. Though he had enjoyed considerable education and 
had studied with a view to the practice of law, he was content to re- 
main during upwards of the forty remaining years of his life in the 
valley of his adoption, leaving it rarely and for brief periods, always 
deeply immersed in the affairs of his estate and of the Indians. He 
was popular with the whites and Indians from the day of his arrival. 
He associated with the utmost freedom and spirit of friendship with 
all, entered with zest into their social entertainments and athletic 
meets, but in the meantime being diligent in business and by prudent 
and energetic methods acquiring wealth. His housekeeper, whom he 
employed soon after his coming to the valley, was an immigrant 
Dutch girl named Catharine Weisenburg, who, after having borne 

119 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

him three children, one of whom was the notorious Sir John John- 
son, of Tory fame, became his wife. And here begins a wretched 
story, continued to his death, of the blot on Sir William's escutcheon, 
— his unsavory relations with women. The most conspicuous of his 
many paramours was Molly Brant, a sister of the Mohawk sachem, 
Joseph Brant, who was living with him at the time of his death and 
by whom he had eight half-breed children. She was evidently a 
comely woman, and intelligent for one of her race and condition, and 
believed herself the wife of Sir William, after the fashion of her 
tribe, which redeems her memory; but no gloss of romance or appeal 
to the loose social morals of that day will ever justify his domestic 
relations. His biographers state that his coming to America was a 
result of a love entanglement, and a pathetic word-picture has been 
drawn depicting the grief of the betrothed Irish girl on the eve 
of his departure for America; but in the light of the young man's 
subsequent career, smirehed with misconduct, one cannot but feel 
that she was to be congratulated. 

Sir William remained about five years at the place of his origi- 
nal settlement, superintending the affairs of his uncle's estate and 
carrying on a profitable trade with the settlers and Indians, the 
leading village of the Mohawks being but a few miles away. A con- 
.siderable settlement had grown up around his trading establishment, 
wiien, having thriven in business and purchased lands on the north 
side of the river and a few 7 miles west, he moved to this location. 
Here he had erected in 1742 a fine stone mansion, and employed the 
large creek which flows just east of it for the running of a flouring 
mill. Johnson's rise from now on w r as rapid and substantial; be- 
sides his large trading and milling interests, he embarked boldly in 
the fur and wheat business, steadily accumulating money and coming 
more and more into public notice. In 17-i5, at the age of only about 
thirty, his furs w r ere selling in London and his flour in the West In- 
dies, w T hile public recognition of his honor and ability w T as shown by 
his appointment as justice of the peace for Albany county. All this 
success had come to him through business acumen, energetic appli- 
cation, strict integrity in all his dealings and unbounded popularity. 
Large of frame and muscular, genial and approachable by all, ac- 
quainted with the Indian dialects so that he w;as able to converse 
with them in their own language, affiliated w r ith them in a so-called 
marriage, — all this insured the admiration and good-will of the 

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dwellers in the Mohawk valley. His residence here and his activi- 
ties, however, exposed him to danger, for the French, jealous of the 
control which he had acquired of the Six Nations and indignant con- 
cerning the profitable trade with them which he was largely divert- 
ing 1o himself, threatened him with assassination, a peril which, 
throughout a large part of his career, was ever to be reckoned with. 

What is known as the Old French War was now on. Saratoga 
(now Schuylerville) had been destroyed in the previous fall, and 
Johnson as a precautionary measure had dispatched a company of 
Mohawks to Crown Point to learn of the intentions of the French; 
they reported that a raid was to be expected against Schenectady, 
which news was immediately sent to the governor, Sir George Clin- 
ton. He was also informed that Sir William, himself, with his prop- 
erty, including eleven thousand bushels of wheat, was in danger, 
and that a guard was needed for protection. The governor in re- 
sponse sent a detachment of thirty men to guard the home and prop- 
erty of Sir William, with whom he became, through official corres- 
pondence and the recommendation of Chief Justice James De Lan- 
cey, on terms of friendship and intimacy. At this time, in 1746, 
Governor Clinton w r as very desirous of enlisting the Six Nations in 
the cause of the English against the French, but was having no suc- 
cess in his proposition for a council, the French having encouraged 
the Indians to remain neutral in the strife. The Governor, knowing 
the power over the savages which Johnson exercised, now T appointed 
him manager of the Indian department in the hope that he would be 
able to induce the Six Nations to take up arms against the French. 
There was thus given into the control of Sir William the work which 
had been carried on by the Board of Indian Commissioners, com- 
posed largely of Albany traders, and who had employed their offices 
for their personal financial benefit. 

Johnson now redoubled his efforts to ingratiate himself into the 
good favor of the Indians with a view of inducing them to join arms 
with the English in the w T ar; arraying himself in their primitive 
garb, he Avent in and out among them, addressing them in their own 
language, conforming to their customs, arranging athletic events 
for their entertainment and encouraging them to take part in w r ar 
dances for the purpose of stimulating their fighting propensities. 
This policy had its desired effect, for the savages, pleased to have so 
prominent a man come familiarly among them with tokens of gen- 

121 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

erous friendship, listened favorably to his proposition, while the Mo- 
hawks adopted him into their tribe, elevating him to be their chief 
and leader. His Indian name thus derived was, War-ragh-i-ya-gey, 
or "he who has charge of affairs." Johnson's success in this diplo- 
matic attempt was the more remarkable in that the Six Nations at 
this time were themselves divided into two factions, each party be- 
ing composed of three tribes. Though Johnson had so far succeeded 
as to prevail upon them to send delegations to the council to be held 
in Albanj 7 by Governor Clinton with the view of entering into an al- 
liance with the colonial government, such was the ill-feeling between 
the two Indian parties that they marched towards Albany, one fol- 
lowing the north and the other the south side of the Mohawk river. 
The two divisions, on August 8th, 1746, entered the city with Sir 
William, arrayed in all the picturesque panoply of a Mohawk 
sachem, riding at the head of his tribe. In the councils which fol- 
lowed, the Six Nations covenanted to assist the English, and having 
solemnly enacted the war dance returned to their several territories 
and took up the hatchet. In this historic event was exhibited John- 
son's extraordinary ability in handling morose, jealous and divided 
Indian tribes, a capacity amounting to genius and which has never 
perhaps been equaled. In the Old French War, however, the Colony 
of New York took no very active part, and though Johnson had been 
commissioned colonel, and later advanced to the command of the 
colonial troops on the frontier, his activities consisted chiefly in 
equipping and sending out against the French small parties of mili- 
tia and Indians, a wild and bloody business, concerning which the 
least said the better for the reputation of the Colony. These atroci- 
ties, which were practiced by both the French and English, came to 
an end in 1748 with the treaty of Aix la Chapelle. 

Though an era of peace had dawned on the distracted country, 
the activity of Colonel Johnson was unremitting, an arduous manner 
of life, however, which he enjoyed, and deprived of which he was 
miserable. He had his immense private interests to direct; the com- 
plex, ever-shifting affairs of the Iroquois to superintend, — to attend 
their councils, appease their quarrels and mitigate their ferocity; 
and, above all, to prevent the never-ending attempts of the French 
to seduce the Indians from their alliance with the English. It was, 
indeed, an arduous task, and required all of his diplomacy and the 
exercise of all the peculiar gifts of conciliation which he possessed, to 

122 



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maintain the fealty of the Six Nations. Besides all this, he was un- 
der contract to furnish supplies to the garrison at Oswego, and had 
the direction of other important public interests which had been in- 
trusted to him. In the year 1750 he received the appointment by the 
Crown to the distinguished place of a member in the Colonial Coun- 
cil of New York. But it will be in the capacity of Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs that Sir William will be longest and most favorably 
remembered. He trusted these children of the forest and they re- 
posed faith in his word, which he never violated. He never took ad- 
vantage of their ignorance and credulity, and refused to deal with 
them when they were intoxicated. He recognized the evil influence 
among them of strong drink, and strove to keep it from them. It is 
impressive to realize the confidence he had in their fidelity to their 
word when once given; this is evidenced by his ever striving to have 
them assemble in conclave and solemnly commit themselves through 
their traditional and strange ceremonials to a certain course or poli- 
cy. All this is creditable to the Six Nations, who were the most po- 
litically advanced of the Indians of North America, who occupied the 
most strategic territory, and who extended their conquests to the 
most distant fields. 

Following the close in 1748 of the Old French War to 1755, when 
the strife in America between England and France was renewed, an 
era of comparative peace prevailed in the Colonies, though hostili- 
ties were never in the interval wholly remitted; the embers of war 
were smoldering, ready to burst into flame when the incipient hurri- 
cane of dissension should become sufficiently strong. The activities 
of the French in the Ohio Valley left no doubt in the mind of the 
British government that they intended to hold that fertile territory 
and the vast lands in the west, and in the northwest to the lakes. 
Commissioners from seven northern colonies were therefore dele- 
gated to meet representatives of the Six Nations at Albany, in order 
to devise means of driving back the enemy. The convention con- 
vened on June 19th, 1754, and was notable as being the germ of the 
Constitution and Government of the United States, in that a scheme 
for the union of the Colonies was proposed here by Benjamin Frank- 
lin and unanimously adopted, though the plan was denied by the 
British government, and was rejected by the Assemblies of the 
Colonies themselves. 

The influence of Johnson in securing the attendance of delegates 

123 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

from the Six Nations to this Congress was indispensable, and had it 
not been for his power of control over the Indians they might have 
fallen in with the flattering overtures of the French. Colonel John- 
son, however, was no longer the beloved superintendent of these 
proud and warlike tribes, he having resigned about four years pre- 
vious on account of the Colonial Assembly refusing to liquidate his 
just claims for services and private moneys advanced for the public 
defense. The affairs of the Indians in the meantime had been man- 
aged in a manner very unsatisfactory to the Six Nations and they 
were now in an ugly mood, requiring all the persuasive talent of 
Colonel Johnson to induce them to renew their fealty to the English. 
It was at this critical juncture in the convention that old King Hen- 
drik, chief of the Mohawk tribe and devoted friend of Colonel John- 
son, delivered what is said to have been the greatest and most elo- 
quent address ever uttered by an American Indian. Under his bur- 
den of more than eighty years he stood up and with his majestic 
presence flung burning expressions of reproach into the brilliant au- 
dience before him, accusing them of the neglect which the Indians 
had suffered during the past few years. It was, indeed, a dramatic 
event, with this venerable sachem, with the chiefs of the other Iro- 
quois tribes sitting around him and all arrayed in picturesque appar- 
el, and with the governor and commissioners respectfully listening 
to this unlettered but truly great orator. But Colonel Johnson held 
the heartstrings of this old Indian worthy, and through him the Six 
Nations were regained for the English. However, Johnson was 
soon to be restored to his previous position of Superintendent of In- 
dian Affairs, for in April of the following year he was reappointed 
to this place by General Braddock, commander-in-chief of the Brit- 
ish forces in the colonies, who also commissioned him major-general 
to command the movement against Crown Point. 

Throughout what is known as the "last French War," General 
Johnson played a distinguished part, discovering a talent for cam- 
paigning and military strategy. His first battle was at Lake George, 
on September 8, 1755, when he defeated the French and Indians un- 
der Baron Dieskau. In this battle, King Hendrik, chief of the Mo- 
hawks, was killed, he having been ordered by Johnson against his 
better counsel to advance beyond the lines, where he fell into an am- 
bush. An episode of the war which is not prominently noticed by 
historians reflects credit upon General Johnson and proves his enter- 

124 




■ -_~_ .- 






SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

prise and courage. While engaged in a council with the Indians at 
his home on the Mohawk, he learned of the movement of Montcalm 
toward Fort Edward, and dismissing the meeting and collecting a 
force of militia and Indians, marched immediately for the support of 
General Webb, commanding at that place. Finding that Colonel 
Monroe was besieged by Montcalm in Fort William Henry on Lake 
George, and frantically calling for aid, General Johnson implored 
the privilege of leading a body of troops for his relief, a march of 
but fourteen miles. After gaining a reluctant consent and having 
proceeded a short distance, he was called back and Monroe was thus 
left with no alternative but surrender, which involved a fearful mas- 
sacre of many of his men by the savages in the army of the French. 
This occurred on August 9, 1757. 

General Johnson served with Abercrombie in his unfortunate 
campaign against Fort Ticonderoga in 1758, and was second in 
command under General Prideaux in the following year, when, dur- 
ing the siege of Fort Niagara, Prideaux having been killed, Johnson 
assumed command and brilliantly defeated the French army march- 
ing to the relief of the garrison and received the surrender of the 
stronghold. After serving conspicuously throughout the war, he 
had a part under General Amherst, in compelling the capitulation 
of Montreal and Canada on the 8th of September, 1760. 

From now on, the career of Sir William was one of comparative 
peace, though the burden of the superintendency of the Indian Af- 
fairs hung heavily upon him, while the development of the village of 
Johnstown and the management of his great estate occupied much 
of his time. He was now a very wealthy man, having accumulated 
much from his mercantile pursuits and having derived vast gifts of 
lands from the Indians and the British government. He received as 
a reward for his victory over Dieskau at Lake George the sum of 
five thousand pounds, and the title of baronet. 

In the Eevolution, with the exception of the Oneidas and Tus- 
caroras, the Iroquois espoused the cause of Great Britain, pillaging 
the settlers along the frontier and massacring the defenseless people. 
The hostility of the Indians was due to the influence of Sir John 
Johnson, who, with but little of his father's tact and ability, had been 
invested with his office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. In the 
summer of 1779, so great had become the atrocities of the savages, 
that the government directed General John Sullivan to annihilate 

125 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

all the Iroquois tribes who had taken up arms against the colonists. 
This movement, famous in history as "Sullivan's Expedition," was 
composed of three divisions operating primarily in separate terri- 
tories, and their merciless retaliation from the Mohawk to Lake Erie 
proved the death-blow of the proud Iroquois Confederacy. After 
the war they feared to return to their ancient hunting grounds, and 
with broken spirits fled into the forests of the west or the woods of 
Canada. Thither went Sir John Johnson, with the brand of traitor 
upon his name and the blood of innocent men, women and children 
upon his reputation, hated and despised by a nation of free people, 
and his father's great landed estate was confiscated. 

But let us in closing turn from this dark and bloody picture to 
Sir William, who it is hard to believe would have ever involved the 
Indians in such an unhappy and ruinous situation, for he was a 
kindly soul, and though living always midst strife was of a concilia- 
tory disposition. Today, out of gratitude for his important public 
services, the two mansions which he erected still have hospitable 
doors ; for these buildings have been purchased and set apart for- 
ever as memorials of Sir William Johnson. Within their walls, un- 
changed but little from the days of his prosperity and fame, may be 
seen the collected souvenirs of the aboriginal and early colonial 
days, and we may almost fancy the presence of the genial and forceful 
proprietor, who, as described by Mrs. Julia Grant in her "Memoirs 
of an American Lady," was "five feet eleven and a half inches tall, 
neck massive, broad chest and large limbs, great physical strength, 
the head large and shapely, countenance open and beaming with 
good nature, eyes grayish black, hair brown with tinge of auburn. 
Conversation: recollections of dealings with Indians, or classic au- 
thors or literature of the day. Lives like an English gentleman. In- 
dian chiefs at table among many castes. Indians speak English and 
dress like them. Fifty or sixty servants, besides negroes. His 
habits most methodical." 

This is an excellent pen-picture by one who knew him and paint- 
ed his portrait. There was a rough element in his character, and he 
loved the stirring, primitive life and was wretched when not en- 
gaged in it. He possessed, however, enough education and culture 
to maintain himself much above his contemporaries in the Mohawk 
Valley and to make himself available for the British government in 
the management of the Indians. While he was honest and upright in 

126 



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St. John's Episcopal Church on site of original church built by Sir William Johnson in 1770, 
destroyed by fire in 183O, as shown in the insert 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 

all his business transactions and ever time to his word with the In- 
dians, he was utterly indifferent to certain domestic moralities here- 
in referred to, and lived throughout his career an unblushing volup- 
tuary. He loved and labored for riches, was fond of great mansions 
and aristocratic display. He was not cherished in the best sense of 
the word ; he lacked that indefinable something called magnetism ; his 
character did not appeal to the hearts of the people. Yet he was a 
great man, a man of destiny, peculiarly adapted for the important 
work he so ably performed, and his name will ever be epochal in the 
colonial history of America. 

Editor's Note — The foregoing admirable narrative by Dr. Ingraham is most timely, 
following so closely after the Memorial Celebration at Johnstown. New York, September 
8-9, 1922, in commemoration of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the "setting 
up" of Tryon county. For the accompanying excellent illustrations we are under obliga- 
tions to the courtesy of the Committee in Charge of the Celebration, as represented by 
Mr. Edward Wells, chairman of the general committee, and Mr. J. Clarence Hennelly, 
chairman of the publicity committee. 

In the course of the celebration, historical scenes were enacted in costume, begin- 
ning with the scenes at Fort Johnstown ; commemorative services at the Cross in the 
Colonial Cemetery and at the grave of Sir William Johnson ; and addresses were de- 
livered by Governor Nathan L. Miller; Hon. Edmund F. Machold, Speaker of the New 
York State Assembly; Hon. James Sullivan, State Historian; and Mrs. Corinne Roose- 
velt Morrison, sister of the late Theodore Roosevelt, and mother of State Senator 
Theodore Douglas Robinson. 




S2F> 



127 



William Bingham, Founder of City of Binghamton 

By William F. Seward, Librarian of Binghazmton 
(New York) Public Library. 



Ipppf^ HE greater part of the City of Binghamton stands on land 

r't^fl once owned bv William Bingham. On June 27, 1786, the 

a '%?|| State granted a patent for a tract of land comprising 



30,600 acres, to Robert Lettis Hooper, James Wilson 
and William Bingham. Lying on both sides of the Susquehanna 
river, this tract included parts at least of the present towns of 
Union, Vestal, Binghamton, Conklin and Kirkwood. 

In less than four years the proprietors decided to partition 
these lands among themselves. A certain deed of indenture exe- 
cuted on February 11, 1790, between Bobert Lettis Hooper, of the 
State of New Jersey, and Elizabeth his wife, and James Wilson, 
granted and conveyed to William Bingham in fee simple a tract com- 
prising 13,747 acres. Wilson retained for himself 7,100 acres, while 
to Hooper, or perhaps jointly to him and Wilson, fell the remaining 
9,773 acres. 

The Bingham tract, occupying the eastern end of the entire pur- 
chase, included, as already stated, nearly all the land whereon the 
city now stands. Some time or at different times within ten years 
after the division referred to, Mr. Bingham must have added to his 
land holdings in this region some 1,293 acres, for in the midsummer 
of 1800 they amounted to 15,040 acres "and three roods, or there- 
abouts." 

South of the Bingham tract was one of the Sidney tracts, patent- 
ed to Robert Morris, December 13, 1787, and which included land 
now within the confines of portions of the Fifth and Sixth wards. 
The north part of the city, east of the Chenango river, covers a small 



Editor's Note — This narrative is a chapter from a work now in press, ''Bingham- 
ton and Broome County: A History," Lewis Historical Publishing' Co., New York and 
Chicago. Binghamton is the county seat of Broome County. New York. It takes its 
name from Colonel John Broome, who was Lieutenant-Governor of the State of New 
York at the time of the institution of Broome County, March 28, 1806. His portrait, 
which appears as the frontispiece of this number of "Americana," is also reproduced 
from Mr. Seward's History. 

128 



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WILLIAM BINGHAM 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

portion of the commonly called Clinton and Melcher tract, which 
was patented to James Clinton and Isaac Melcher, March 19, 1780. 

Then there was the so-called Boston Purchase, otherwise known 
as the Boston Ten Towns. As every student of our early history 
knows, many disputes arose over land grants, patents, titles, and 
ownership, and the charters by the Crown led to conflicting claims 
between Massachusetts and New York as to boundary lines. Finally, 
by way of compromising those differences, it was determined by the 
commissioners, who met at Hartford, Conn., December 16, 1786, that 
New York State should retain sovereignty and jurisdiction over its 
own territory, while to Massachusetts "was ceded the right of pre- 
emption of the soil (that is, the right of first purchase from the 
Indians) of substantially all the territory west of a line drawn due 
north from the S2nd milestone on the Pennsylvania north line, and 
extending north through Seneca lake to Sodus bay, in Lake Ontario. 
New Y 7 ork also ceded to Massachusetts the pre-emption right to 
230,400 acres of land lying between Owego creek and the Chenango 
river. ' ' 

It was this vast tract last named that eleven residents of Berk- 
shire county, Massachusetts, bought in 17S7 at a cost of twelve and 
one-half cents per acre, and subject to whatever title might be fur- 
nished by the Indians. To this association the original grantees 
afterward admitted forty-nine other members, some of them influ- 
ential Boston men, so that it numbe. sixty in all. 

Judge Avery, in some of his well-considered sketches of local 
annals, asserts that the first meeting for a treaty with the Indians 
was held on the west bank of the Chenango river, about three miles 
above the present city, but nothing definite seems to have been ac- 
complished on that occasion. At a subsequent meeting, held at 
Ochenang (the Indian village situated just east of the confluence of 
the Chenango with the Susquehanna and on land that became a part 
of the city tract) the Indians were induced to sign away their do- 
main, after which, toward nightfall, they sampled so freely the New 
England rum placed at their disposal that the usual orgies ensued, 
or, in modern phase, "a good time was had by all," at least by the 
redskins. They had been shrewd enough, however, to reserve the 
right to hunt and fish on the ceded tract for a term of seven years, 
also a half-mile square of land for their own use at the mouth of Cas- 
tle creek. It is related on good' authority that they occupied the 

129 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

tract during the full term of their reserved privileges, and that no 
small number of those Indians remained in this region for many 
years afterward. 

Only a small part of the city lies within the Boston Purchase, 
whose southern boundary, according to our local historian, the late 
William S. Lawyer, extended due east and west between the mouth 
of the Owego creek and a point about a mile above the mouth of 
the Chenango. The line in fact began about 500 feet north of the 
north line of Prospect street, and thence ran across the northeast 
corner of Spring Forest cemetery, onward through land now cov- 
ered by Johnson City, then after crossing and recrossing the Susque- 
hanna river, it ended at the mouth of Owego creek. 

A certain area within the Bingham tract was set off for a town 
site and called "Bingham's Patent." A map of it, as resurveyed in 
1811 by Michael R. Tharp, is here republished,* On this part of Mr. 
Bingham's holdings Joshua Whitney, acting under full instructions 
as a legally accredited agent, began in August, 1800, to lay out a 
section of Court and South Water streets. By reason of favors he 
had received from his friend and benefactor, the great landowner, 
he was the more eager to carry out the vision and desire of William 
Bingham, namely, to found a prosperous community in which trade, 
industries and the arts would flourish, though probably neither the 
principal nor his agent ever dreamed that it would grow into the 
teeming metropolis of the Southern Tier. 

For the first time is here reproduced in facsimile a form of 
agreement given on July 4th, 1800, by William Bingham to Joshua 
Whitney to act as his land agent in the proposed new settlement — 
soon to be known as Chenango Point, but a few years later to be 
called Binghamton, in honor of William Bingham — and to dispose 
of or lease the outlying properties that belonged to his employer. 
Whitney's compensation for his services was a commission of four 
per cent, on sales of lots and lands belonging to William Bingham, 
or, less than four years afterward, to his estate. 

In the same document we find mentioned a deed in fee simple 
from Bingham to Whitney of land for a Town Square, "marked 
in the Plat of the said Town No. 15, and containing five acres, two 
roods and thirty-nine perches." This is the plot now known as 
Court House Square. 



♦This map and the facsimile mentioned farther down on this page, appear in Mr. 
Seward's History, and are not reproduced here. 

130 



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WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

On the same day, July 4, 1800 — as another document shows — 
in consideration of the sum of $1,075 — or at the reduced rate of five 
dollars an acre — William Bingham and his wife deeded 215 acres of 
farm land, within the Bingham patent, to Joshua Whitney, the ad- 
vantageous location of which for conversion into town lots is clearly 
indicated in the accompanying facsimile agreement. In two cash 
payments, the first one amounting to three hundred-odd dollars, 
"Josh" Whitney, as he was then familiarly called, became the owner 
of what was to prove some valuable real estate. 

Judging by what the Boston Purchase cost per acre, it appears 
likely that Bingham and his associates acquired their tract at an 
extremely low figure — probably under twenty cents an acre, though 
exact information on that point is not accessible — at least to the 
present writer. In the autumn of 1800 Joshua Whitney sold lots on 
the Bingham patent at prices apparently ranging from ten to fifteen 
dollars an acre, according to location. 

By 1815, the most desirable lots in the village were selling at the 
rate of twenty dollars or more an acre. Records of a still later time, 
in the office of the City Engineer, show that 37 lots north of the Sus- 
quehanna sold for $59,285.99, and 21 lots south of the river sold for 
$30,007.10. 

With the passing years and the steady growth of Binghamton, 
all lots within the city limits have increased enormously in price, 
and the estimated value of land and improvements on the Bingham 
patent to-day is $200,000,000. 

William Bingham was a native of Philadelphia, where his fam- 
ily had lived for several generations. His grandfather, James Bing- 
ham, for many years a blacksmith, died in 1714, leaving considerable 
landed property, and was buried at Christ Church, on December 22 
of that year. Little, if anything, appears to be known regarding 
the antecedents of the progenitor of this family, James Bingham the 
blacksmith. A careful search through the massive tomes of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society at Philadelphia has revealed noth- 
ing to the point, so that it is extremely doubtful whether any one can 
trace this branch of the Binghams any farther back. It is quite safe 
however, to infer that they were from English stock. 

James, a son of the blacksmith, added to the possessions of the 
family by marrying a daughter of William Budd, of Burlington, 

131 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

N. J. William, another son, added still more by marrying, in 1745, 
Mary, daughter of Mayor John Stamper. A certain Mr. Black, who 
evidently was a warm admirer of Molly Stamper, as she was called 
before her marriage, wrote in amusingly extravagant praise of her 
charms, when as Mrs. Bingham she figured on the early lists of the 
Philadelphia Dancing Assembly. "I cannot say that she was a Reg- 
ular Beauty," he drolly explains, ''but she was such that few could 
find any fault with what Dame Nature had done for her. . . . 
When I view'd her I thought all the statues I ever beheld were so 
much inferior to her in beauty that she was more capable of convert- 
ing a man into a statue, than of being imitated by the greatest mas- 
ter of that art, and I surely had as much delight in surveying her 
as the organs of sight are capable of conveying to the soul." 

Her son — our William Bingham— was born in Philadelphia, 
April 8, 1752. He was graduated at the College of Philadelphia in 
1768; and three years later was appointed consul under the British 
Government to Martinique. He remained at St. Pierre during most 
of the American Revolution, also acting there as agent for the Conti- 
nental Congress. Living in that, place then was a young girl who 
was afterward to be celebrated as Josephine, the first wife of Napo- 
leon Bonaparte. 

There are long-settled Irish Binghams in Philadelphia— one of 
them, Henry H. Bingham, having been a prominent public man there 
some years ago; but William Bingham did not belong to the Irish 
branch. The fact that he represented Great Britain in the AVest 
Indies has without question lent color to the false assumption of 
some of his biographers that he was an Englishman by birth. 

Soon after his return from the tropics, William Bingham mar- 
ried the beautiful Anne Willing, then in her seventeenth year, on 
October 26, 1780. As a daughter of Thomas W. Willing, the partner 
of Robert Morris and a wealthy merchant, she brought to her hus- 
band a family prestige that was second to none in the Quaker City. 
But in addition to this, she helped to establish the standard of fem- 
inine fashion and elegance in that flourishing town. William Bing- 
ham, a sagacious man, a natural money-maker, had amassed great 
affluence while in the West Indies, and it may as well be said in this 
place that he also inherited money from his father and later man- 
aged a large amount of property belonging to his wife. 

The records show that William Bingham was the warrantee of 

132 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

125 tracts of land in Pennsylvania on the Last Purchase from the 
Indians, which was made October 23, 1784. These warrants each 
called for 1,000 acres, but the surveys returned upon them in almost 
every instance were for 1,100 acres, and allowance of six per cent, 
so the acreage in the aggregate amounted to 140,000 in round fig- 
ures. Of these tracts, 75 were patented to William Bingham and the 
balance were patented to Alexander Baring, et al. It is believed 
these lands were situated in what are now Potter, Tioga and 
McKean counties in the Keystone State. 

In 1784 the personable young couple made a trip to Europe, and 
being close friends of our American Ministers, were accorded 
special distinction at various courts. John Adams, Franklin, and 
Jefferson were among our diplomatists abroad at that period and 
through their good offices and those of General Lafayette, the Bing- 
hams gained the entree to the best society in France and England. 

Mrs. Bingham is frequently mentioned in the letters from Mrs. 
John Adams and others as highly esteemed for her winsome social 
qualities. "She is coming quite into fashion here," John Adams' 
daughter wrote of her from London, "and is very much admired. 
The hairdresser who dresses us on court days inquired of mamma 
whether she knew the lady so much talked of here from America, 
Mrs. Bingham. He had heard of her from a lady who had seen her 
at Lord Duncan's." 

As may well be believed, the court circle of London society was 
not any too favorably disposed toward Americans at that time. 
Even so, the impression created by the verve and character of Mrs. 
Bingham insured for her the most gracious sort of a reception; 
nor was the husband, a noble and handsome type of manhood, who 
had served England in the AVest Indies and taken no aggressive part 
against her in the Eevolution, less welcome. Not that his real sym- 
pathies were with England in that desperate struggle ; nothing in 
his career attests that he was other than an American patriot of the' 
highest order. 

William Bingham had not been in diplomacy for his health, 
though he had not acquired his fortune as the Napoleonic Prince of 
Benevento (Talleyrand) got his. He saw many legitimate chances 
to augment his riches and he availed himself of them. While in 
England he probably used no little tact; certainly he did not pro- 
claim from the housetops that had he been in Pennsylvania at the 

133 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

outbreak of the war he would have joined the Continental army and 
fought tooth and nail against the redcoats. But it is not obvious 
that there was much for his conscience to reckon with because he had 
not resigned his double billet and rushed home to become a trooper ; 
for many loyal colonists would not enter into lethal conflict if they 
could help it; many good men in those parlous times wavered 
between royalist and American sentiment. And even if the British- 
ers did not find in Mr. and Mrs. William Bingham partisans, what 
tory of tories in the English metropolis could have had any pro- 
nounced prejudice against so attractive and aristocratic a couple, 
especially since Mrs. Bingham was one of the first Americans to seek 
a presentation at the Court of George III, after our separation from 
the mother country! 

Apropos of Mrs. Bingham it has been written: "Her striking 
beauty of face and form, her easy deportment that had all the pride 
and grace of high breeding, the intelligence of her countenance, and 
the entire affability of her attitude, disarmed every feeling of un- 
friendliness and converted everyone into admiration." Thus Mrs. 
John Adams. 

Their pleasant sojourn in England was cut short by the election 
of Mr. Bingham (in 1786) as a member of the Congress of the Con- 
federation, in which he served for two years. In the meantime he 
built in Philadelphia what was then considered a superb dwelling 
upon a lot of three acres on the west side of Third street, between 
Walnut and Spruce streets, and furnished it with much elegance. 
From England he had brought over not only the plan of the house, 
but nearly all the furniture and decorations. The house was mod- 
eled after that of the Duke of Manchester but on a larger scale. 
Standing back about forty feet from the street, it was approached 
through two iron gates by a semi-circular drive. It was very wide, 
and three stories high . A low wall with balusters extended in front, 
and the grounds were laid out with skill and taste. The whole of 
Third and Fourth streets from Spruce to Willing 's Alley was occu- 
pied by the houses and property of Mrs. Bingham's relatives. Her 
father's residence seems to have been a large double, venerable- 
looking house, surrounded by trees, among them some fine specimens 
of the sycamore or buttonwood. 

The Bingham mansion finally became a well-kept and popular 
hotel and for many years was known as ''Head's Mansion House." 

134 












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Above, House of Captain Joseph Leonard, near Binghamton, built in 1787. Below, House of 
Sergeant Hinds, Binghamton, built in 1817 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

An early morning fire, toward the latter part of the '40 's, ruined the 
roof and damaged the interior. It was pulled down, and a Mr. 
Bouvies, mahogany dealer, erected on the lot several brownstone- 
front residences in 1S50. Besides this luxurious town-house, Mr. 
Bingham owned a country-seat west of the Schuylkill and north of 
the Lancaster road. As captain of the Dragoons, in the latter part 
of May, 17S9, he escorted Mrs. Washington from Chester to Phila- 
delphia, when on her journey to New York to join her husband, who 
had taken the oath of office as President of the United States on the 
preceding 30th day of April. 

The next year Mr. Bingham was elected a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Pennsylvania and chosen Speaker. • It was early in 
this year that several tracts of land in this region, that is, in the 
Susquehanna Valley, came into William Bingham's exclusive posses- 
sion, as related in the beginning of this chapter. 

It will be noted that the land patent originally held in what be- 
came Broome county by Messrs. Bingham, Hooper and Wilson, was 
a mere bagatelle compared to Mr. Bingham's domains in Pennsyl- 
vania and his still more immense holdings in Maine. One of his 
purchases in that province was about half of Mount Desert, which 
comprises 60,000 acres. The island was afterward divided and the 
eastern part, including the site of Bar Harbor, now one of the most 
fashionable summer resorts in the country, was set off to William 
Bingham. The trustees of his estate still own land on Mount Desert 
and in other parts of Maine, which has not as yet been sold. 

In short, Mr. Bingham apparently owned nearly one-ninth of 
the total area of Maine. For many years the descendants of French 
pioneers in the province sought to gain possession of certain tracts. 
Once more they appeared upon the scene, in the persons of Monsieur 
and Madame de Gregoire, the latter a granddaughter of Cadillac; 
and in 1785 they laid claim to the lands of their ancestor before the 
General Court of Massachusetts. The property had been included 
in the estate of Governor Bernard, and though confiscated during the 
Revolution, had been restored to his son. Nevertheless, such was 
then the amicable feeling toward France, that the General Court, 
"to cultivate mutual confidence and union between the subjects of 
His most Christian Majesty and the citizens of this State," listened 
to the appeal, naturalized Monsieur and Madame Gregoire and quit- 
claimed to them all but lots of one hundred acres each for actual set- 

135 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

tiers. It is doubtful if they had the sturdy endurance essential to 
success on such soil in such a climate, for within ten years they sold 
most of the land to William Bingham; but they continued to live for 
the rest of their lives at Hull's Cove, which they made their home. 

We learn from Mrs. Clara Barnes Martin, author of a volume 
entitled "Mount Desert," that "this gentleman (William Bingham) 
had previously acquired considerable possessions in this part of the 
Province of Maine. One of the earliest grants in what is now Han- 
cock county was of six townships on the condition of their being 
settled within a specified time by Protestants, a curious little re- 
minder that the earliest settlers had been good Roman Catholics. 
In 17S6, the General Court put into a lottery fifty townships between 
Penobscot Bay and Passamaquoddy. According to Mrs. Martin, 
165,280 acres were drawn at an average price of fifty-two cents per 
acre. The greater portion of what was left was bought by Mr. Bing- 
ham. Of the land purchased from the Gregoires, a piece bordering 
the Schooner Head road was in 1883 still in possession of his heirs. 

In 1794, Mr. Bingham published a "Letter from an American 
on the Subject of the Restraining Proclamation," but other relics of 
his literary performances are very few, and the same may be said 
of his oratorical efforts. Yet he must have spoken often in public 
and, judging by his education and ability in other directions, he must 
have spoken well. Elected United States Senator in 1793, Mr. Bing- 
ham held that office for the full term of six years, and served in 
1797 as President of the Senate pro tempore. The Binghams were 
intimate with nearly all the leaders of the new American Republic, 
including the Washingtons, and it was they who persuaded Wash- 
ington to sit to Gilbert Stuart. 

There is a strange lack of agreement among art writers as to the 
order in which Stuart's three portraits of Washington from life 
were painted. A special investigation of the subject enables us to 
present here a version which is believed to be authentic in every de- 
tail. We know that Stuart returned to his native land in 1793, with 
the avowed purpose of painting Washington, for whom his admira- 
tion was intense. He arrived in Philadelphia in 1791, while Con- 
gress was in session, to present a letter from John Jay. The nation 
was in a tumult over various matters and Washington was not dis- 
posed to comply with Stuart's request for a sitting. He had al- 

136 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

ready sat to Peale and other painters, and to Jean Antoine Houdon, 
the greatest portrait sculptor of the eighteenth century, whose ma- 
jestic statue of Washington is the most priceless possession in the 
State Capitol of Virginia. Besides being weighed down with many 
cares, Washington disliked to pose for the brush or the chisel. Fin- 
ally, howeyer, he yielded to the repeated entreaties of the Binghams, 
who were not only interested in the welfare of the painter, but be- 
lieved that a much better portrait of Washington than any extant 
might be produced by Gilbert Stuart. 

No one disputes that Stuart's first attempt at a portrait of his 
idol was a failure. "The artist rubbed it out," says Charles H. Cof- 
fin. "The anecdotes with which he had beguiled other men into re- 
vealing their innerselves were of no avail to unmask the impressive 
calm of Washington. ' ' But having discovered that upon experiences 
of the late war Washington would expand, the artist began a second 
portrait ; and at these sittings was produced the familiar head from 
which Stuart, with one exception, painted all his other portraits of 
Washington, and which has long been regarded as the standard 
likeness. 

The critic already quoted tells us that "it came nearest to 
Stuart's conception of his subject, and he delayed to finish it, that 
he might not have to part with it. After his death it was sold by his 
widow, and presented to the Athenaeum, Boston." It now, how- 
ever, hangs in the Museum of Fine Arts there, while the famous re- 
plica which the artist painted from this original study is owned by 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Everywhere in the civilized world 
may be seen chromo and lithographic copies of it — and should we 
not be duly grateful to Mr. and Mrs. William Bingham for their 
zealous aid in making possible the existence of this favorite and, say 
experts, most life-like portrait ever painted of Washington? 

As to the third sitting in 1796 — the true story of that is also 
worth telling. It appears that the Marquis of Lansdowne — a very 
warm friend of the Willing family, including Mrs. Bingham — had 
ordered a full-length portrait of Washington; that at Mr. Bing- 
ham's solicitation, Stuart allowed him to pay for it, and that the 
portrait was sent to England as a present to his lordship. This so- 
called Lansdowne portrait is a full-length with left hand on the 
sword-belt and the other extended — "a pose," remarks Mr. Coffin, 
"which suggested to the flippancy of certain minds — for Washing- 

137 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

ton at that time was a focus point of ridicule and rancor as well as 
of devotion — a resemblance to the handle and spout of a teapot, 
and procured it the nickname of the teapot portrait," 

As already stated, Stuart made from life only three portraits of 
"Washington, and one of them was destroyed, the numerous others he 
executed being either replicas of these or imaginary portraits, such 
as "Washington on Dorchester Heights," etc. 

Within a short time after the Lansdowne portrait was sent to 
England, Heath, the celebrated English engraver, reproduced it in 
pure line. When Stuart, who had neglected to copyright the por- 
trait, saw a copy of the engraving in a shop window and learned of 
its immense sale, he was very much exasperated. He had a quarrel 
with Mr. Bingham about it and refused to finish a portrait of the lat- 
ter that he had begun. He had already painted the head of Mrs. 
Bingham, which is owned by George Harrison Fisher of Philadel- 
phia. The Lansdowne portrait of Washington was sent over and 
exhibited in the Great Britain department of the art collection in 
Memorial Hall in 1 876 ; also a portrait of Mr. Bingham by an Eng- 
lish artist, Washington presented to Mrs. Bingham a small por- 
trait of himself painted by the Marchioness de Brehan. 

The principal Centennial buildings in Philadelphia, by the way, 
were erected on what was called the Lansdowne estate, now embod- 
ied in Fairmont Park, and just where still stands Horticultural Hall, 
formerly stood one of the grandest and most historic mansions in 
the land. It was in crumbling ruins when razed to the ground by the 
commissioners, who made no effort to restore it to its former ap- 
pearance because of its glorious associations. Only the name — given 
in compliment to the Marquis of Lansdowne — remains to mark the 
estate once so royally adorned and the home of so much hospitality 
and festivity. Originally owned by Rev. William Smith, Provost of 
the College of Philadelphia, it was sold in 1773 to John Penn, part 
Proprietary of Pennsylvania and Governor, who increased the es- 
tate by other tracts to about 200 acres. Here a stone mansion of im- 
posing proportions, mainly in the Italian style, was erected by Penn. 

The main building was flanked by two recessed wings, from each 
end of which projected a large bay window; in front was a two- 
storied portico, each story supported by Ionic columns, surmounted 
with a pediment. A long avenue of trees formed a charming ap- 
proach to the manor-house. The undulating grounds were laid out by 

133 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

an expert landscape gardener, fine old trees and romantic ravines 
being among its features. Landsdowne Glen remains today in some- 
what of its pristine wildness. Governor Penn died in 1793, and his 
widow, formerly Ann Allen, deeded the property to the husband of 
her niece, James Greenleaf. A leading merchant, closely identified 
with Robert Morris in heavy real estate speculations, James Green- 
leaf was supposed to be a man of great wealth, but he failed when 
Morris collapsed in business, and the estate was sold at mortgage 
foreclosure by the sheriff, April 11, 1797, to William Bingham for 
$50,100. Madame Bonaparte, nee Elizabeth Patterson, who married 
Napoleon's youngest brother, Jerome, but was not allowed to live 
with him for long;, must have had this magnificent abode in mind 
when she wrote from Paris to her father in 1823 : "It is to be hoped 
that in future there will be no more palaces constructed, as there 
appears to be a fatality attending their owners, beginning with Rob- 
ert Morris and ending with Lem Taylor. I do not recollect a single 
instance, except that of Bingham, of any one who built one in Amer- 
ica not dying a bankrupt." 

Under the Bingham regime this palace— not built but improved 
upon by the Senator— was devoted to scenes of lavish hospitality 
and cultured diversion. Its wealthy and fashionable owners had 
among their guests the highest worthies in the land— such men as 
Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and other distinguished American 
and foreign statesmen. The Binghams were listed in all the swag- 
ger gayeties of the hour, their balls and sumptuous entertainments 
being scarcely equaled by those at the home of Mrs. Adams and 
Lady Liston. 

With such women as Mrs. William Bingham, Miss Sallie 
McKean and Mrs. Samuel Blodget among the native beauties, and 
Mrs. Ralph Izard, Mrs. Elbridge Gerry, and Mrs. John Jay, who 
had once been mistaken by the audience in a French theatre for the 
beautiful queen Marie Antoinette, among the sojourners, there was 
perhaps little exaggeration in the Due de la Rochefoucauld's gal- 
lant observation that "in the numerous assemblies of Philadelphia 
it is impossible to meet with what is called a plain woman." In a 
^ord, Mrs. William Bingham shared with Mrs. John Jay the dis- 
tinction of being the most beautiful and charming woman in Amer- 
ica. "Honors seem to have been easy between these two highborn 
dames, as both were beloved, admired, and feted at home and 
abroad. ' ' 

139 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

Mr. Bingham was offered and could have had any foreign 
embassy within the patronage of the President, but he preferred to 
remain at home among his Whig friends. Moreover, as a financier 
in the best sense of the term, a director of the famous Bank of North 
America, he realized that he must keep a close eye on the diverse 
undertakings in which his capital was involved. 

At least one great grief came into the lives of the Binghams. 
They had three children — Anne Louisa, Maria Matilda, and William. 
Anne Louisa married the Hon. Alexander Baring, August 23, 179S, 
and everybody called it a good match. But Maria Matilda — a pretty 
girl of 16, and much more romantic than wise — eloped, April 11, 
1799, with Comte de Tilly, a man of good birth and ignoble charac- 
ter. Before the piquant gossip over this affair had abated, the in- 
dignant parents of the bride are said to have bought off the shady 
nobleman and got a divorce for Maria. Her second husband was 
Henry Baring, the brother of Alexander, who had married her 
sister. 

Poor Maria again misbehaved, and at last Henry Baring di- 
vorced her. Thirdly, she married a Marquis de Blaisell of the Aus- 
trian embassy at Paris, where she lived the rest of her life. The 
lady can not be said to have done credit to her family. Nor could 
any more be said for the third child and only son of the Senator, who 
was born in 1800. Twenty-two years later he married, at Montreal, 
a Miss Vandreiul. I have seen it stated somewhere that the lady 
was a "baroness in her own right" — a statement not so fully verified 
as it might be, though had she been the daughter of a hundred earls, 
she apparently was not one to be desired. This William Bingham 
was very inferior morally and intellectually to his father, and his 
wife was much talked about. He died in Paris in 1855. One finds no 
mention of children of this union. 

It has been hinted that Mrs. Bingham, wife of the Senator, 
never recovered from the shock of her daughter's escapade. At all 
events, she was not destined for a long life. Returning one night 
from a party in a sleigh, she took a severe cold, which settled on her 
lungs, and she was taken to Bermuda, but died there, May 11, 1801, 
at the early age of thirty-seven. Much broken in health and spirits 
by his bereavement, Mr. Bingham went to Europe shortly afterward, 
and died at Bath, England, January 30, 1804, in his fifty-second 
year. Among the five executors named in his will were his two 

140 



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lianiton. 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

sons-in-law — Alexander Baring and Henry Baring, the others being 
Thomas Mayne Willing, Robert Gilmer and Charles Willing Hare. 

"The Lansdowne mansion was more or less occupied by the Bar- 
ings, and at various times by Joseph Bonaparte, the elder brother 
of Napoleon, and ex-King of Spain. Then for a number of years it 
remained vacant, and was finally burned by fireworks in the hands 
of small boys. The ruins stood for a long time, until the property 
was bought by a number of public-spirited gentlemen, ceded to the 
city, and incorporated with the Park. 

From the marriage of William Bingham's elder daughter a 
number of lords and ladies and other titled personages date their 
lineage. Alexander Baring was the son of the great banker, Sir 
Francis Baring. From a partner he became on the death of his 
father, in 1810, the head of the banking house of Baring Brothers, 
and was a member of Parliament from 1812 to 1835, when he was 
raised to the peerage under the title of Baron Ashburton. 

The northeastern boundary question had long been in contro- 
versy, and difficult matters pertaining to it had embarrassed the 
relations of the two countries— England and the United States— 
for sixty years. The unsettled conditions of that question led Sir 
Robert Peel to send Lord Ashburton to the United States to nego- 
tiate a treaty which was finally concluded August 9, 1842, and known 
as the Ashburton- Webster treaty. The opposition in England, led 
by Lord Palmerston, assailed it as the "Ashburton Capitulation," 
while in the United States Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State, 
was charged with having allowed himself to be hoodwinked. Since 
then, though, on both sides of the water, this treaty has been 
accepted by the foremost public men as a fair and honorable adjust- 
ment of a very perplexing difference between the two nations. 

Yet one wonders whether Lord Ashburton, when he came over 
here to negotiate the treaty that bears his name jointly with that of 
"Webster, had not some personal interest on his side of the matter— 
his wife and children being heirs of William Bingham and to his 
lands in Maine. 

On motion of Mr. Hume in the House of Commons, and of Lord 
Brougham in the House of Lords, the extraordinary compliment of 
a vote of thanks for a diplomatic achievement was paid to Lord Ash- 
burton. He was naturally pleased with this, but declined the earl- 
dom that was offered to him. It is not a hard thing to account for 

141 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 



the success of Lord Ashburton as a diplomatist. To high charac- 
ter and intelligence were united affable and sufficiently democratic 
manners, and a disposition as kind as it was lively. Another prime 
advantage to him was his friendly personal relations with Daniel 
Webster, one of whose grandsons was named after him. 

Lord Ashburton was a D. C. L. of Oxford, a trustee of the Brit- 
ish Museum, and a privy councillor. At one time Talleyrand con- 
fided to him the custody of his memoirs, and presented him with a 
bust of Napoleon carved by Canova. He was at the country seat of 
his daughter Harriet, the widow of the Marquis of Bath, when he 
died, in 1848. His wife, nee Anne Louisa Bingham, a notably refined 
woman, died about six months after him. His eldest son, AVilliam 
Bingham Baring, the second Lord Ashburton, who for seventeen 
years was a member of Parliament and held various official posi 
tions, died March 23, 1864. As bankers, it will be recalled, the Bar- 
ings for nearly a century represented the financial interests of this 
country. 

Of other titled and blue-blooded persons allied to the Bingham 
children and to their children by marriage, several readable chap- 
ters might be written. Much information about them may be found 
in Burke's Peerage. Senator Bingham's remote descendants — 
they are all now English or French — have profited enor- 
mously by his land purchases, and it is interesting to know that 
seventy or eighty years after his death they began to get large 
sums from Pennsylvania oil lands as well as from land on Mount 
Desert. 

The second Baron Ashburton, the eldest of seven children, mar- 
ried, for his first wife, Harriet Mary, eldest daughter of George 
John, sixth Earl of Sandwich. Lady Harriet Ashburton, a woman of 
remarkable brunette loveliness, was Carlyle's friend and will be 
remembered by all readers of Thomas Carlyle. This friendship 
caused much bitter jealousy on the part of Janet Welsh Carlyle and 
a good deal of mischievous tattle. Says Froude: "It was not that 
Lady Ashburton had ever been devoted to Carlyle. Quite evidently 
the feeling ran the other way. Carlyle had sat at the feet of the fine 
lady, adoring and worshipping, had made himself the plaything of 
her caprices, had made Lady Ashburton the object of the same 
idolatrous homage which he had once paid to his wife. There are 
in existence, or there were, masses of extravagant letters of Carlyle 

142 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

to the great lady, as ecstatic as Don Quixote's to Dulcinea." She 
died in 1S57, and then her husband married Lady Louisa Mackensie, 
who continued to show Carlyle the same kindness as her predecessor 
had done, for lie was a frequent visitor in the household. 

The second Baron Ashburton was succeeded by his brother 
Francis, who had married Hortense Eugenie Claire, daughter of 
Hugues Bernard Maret, Duke of Bassano, one of the most trusted 
and most trustworthy Ministers of Napoleon I. Their oldest son, 
Alexander Hugh, became the fourth Lord Ashburton on the death of 
his father in 18G8. This fourth Baron married Leonora Carolina, 
second daughter of Edward St. Vincent, ninth Lord Digby. His 
lordship (the fourth Lord Ashburton) died July 18, 1889, and w T as 
succeeded by his eldest son, Francis Denzil Edw T ard Baring, the 
present peer. He was formerly a lieutenant in the Hampshire Im- 
perial Yeomanry. His first wdfe, who died in 1904, was Hon. Mabel 
Edith Hood, eldest daughter of the fourth Viscount Hood, and the 
mother of his five children, Alexander Francis St. Vincent being the 
eldest. In 1905 this fifth Lord Ashburton met Miss Donnelly — 
known on the stage as Frances Belmont — who was born in Dublin 
and grew up in a Boston tenement. They w r ere married in February, 
1906, in the chapel of the British Embassy in Paris, and soon after- 
ward started on a leisurely honeymoon trip around the world. One 
of the sisters in the original cast of "Floradora" at the Casino 
Theatre, New York, the new Lady Ashburton has found a welcome 
place in high circles of English society, as though she had been born 
in it. 

That "certain condescension in foreigners," of wdiick the poet 
Low T ell wrote so wittily, has often been exemplified in the hunting of 
the American heiress by some impoverished nobleman of Europe. 
But the fifth Lord Ashburton is not that kind of a lord — being the 
owner of 30,000 acres in Hampshire, England, a domain of almost 
fabulous value. Therefore he has not been tempted to marry for 
money. 

In the attempt here made briefly to mention scions of the British 
peerage that have descended from Alexander Baring and his wife, 
Anne Louisa Bingham, the names of other progeny — and data as to 
their births, marriages, and deaths — have been benevolently omitted. 
The three sons and two daughters of Henry Baring and Maria Ma- 
tilda, and their children, are mentioned in Burke. These children 

143 



WILLIAM BINGHAM, FOUNDER OF CITY OF BINGHAMTON 

are among the living heirs who receive an income from the estate of 
William Bingham. 

Let us not forget that William Bingham once owned the land — 
including the angled area formed by the confluence of the Chenango 
with the Susquehanna — whereon most of the city of Binghamton 
now stands ; that the name of the city is borrowed from his own. Nor 
should we forget that William Bingham did actually donate the 
land for the site of a court house and other public buildings, and 
that his representative carried out most of his wishes very soon 
after Chenango Point became the county seat of Broome. 

We must give William Bingham credit for having been a good 
deal of a man. In shaping the material of biographical research one 
is often conscious that less than half enough is recorded of the 
splendid spirit of men like the one here so inadequately sketched. 
Of such intimate disclosures as to William Bingham, we have too 
few. Yet proofs of his generosity, as to the squatters on his land, 
for instance, are to be found in our own local chronicles. And in the 
larger community where he lived, we may be sure that many bless- 
ings from the lips of the poor were evoked by his modest deeds of 
charity, 

"His little, nameless, unremembered acts 
Of kindness and of love." 




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The Story of Arlington National Cemetery 

By Carson C. Hathaway, Washington, D. C. 




fjlO THOSE who love human interest, a military cemetery 
is not merely a burial ground. It is a place to stir the 
imagination and to arouse living memories of the past. 
Amid such surroundings, Lincoln gave to the world his 
Gettysburg Address, America's greatest contribution to literature. 
Even the peaceful silence of a country churchyard could inspire the 
most sublime poem in the English language, "Gray's Elegy." If 
we would know the real spirit of our country, we need not turn to the 
halls of legislation. Among the millions in the throbbing centers of 
commerce we would search for it in vain. We shall find it rather in 
Arlington National Cemetery, the last home of our most heroic dead. 
The Arlington estate is situated in northeastern Virginia, across 
the Potomac river from Washington, I). C. It has one of the most 
romantic histories of any plot of ground in America. In 1669, Gov- 
ernor William Berkeley presented the estate to Eobert Howsen, who 
soon sold it to John Alexander for six hogsheads of tobacco. It re- 
mained in his family until Christmas Day, 1778, when it was sold by 
Gerard Alexander to John Parke Custis. During the century that 
followed it was associated with two of the most famous names in 
American history. John Parke Custis was the son of Martha Custis, 
who, after the death of her first husband, married George Washing- 
ton. The first Custis proprietor died in 1781, of a fever, near York- 
town, Virginia. His two children were adopted by George Washing- 
ton, and went to live at Mount Vernon ; they stayed there for many 
years, until the death of Martha Washington. The son, George 
Washington Park Custis, then removed to his father's estate on the 
banks of the Potomac and built there a beautiful colonial mansion. 
It contained seventeen rooms, and its majestic Doric pillars were 
visible for many miles. The building was begun in 1801 but was not 
completed until after the War of 1812. 

The estate had previously been called Abingdon, but its name 
was now changed to Arlington. It is said that the first Custis who 

145 



THE STORY OF ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY 

was born in Virginia erected a mansion in Northampton county and 
called it Arlington in honor of Henry, Earl of Arlington, to whom 
Charles II had given extensive grants of land in Virginia. The new 
estate on the Potomac was christened after the other Custis estate 
in Northampton county. 

Washington himself never lived in Arlington, but George Wash- 
ington Parke Custis brought to his new mansion many household 
furnishings from Mount Vernon, as well as personal reminders of 
the Revolution's greatest general. One particularly famous relic, 
now in the National Museum in Washington, was the sleeping tent 
in which Cornwallis was received as a prisoner. This was often set 
up in the grounds at Arlington, and people were glad to pay a small 
fee to sit for a few moments in the tent. The money was turned 
over to charitable purposes, and it is said that three churches were 
built from the funds thus acquired. George Washington Parke Cus- 
tis died on October 10, 1857. His grave and that of his wife may 
still be seen a little distance from the mansion. 

He willed the estate to his only child, Mary Ann Randolph Lee, 
for her lifetime, and directed that after her death it should go to 
George Washington Custis Lee, his eldest grandson. Many years 
before the death of George Washington Parke Custis, Iris daughter 
had married Robert E. Lee. The wedding took place in the Arling- 
ton mansion on June 30, 1831. Lee at the time was a soldier in the 
army of the United States. His home was at Alexandria, Virginia, 
only a few miles from Arlington. It is interesting to remember that 
this historic city was named after the Alexander family who in pre- 
R evolutionary days owned the Arlington estate. After the wed- 
ding, Lee took up his residence at Arlington and lived here for over 
a quarter of a century, although his profession as a soldier took him 
on frequent journeys, his most important work coming during the 
Mexican War. He was residing at Arlington when he received or- 
ders to go and suppress the raid of John Brown at Harper's Ferry. 

From the veranda of the beautiful mansion he could see the 
dome of the National Capitol rising majestically to the East. Per- 
haps to his mind there came dreams of the day, when, like other 
military leaders of the past, he would assume a place of renown in 
that home of the nation's statesmen. It was not to be. The Civil 
War broke in all its fury. The command of the Northern Army was 
offered to Lee. He was torn between loyalty to the Union and loy- 

146 



THE STORY OF ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY 

alty to his native State. Finally the call of the South conquered. He 
turned his back on all possibilities of Northern fame, hurriedly left 
Arlington, and took command of the Southern armies. The estate 
was seized by Northern troops. Fortifications were thrown up to as- 
sist in the defense of the city of Washington. The old mansion was 
turned into a hospital, and here many men from both the North and 
the South died. On January 11, 186-1, the Federal government sold 
the property for unpaid taxes of $92.07. The estate was sold at 
auction, and was bid in by the United States government for $26,800. 

On May 13, 1861, President Lincoln and General Meigs visited 
the estate and were told that a number of soldiers had died there and 
were awaiting burial. They gave orders that the men be buried on 
the grounds, and this was the beginning of Arlington National Cem- 
etery. An order of the Secretary of War, dated June 15, 1864, 
officially set aside a portion of the grounds for burial purposes. 
The first soldier laid to rest in this historic spot was said to be a 
North Carolina soldier in the Confederate army by the name of 
Bernhardt, whose body was later removed to soil farther South. 
By June 30, 1865, the estate contained 5,003 bodies, and others were 
being buried daily. 

Some time after the war was over, Mrs. Lee having died, her 
son, George Washington Custis Lee, brought suit against the United 
States for the recovery of the property. It was a very embarassing 
situation. According to the law in the case, he had a clear title to 
"the estate, and highest courts so decreed; but in the meantime the 
place had been made sacred by the burial of thousands of soldiers. 
It was finally agreed that the United States government should pay 
him $150,000 in settlement of all claims against the property. On 
March 25, 1884, the final payment of $25,000 was made, and the whole 
estate became the undisputed property of the United States. 

The original estate is now divided into three parts. Four hun- 
dred and eight acres are inclosed as the National Military Ceme- 
tery. To the west is Fort Myer, where thousands of soldiers were 
trained for the World War. This is a permanent military fort of 
the United States. To the east, approaching the Potomac river, is 
the experimental farm of the Department of Agriculture, which can 
easily be added to the burial grounds should the occasion arise. The 
original estate consisted of about 1,100 acres. 

147 



THE STORY OF ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY 

Near the center of the grounds there has been erected a beauti- 
ful amphitheatre costing $825,000, with a seating capacity of five 
thousand. It is the only memorial of its kind in the United States, 
dedicated to the soldiers and sailors of all the wars in which Ameri- 
ca has taken part. It is built entirely of white marble, and is open to 
the sky. On each Memorial Day, services will be held here to honor 
the heroic dead. Arlington's first Memorial Day was celebrated on 
May 30, 1S6S, General Logan, commander-in-chief of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, having issued orders that all graves were to 
be decorated on that date. James A. Garfield, then an eloquent mem- 
ber of Congress, delivered the address of the day. Since that time 
the spirit of Memorial Day has been highly commended by many of 
our national leaders. In 1SS0 General Ulysses S. Grant wrote feel- 
ingly of the necessity for properly decorating the graves of our sol- 
diers and sailors on each Memorial Day. His letter on that occasion, 
addressed personally to the present editor of this magazine, is re- 
produced in this connection. Remembering him as the utterer of 
that touching prayer, "Let Us Have Peace," we may well believe 
that had he lived to the World War day, he would have included its 
soldiers in his benediction. 

Of the more than thirty-three thousand persons now buried in 
Arlington, nearly five thousand are numbered among the unknown 
dead. The graves of the known dead are marked by marble slabs 
rounded at the top, while the unknown dead bear slabs with flat 
tops. Near the Mansion stands a large monument bearing this in- 
scription : 

Beneath this stone repose the bones of 2,111 Unknown 
Soldiers gathered after the war from the fields of 
Bull Run and the route to the Rappahannock. Their 
remains could not be identified, but their names and 
deaths are recorded in the archives of their country. 

Within the cemetery there are now three hundred and seventy- 
eight Confederate graves. Near the western wall there stands a 
beautiful monument erected by the Daughters of the Confederacy. 
It has been called the most striking allegorical monument in the 
world, and bears the words : 

To our Dead Heroes. Xot for fame or reward, 
not for place or rank, not lured by ambition or goaded 
by necessity, but in simple obedience to duty as they 
understood it, these men suffered all, sacrificed all, 
dared all and died. 

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THE STORY OF ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY 

The monument was designed by Moses J. Ezekiel, a Confederate sol- 
dier who later became a famous sculptor. It is interesting to note 
that at. the foot of his masterpiece, the monument in Arlington, the 
sculptor himself now lies buried with his comrades. 

Here and there throughout the Civil War section may be seen 
monuments to some of the most famous heroes of that conflict, in- 
cluding Admiral Porter, who commanded the fleet on the Missis- 
sippi river; General Joseph Wheeler, who served in the Confederate 
cavalry, and later was a United States soldier in the Spanish- Ameri- 
can War; General Kosecrans; and General Philip Sheridan, who 
made the immortal ride from Winchester. 

A short distance from the Confederate monument may be seen 
the ruins of Fort McPherson, one of a chain of forts which were 
hastily thrown up as a defense of Washington during the Civil War. 
It is one of the last reminders in the vicinity of the Capital of the 
danger from Southern invasion during the War of the States. It 
was never actually used in battle, and now consists merely of a series 
of grass covered mounds. 

Second in importance to the Civil War area is the Spanish War 
section, and here the chief point of interest is the monument to the 
heroes of the battleship Maine. It calls to mind that tragic night on 
February 15, 1898, when a fearful explosion in Havana Harbor 
snuffed out the lives of over two hundred and fifty sailors of that 
famous ship. The first victims were buried in Arlington on Decem- 
ber 28, 1899, and on March 23, 1912, after the remains of the battle- 
ship had been raised from Havana Harbor, sixty-four others, who 
could not be identified, were buried in the Maine plot. On the first 
occasion, President McKinley delivered the memorial address, and 
in 1912 it was given by President Taft. The Maine monument is an 
imposing structure of great historic interest, for it is surmounted by 
the original mast of the Maine, while at one side rests an anchor of 
the ill-fated battle-ship. 

In the Spanish War section are the graves of Admiral Sampson 
and his adversary in the famous verbal conflict which followed the 
war, Admiral Schley. Here are also buried "Fighting Bob" Evans, 
who led the battleship fleet around the world ; General Lawton, the 
hero of the fighting during the Philippine insurrection ; and here is 
also a monument to Roosevelt's Eough Riders. On a hilltop far to 

149 



THE STORY OF ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY 

the east is the mausoleum of the famous admiral of the Spanish- 
American War. On it there appears the simple inscription, 

GEORGE DEWEY, ADMIRAL OF THE NAVY. 

Finally, there is the World War section. Here are buried over 
five thousand American soldiers, most of them veterans from the 
fields of France. Near the memorial amphitheatre is a spot destined 
to become one of the most sacred shrines in the United States, the 
tomb of America's Unknown Soldier. There is an atmosphere of 
romance and mystery in the strange story of the soldier who re- 
ceived the greatest honors of any American who died during the 
world conflict. 

One day in the month of October, 1921, four coffins were brought 
into Chalons, France, and deposited in the city hall. They had been 
taken from four military cemeteries at Belleau Wood, Bony, Thian- 
court and Eomagne, and each contained the body of an unknown 
American soldier. Corporal Edward Younger had been selected to 
make the final choice of the one who was to receive the name of THE 
Unknown Soldier. He entered the room, looked at all of the coffins 
for a few moments, and then placed a bunch of white roses on the 
top of one. The other three were then borne quietly away to be 
buried in Romagne cemetery, where most of the American dead in 
France now lie. The coffin on which the white roses rested was 
marked with the inscription, "An Unknown American Soldier Who 
Gave His Life in the Great War." It then began its triumphal 
march toward Arlington. When it arrived at Washington it was 
taken reverently to the Capitol, where before it filed nearly one hun- 
dred thousand American citizens. The next day it was borne down 
Pennsylvania avenue, followed by the greatest funeral procession of 
notables the country had ever seen. The President of the United 
States, former Presidents Taft and Wilson, the Supreme Court of 
the United States, the members of Congress, and the veterans who 
had been awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, our highest 
military decoration, all paid silent tribute to the Unknown Hero. 
When the procession reached Arlington the address was delivered 
by the President of the United States. There were then placed 
upon the casket the highest military decorations of the allied nations. 
The Victoria Cross, a decoration never before given to any save a 
British subject, was bestowed by Admiral Beatty of the British 

150 








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Navy. Marshal Foch, the great French general, bestowed the Croix 
de Guerre and the French military cross. At last the body of the 
Unknown Soldier was laid to rest. 

There are also in Arlington the graves of many military and 
naval heroes who fought against no foreign foe, but who are hon- 
ored for some signal achievement in civic endeavors. In one beau- 
tiful spot in front of the Lee mansion is the grave of Pierre Charles 
L 'Enfant, engineer, artist and soldier, who, under the guidance of 
George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, designed the plan for 
the city of "Washington. The setting is a wonderfully appropriate 
place for his grave. Standing close by his monument, one can see 
just across the Potomac the new Lincoln Memorial. A little farther 
in the distance are the White House and the Washington Monument, 
while on the hills to the east stand the Library of Congress and the 
Capitol of the United States. If L 'Enfant could see the view from 
his grave, he would know that dreams come true. 

Far in the eastern portion of Arlington rises a sturdy shaft 
over the grave of Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge, a martyr to the 
science of aviation. On September 17, 1908, a flight was planned to 
test one of the new Wright airplanes. The experiment was con- 
ducted at Fort Myer, a part of the Arlington estate. In the plane 
were Selfridge and Orville Wright. All went well for a short time, 
but suddenly the plane collapsed and dashed to the earth like a 
wounded bird. Selfridge was killed, but in his death he helped to 
bring nearer to realization the hope of Professor Langley, the 
"father of the airplane," that "the great overhead highway shall at 
Inst be opened for the use of mankind." He lies buried only a few 
hundred yards from the spot where the fatal accident occurred. 

A short distance down the slope from his grave is that of Louis 
Henry Maxiield, commander in'the United States Navy, who was 
killed near Hull, England, in the explosion of the ZE2, the largest 
airship ever constructed. On a trial flight which was being made 
preparatory to sailing in the huge craft to America, the bag 
exploded and hurled the occupants of the ship to their death. A lit- 
tle to the north on an inconspicuous hillside is a marble globe mark- 
ing the grave of Eobert E. Peary, discoverer of the North Pole. He 
finally achieved the goal of many a hardy explorer before him, and 
pave to America the honor of one of the greatest feats of explora- 
tion. Close at hand is the grave of Dr. Walter Reed, surgeon and 

151 



THE STORY OF ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY 

major in the United States Army. For many years the South had 
been ravaged by yellow fever, and Dr. Eeed was sent down into 
Cuba to discover the cause of the disease. He found that it was 
caused by the bite of a variety of mosquito, and as a result of his 
research the disease was conquered. His work marked one of the 
most important milestones in bacteriological science. His monu- 
ment bears the words, "He gave to man control over that dreadful 
Bcourge, yellow fever." 

The Engineer, the Aviator, the Explorer and the Physician 
were all splendid representatives of the United States. Their work 
was not to destroy, but to assist mankind. 

One important step remains in the development of this wonder- 
ful estate. At present it is almost isolated from "Washington, and 
must be reached by a roundabout trip over a Potomac bridge nearly 
a mile and a half away. On Armistice Day, 1921, when the Unknown 
Soldier was buried, the roadway to the cemetery was blocked by a 
surging throng of humanity. Passage in either direction became 
impossible. The President of the United States, hurrying to Arling- 
ton to deliver the memorial address, was delayed for nearly an hour 
waiting for the passage to be cleared. To prevent the repetition of 
such an incident and to link up the Capital City with the sacred 
home of the dead, a new memorial bridge is to be constructed which 
will lead from the Lincoln Memorial to the cemetery at Arlington. 

Arlington is one of the most impressive spots in America, and 
it is destined to become even more beautiful as time goes on. As a 
national cemetery it has been in existence for little more than half a 
century. In the years to come it will guard the graves not of the 
present thirty-three thousand of the nation's defenders, but of hun- 
dreds of thousands. All of the four million soldiers, sailors and 
marines of the Great War have the privilege of being buried within 
its walls. 

The spirit of Arlington is best revealed in the inscriptions on 
the tombs of the dead. One of these bears the dying words of a lieu- 
tenant in the United States Navy: "Do not bother any more with 
me, doctor, look after the others." Another may be said to express 
the message of Arlington to the world: 

"Go on fighting; that is what you are here for." 



Note — The monument views with this narrative are from photos taken by the 
author of the article. 

152 




Bust of William Pitt 

Presented to the City of Pittsburgh 

|N Thursday, September 14th, 1922, the City of Pittsburgh 
was the scene of a most interesting ceremony which had 
direct relation to its practical founding and naming a 
hundred and sixty-four years ago. This was the presen- 
tation to the City by Sir Charles Wakefield, former Lord Mayor of 
London, of a fine bronze bust of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, the 
great English statesman who was primarily responsible for the tak- 
ing of the City of Pittsburgh from the French on November 25, 1758, 
and in whose honor the place was named on that day by General 
John Forbes. 

Sir Charles Wakefield was induced to make his generous gift 
through the efforts of the Sulgrave Institute, an organization named 
after the home of the ancestors of George Washington and composed 
of Englishmen and Americans desirous of promoting good feeling 
between their respective countries. He therefore decided to present 
to this country two busts of great Englishmen noted for their sym- 
pathy with America, Edmund Burke and William Pitt. The first 
of these was presented to Washington, D. C, after his visit to Pitts- 
burgh. 

Upon notification of his intention as to Pittsburgh, the matter 
was taken up by the Chamber of Commerce, which enlisted the inter- 
est of Mayor William A. Magee, who appointed a committee of 
arrangements headed by William H. Stevenson, President of the 
Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania and of the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Commission. The other members of the executive 
committee were: Wm. M. Furey, Robert Garland, L. H. Burnett, 
Mrs. E. V. Babcock, W. M. Jacoby, Gen. Albert J. Logan, H. C. 
McEldowney, George S. Oliver, A. C. Terry, E. N. Jones, secretary 
to the Mayor, James Francis Burke, Charles W. Danziger, Wm. H. 
French and Harry C. Graham. 

The 161th anniversary of the battle of Grant's Hill fought 
between the British and Colonial forces and the French and Indians 

153 



BUST OF WILLIAM PITT 

was chosen as the date for the ceremony, the scene being the Pitts- 
burgh City-County building situated on the hill. The battle was 
fought for the possession of Fort Duquesne, but resulted in the 
defeat of the British and Colonials. Nearly a month later, how- 
ever, on October 12th, 175S, they were successful in the battle of 
Loyalhanna, as a result of which Fort Duquesne was abandoned by 
the French and taken possession of by the British and Colonials on 
November 25th following. 

Sir Charles Wakefield and his party reached Pittsburgh on the 
morning of September 13th. He was given a luncheon at the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, where he spoke pertinently and forcefully, as did 
his companion, Sir Arthur A. Haworth, of Manchester, at a meet- 
ing in the auditorium presided over by William EL Stevenson, whero 
he was introduced by President William M. Furey, of the Chambei. 
In the afternoon the party was taken for an automobile ride through 
the city, visiting the residence of ex-Mayor E. V. Babcock in Val- 
encia, and in the evening attended a dinner at the William Penn 
Hotel. In his remarks before the Chamber df Commerce, Sir 
Charles Wakefield said in part: "We must increase the output of 
comradeship of both employer and employee." He expressed the 
thanks of the visiting delegation for the cordial welcome, told how 
he had spoken to the combined forces of British and the United 
States on the battle line in Belgium during the World War, and 
spoke with deep feeling of hearing how the American soldiers 
responded with "Fight the Good Fight." "I should like to see 
those good old times come again in one respect," he said. "I mean 
the unity of the trenches, the comradeship. I wish we might see the 
world's spiritual forces united as were our military forces in those 
great days." 

In the party with Sir Charles W T akefield were Lady Wakefield, 
Miss Freda W 7 akefield, Sir Arthur A. Haworth, president of the 
Merchants' Exchange of Manchester, and Lady Haworth, Lieuten- 
ant Governor McCallum Grant, of Nova Scotia, and Mrs. Grant, 
Hon. D. B. Edwards, Deputy High Commissioner of Australia, H. S. 
Perris, a director of Sulgrave Institution, Harold Spender, writer, 
Captain M. L. DeVoto, John A. Stewart of New York, chairman of 
the American Branch of the Sulgrave Institution, W 7 . L. Humphrey, 
secretary of the Institute, and Miss Ethel Armes, secretary of the 
American Branch of the Sulgrave Institution. 

154 



BUST OF WILLIAM PITT 

At the dinner in the evening at the William Penn Hotel, Chair- 
man Stevenson presented James Francis Burke as the toastmaster. 
Speeches were made by Lieutenant Governor Grant, on "Our Next 
Door Neighbor;" by John A. Stewart, on "The Sulgrave Institution 
in Its Relation to the English Speaking Eace;" by Hon. D. B. Ed- 
wards, on "Hands Across the Sea;" and by Sir Charles Wakefield, 
Mayor W. A. Magee, Harold Spender and H. S. Perris. Dr. Hugh 
M. Kerr delivered the invocation. Andrew B. Humphrey proposed 
a toast to President Harding, Mayor Magee proposed a toast to King 
George IV, and Mrs. Perris proposed a toast to Mrs. Harding. 

The next day, September 14th, at noon, the bust of Pitt was 
presented at a meeting held in front of the City-County building, 
presided over by William H. Stevenson, who introduced the various 
speakers. Addresses were made by William C. Sproul, Governor of 
Pennsylvania, Sir Charles W 7 akefield, and Mayor AVilliam A. Magee. 
Dr. William J. Holland delivered the invocation. 

Sir Charles Wakefield, in presenting the bust, which was 
wrapped with British and American colors, told briefly the story of 
Pitt's life, and paid glowing tribute to the American and British Sul- 
grave Institution through which the bust was presented. In part he 
said: 

It is my great privilege to offer this bust of W T illiam Pitt, Earl 
of Chatham, prime minister of England and champion of American 
rights, to the City of Pittsburgh, as a token of friendship from the 
British to the American people. 

They will, I am sure, prize this fine bust of William Pitt, as 
much as we in London value that magnificent statue of Abraham Lin- 
coln, which stands in the very shadow of our House of Parliament. 
The controversies in which Chatham played his heroic part are 
dead; the healing hand of time has smoothed out all the roughness 
and bitterness of that great struggle for liberty. English historians 
and the English people have long since condemned the mistaken 
policy of George III and his subservient ministers, which alienated 
the affection of the American colonies. 

The triumph of the cause of liberty in America was a trumpet 
call to its lovers everywhere, and in winning freedom for themselves, 
your ancestors helped to win it for us also. They were Englishmen 
and appealed to English principles of liberty and justice in their 
uprising. And this appeal has been allowed, and their victory ac- 
claimed by Englishmen throughout the world for many generations 
past. 

In honoring the great figure of Pitt today our thoughts are, in 

155 



BUST OF WILLIAM PITT 

a small measure, and by way of gratitude and admiration for him, 
in the past ; but in a greater measure they are turned to the present 
and the future. 

There are now no hereditary misunderstandings, or lingering 
jealousies or antagonism, between the British and the American 
people. 

Our mission to America and, to your splendid city of Pitts- 
burgh, is to bring a message of comradeship and fraternity, an as- 
surance of good will and of our desire for every kind of cooperation 
between our two great nations. 

Our ceremony today reminds us that we have great memories 
in common. We too, have more recent memories of our common 
sacrifices to secure the victory of democracy in arms against the op- 
pressor. 

When we look, therefore, at this statue, let us remember how 
easy is our journey along the road which Pitt so well pointed out, 
and resolve that we will do all in our power to maintain the price- 
less boon of Anglo-American comradeship. 

Governor Sproul in his speech lauded Pennsylvania for its key- 
stone part in every great American crisis, and said that of all the 
vast tonnage of munitions which went forward in the World War, 
Pennsylvania contributed eighty per cent, and Allegheny county 
sixty per cent. He declared that the State of Pennsylvania and the 
city of Pittsburgh are honored in two monuments that are everlast- 
ing—the name given the former in honor of its founder, William 
Penn, and the latter the name of William Pitt. Had the advice of 
the latter been heeded, said the Governor, many struggles in the 
State and Allegheny county might have been avoided in after years. 
Such gatherings as that of the day, he said, serve to better relations 
between nations, creating a clearer understanding and knowledge, 
each for and of the other, and by that bringing a boon to all man- 
kind. The relationship between the United States and Canada, the 
speaker said, with a frontier of several thousands of miles 
unguarded and unfortified, is the sort of relationship which should 
prevail among all nations. The Governor spoke in glowing words 
of the part Canada had taken in the World War, and with a touch of 
pathos mentioned the large proportion of the population which 
enlisted in the service and who made the supreme sacrifice on the 
field of battle. 

Mayor William A. Magee said in part: 

!5 6 



BUST OF WILLIAM PITT 

The gift which we are receiving today is one which the people of 
Pittsburgh will appreciate to the full. It symbolizes the relationship 
of our community to one of the outstanding figures of the history of 
modern times. We are proud of our name. 

The possession of the strategic, military and economic point at 
the headwaters of the Ohio River was the cause of the great Seven 
Year's war, the only war previous to the last war that was waged on 
a nation-wide scale. The decision of arms at this place hastened the 
growth of democratic ideals by perhaps generations if not centuries. 

Our great patron saint, the outstanding figure of his time, was 
foremost in support of popular government. The American nation 
was his child. We are proud in being known to the world by his 
name. We are, in physical embodiment, his commemoration. This 
statue will remain in this building, the seat of our municipal govern- 
ment, a silent witness, constantly reminding those who follow after 
us not only of the glorious days which were the fruit of his deep 
wisdom and boundless energy, but of much more still, the enduring 
effect upon the lives of untold millions of people determined by the 
events that transpired here more than one hundred and sixty years 
ago. 

In introducing the speakers, Chairman Stephenson made the 
following remarks: 

The tie that binds the English speaking people together is the 
history of their achievements in the civilization of the world. 

Our gathering here today is signalized by an appropriateness of 
time as well as of location and above all of purpose. That purpose 
is to forge another link in the strong and unbroken chain of friend- 
ship that has for more than a century united the English speaking 
peoples,— Britons and Americans,— common descendants of the 
Anglo-Saxon race and equal heirs to its great constitutional prin- 
ciples and traditions. For near here and within sight of the win- 
dows of the graceful tower which rises to my right over the temple 
of justice, is the point where Fort Duquesne stood and where Fort 
Pitt arose, the final possession of which decided the destiny of the 
vast territory lying between the Alleghenies and the Rockies and 
made sure the creation of this great nation. 

Upon the exact spot where we are now standing, just 164 years 
ago today one of the notable conflicts waged for the possession of the 
Forks of the Ohio was fought. Here on the 14th of September, 1758, 
Major James Grant, a British officer with about 600 Highlanders 
and about 200 Pennsylvanians and Virginians, fought a losing bat- 
tle with the French Canadians and Indians. 

British and American blood was shed in a common cause. This 
battle was the culmination of French success and power in a strug- 

157 



BUST OF WILLIAM PITT 

gle which finally resulted in the raising of the British flag over Fort 
Pitt, which thus assured the domination of the Anglo-Saxon race in 
North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the xVrctic 
to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Added to the appropriateness of the time and location of this 
great gathering is that its special object is the reception of a life- 
like and artistic bust of the great English statesman, a true and cour- 
ageous friend of America, William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, whose 
name this great city of ours appropriately bears. It is he who thun- 
dered in the English Parliament, "We may bind the Colonists' 
trade, confine their manufacturers and exercise every power what- 
ever except taking their money out of their pockets without their 
consent." He also said, "Adopt more gentle methods in dealing 
with America for the day is not far distant when America may vie 
with this Kingdom not only in arms but in arts." On May 30th, 
1777, he said, "You may ravage, you cannot conquer. It is impos- 
sible, you cannot conquer the Americans, and from that day, one 
hundred and forty-five years ago to this day, the Star Spangled 
Banner has never been lowered to a foreign enemy. 

The donor of this bust of the Peerless statesman, W T illiam Pitt, 
is a distinguished Englishman who has the honor of being the chief 
executive of the great English metropolis, London. 

But this bust of the foremost English advocate of freedom and 
constitutional rights will not stand here alone as an evidence that we 
remember and revere the memory of William Pitt. It can be truly 
said, "If you seek his monument look around." George Bancroft, 
the historian, wrote, "Pittsburgh is the most enduring monument of 
"William Pitt. As long as the Monongahela and Allegheny shall flow 
to form the Ohio, as long as the English tongue shall be the language 
of freedom in the boundless valley which their waters traverse, his 
name shall stand inscribed on the Gateway of the West." 

Our honored guest, Sir Charles Wakefield, with Lady Wakefield 
and friends, has journeyed across the Atlantic to present under the 
auspices of the Sulgrave Institution his gift to the city of Pittsburgh, 
this bust of the great friend of America, so that his features may be 
constantly before us, and also to inspire us with the high and lofty 
purpose of fostering a fraternal spirit and good feeling between 
the English speaking people of America and Great Britain. 

This great audience is a credit to the memory of AVilliam Pitt 
and an expression of gratitude to the distinguished Englishman for 
this beautiful lifelike bust of William Pitt, which will now be un- 
veiled by the donor's daughter, Miss Freda Wakefield. 

The bust was then unveiled by Miss Freda Wakefield, daughter 
of the donor. Following the ceremony there was a luncheon at the 
William Penn Hotel, then the partv was taken to the Block House, 

158 



BUST OF WILLIAM PITT 

where they were met by a reception committee of the Daughters of 
the American E evolution. From there, the visitors proceeded to the 
Carnegie Institute, where they were received by the president, Sam- 
uel H. Church, Mrs. Church, and officials of the Institute. In the 
evening, there was a dinner at the Pittsburgh Golf Club presided 
over by Samuel H. Church, after which the visitors departed for 
Washington, D. C. 

Editor's Note — The foregoing is reproduced from "The Western Pennsylvania 
Historical Magazine," Pittsburgh, wherein it appeared as a contribution presented by 
the chairman of the publication committee of that periodical. In July of 1922 was 
presented in the July number of "Americana," an excellent article, "I have Called the 
Place Pittsburgh," (the words of John Forbes when in 1758 he stood upon the spot 
whereon was to rise a great city), being a condensation from "A History of Pittsburgh 
and Its Environs," from the pen of Air. George T. Fleming, and published that year 
by the American Historical Society, Inc., the publishers also of "Americana." Our 
reproduction from the "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine" would seem to 
be altogether appropriate as a sequel to the narrative referred to. 







159 



The Beginnings of Education 

Connecticut the First State to Institute Common Schools 
By Henry A. Tirrell, Principal, or Free Academy, Norwich 




EDUCATION is the process by which an individual comes 
;acij| into possession of some part of human progress and 
thus fits himself to take part in the life of his own gen- 
eration. This process, in a normal person, is taking 



1 



place most of the time from birth to death. We are all creatures of 
the past; in physical appearance, in traits of body and mind, in de- 
sires, and in powers, we are the "heirs of all the ages" of human ev- 
olution. As there is abundant evidence that man has improved from 
his original condition, we may fairly say that the inheritance of each 
generation from the preceding one has steadily increased in value as 
human experience has covered new fields of action. Each generation 
progresses, first by acquiring the gains of former generations, then 
by new experiences of its own. 

Somewhat after the beginning of written language the accumu- 
lation of records of the past became so great that specially trained 
men were needed to preserve and interpret these records. And so 
great has been the increase in the amount and complexity of human 
progress, that great institutions have arisen to secure for humanity 
the perpetual possession of its most valuable gains. These gains 
may be grouped under two heads: first, gains in aims; secondly, 
gains in powers. Under these two topics may be grouped, I believe, 
all the progress of every epoch of history as well as that of every in- 
dividual in any epoch. Let us then briefly subdivide human aims 
and human powers. 

In so far as man's aims are affected by a belief in the supernat- 
ural, we group them under the name of Religion. In so far as his 
aims affect his dealings with his fellow men we may group them un- 
der the head of Morality. The moral code has on the one side the 
sanction of the institution of Religion, and on the other side the 
support of the institution of Government. 

160 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

Human powers may be subdivided into knowledge, or power in 
understanding; efficiency, or power in action; emotion, or power to 
feel and appreciate. It is evident then that the great institutions of 
mankind exist for the purpose of educating man in these aims and 
powers. The progress of humanity is the aggregate gain of individ- 
uals in spiritual inspiration, in moral desires, in respect for law, in 
power to enjoy what is best, in sympathy for others, in the virtues 
and habits that promote efficiency, in the understanding necessary to 
direct one's efforts intelligently. 

The School is that institution which exists primarily for the dis- 
tribution of knowledge. Now the mass of human knowledge has be- 
come so great that no one can hope to put into practice more than a 
very small part of it, It is necessary therefore that the individual 
choose a time when he will begin to put his attention on the details 
of his life work rather than on the broader understanding of human 
progress. This point of time marks the division between his liberal 
culture and his technical training. 

"When shall technical training begin? No one knows. The an- 
swer will vary with the individual's powers and opportunities. It is 
fair to say that liberal culture should be prolonged until its further 
continuance would interfere with the technical efficiency of the indi- 
vidual. But even technical information will be of little use to an in- 
dividual unless he has the personal virtues that make him efficient. 
Strength of will, tact, good habits, and many other qualities, are to 
be ranked even higher than understanding. In modern times, there- 
fore, the school has become in miniature a world of itself, in which 
the right minded pupil may learn lessons of morality, lessons of per- 
sonal power, as well as lessons in understanding and appreciation. 

Besides the four great institutions, there are other tremendous 
forces at work moulding the lives of individuals and communities ; 
— Literature, Painting, Music, the Press, and too many other forces 
to mention, have today a greater influence than ever before in the 
history of the world. A full definition of education, then, in its 
broadest sense, would be something like this : — Education is the pro- 
cess whereby the individual, through the Home, the Church, the 
State, the School, and through all the remainder of his environment, 
learns his own noblest capabilities, learns to obey moral law, gains 
power to do, and understanding to direct that power. In treating 
those facts which it is most advisable that a man entering into life 
should accurately know, Euskin says : 

161 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

I believe that he ought to know three things : First, Where he is ; 
secondly, "Where he is going; thirdly, What he had best do, under 
those circumstances. 

First : Where he is. — That is to say, what sort of a world he has 
got into; how large it is; what kind of creatures live in it, and how; 
what it is made of, and what may be made of it. 

Secondly: Where he is going. — That is to say, what chances or 
reports there are of any other world besides this ; what seems to be 
the nature of that other world. . . . 

Thirdly : What he had best do under the circumstances. — That 
is to say, what kind of faculties he possesses ; what are the present 
state and wants of mankind; what is his place in society; and what 
are the readiest means in his power of attaining happiness and dif- 
fusing it. The man who knows these things, and who has had his 
will so subdued in the learning them, that he is ready to do what he 
knows he ought, I shall call educated ; and the man who knows them 
not, uneducated — though he could talk all the tongues of Babel. 

The men who settled Connecticut believed that every one should 
be able to read the word of God. Every church therefore had its 
teacher as well as its preacher. In advance of any Colonial legisla- 
tion relating to common schools, almost every settlement had its 
teacher for part of the year at the most. The first laws did little 
more than guarantee the practice common in most towns. The set- 
tlers realized that the system of government dimly outlined in the 
''Mayflower Compact" of 1619, expanded in the Fundamental 
Orders of 1639, which to us of today stands forth as the "first writ- 
ten constitution known to history" and the foundation for repub- 
lican form of government, made universal education essential to 
self-preservation. 

The first law relating to common schools in Connecticut was 
enacted by the town of New Haven in 1611, and provided for a free 
school to be supported out of "the Common Stock." The next law 
was passed in Hartford in 1613, providing a free school for the poor 
children, with tuition charge for those able to pay. In 1616 a com- 
pilation of laws of the colony shows that every township of fifty 
families should maintain a school, and any town of one hundred 
families a grammar school. After the union of New Haven and 
Connecticut under the charter of 1662, many acts were passed relat- 
ing to common schools. In 1700, every town of seventy families was 
required to keep constantly a schoolmaster able to teach reading and 
writing. Towns of smaller size had to keep a school half the year. 

162 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

A grammar school was required in every shire town. The rate for 
school expenses was fixed at a minimum of forty shillings for every 
1,000 in the county lists, and, if insufficient, was to be further secured 
by joint levy on inhabitants and parents of children. School com- 
mittees, as distinct from other town officers, are first mentioned in 
1708. 

Parishes were recognized as school districts, though under gen- 
eral control of the towns. The close connection between churches 
and schools was possible because the population was homogeneous. 
But gradually came about a system of the separation of the church 
and school. By 1798, schools were managed by themselves as school 
societies or districts. The gradual return to town management 
by the consolidation of school districts followed the change of school 
laws in 1856. The types of schools of course changed as school laws 
became better adjusted to the needs of growing communities. In 
the various communities grew up private schools alongside the com- 
mon elementary school. As types of such schools may be mentioned 
those described by Miss Caulkins in her "History of Norwich": 

The schools in Norwich were neither intermitted or neglected 
during the Revolutionary War. An institution of higher grade than 
elementary was sustained in the town-plot through all the distrao 
tions of the country. It called in many boarders from abroad, and 
at one period, with Mr. Goodrich for its principal, acquired con- 
siderable popularity. This school is endorsed by its committee 
Andrew Huntington and Dudley Woodbridge, in 1783, as furnishing 
instruction to "young gentlemen and ladies, lads and misses, in 
every branch of literature, viz., reading, writing, arithmetic, the 
learned languages, logic, geography, mathematics," &c. Charles 
White, teacher. 

The exhibitions of the school were commonly enlivened with 
scenic representations and interludes of music. A taste for such 
entertainments was prevalent. The young people, even after their 
emacipation from schools, would sometimes take part in theatri- 
cal representations. We learned from the town newspaper that in 
February, 1792, a select company of young ladies and gentlemen 
performed the tragedy of "Gustavus" and "The Mistakes of a 
Night" at the court-house. 

The school-ma'am of former times, with her swarming hives of 
pupils, was an institution of which no sample remains at the pres- 
ent day. She was a life-long incumbent, never going out of one 
round of performance : always teaching little girls and boys to sit 

163 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

up straight and treat their elders with respect; to conquer the 
spelling-book, repeat the catechism, never throw stones, never tell a 
lie; the boys to write copies, and the girls to work samplers. If 
they sought higher education than this, they passed out of her 
domain into finishing schools. Almost every neighborhood had its 
school-ma'am, and the memory is still fresh of Miss Sally Smith at 
the Landing, and Miss Molly Grover of the Town-plot, 

Dancing-schools were peculiarly nomadic in their character; 
the instructor (generally a Frenchman) circulating through a wide 
district and giving lessons for a few weeks at particular points. 
Reels, jigs and contra-dances were most in vogue : the hornpipe and 
rigadoon were attempted by only a select few ; cotillions were grow- 
ing in favor; the minuet much admired. In October, 1787, Griffith's 
dancing-school was opened at the house of Mrs. Billings in the town- 
plot. He taught five different minuets, one of them a duo, and 
another a cotillion-minuet. His lessons were given in the morning, 
with a scholars' ball once a fortnight, Ten years later, J. C. Dever- 
eux was a popular teacher of the dance. He had large classes for 
several seasons at the court house, and at Kinney's hotel in Chelsea, 

In 1799, a school for young ladies was opened in the house 
of Major Whiting upon the Little Plain, by Mrs. Brooks, who de- 
voted herself especially to feminine accomplishments, such as tam- 
bour, embroidery, painting in water-colors, instrumental music, and 
the French language. She had at first a large number of pupils 
from this and the neighboring towns, but the attendance soon de- 
clined, and the school was relinquished. In general the young ladies 
at such schools only remained long enough to practice a few tunes 
on the guitar, to tambour a muslin shawl and apron, or embroider a 
scripture scene, and this gave the finishing stroke to their educa- 
tion. 

It was common then, as it is now, for parents with liberal means 
to send both their sons and daughters from home to obtain greater 
educational advantages. Young ladies from Norwich often went to 
Boston to finish their education, and now and then one was placed 
under the guardian care and instruction of the Moravian sisterhood 
in their seminary at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. In 1782 an academ- 
ical association was formed in the western part of the town-plot, 
consisting of forty-one subscribers and one hundred shares of rights. 
The old meeting-house of the Separatists was purchased and re- 
paired for the use of this institution. The first principal was Samuel 
Austin, and the range of studies included Latin and Greek, naviga- 
tion and the mathematics. Two popular school-books then just is- 
sued were introduced by Mr. Austin into this school — Webster's 
"Grammatical Institutes," and "Geography Made Easy," by Jed- 
idiah Morse. Mr. Morse was himself subsequently a teacher in this 
institution, which was continued with varying degrees of prosperity 

164 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

for thirty years or more. Alexander Macdonald, author of a school- 
book called "The Youth's Assistant," was one of its teachers. He 
died May 4, 1792, aged forty. Newcomb Kinney was at one time the 
principal, and had for his usher John Euss of Hartford, afterward 
member of Congress from 1819 to 1823. In 1800, Sebastian C. Ca- 
bot was the chief instructor. This school was kept in operation 
about thirty years. After it ceased, the lower part of the building 
was occupied by the public school, and the upper part, being suitably 
prepared, was in use for nearly twenty years as a Methodist chapel. 

Dr. Daniel Lathrop, who died in 1782, left a legacy of £500 to 
the town for the support of a free grammar school, upon certain 
conditions, one of which was that the school should be kept during 
eleven months of each year. A school upon this foundation was 
opened in 1787, and continued for about fifty years. The brick 
school-house upon the green was built for its accommodation. Its 
first teacher was Ebenezer Punderson. But the most noted of its 
preceptors and the one who longest held his place was Mr. William 
Baldwin, an excellent instructor, faithful and apt to teach, but a 
rigid disciplinarian, and consequently more respected than beloved 
by his pupils, until after-life led them to reverse the decisions of 
earlier days. The young have seldom judgment and generosity suf- 
ficient to make them love those who control them for their good. 

In 1843 the Lathrop donation was relinquished, with the consent 
of the legislature, to the heirs-at-law of Thomas Coit, a nephew of 
Dr. Lathrop, to whom by the provision of the testator's will it was in 
such case to revert. The investment had depreciated in value, and 
the restrictions with which the legacy was incumbered made it, in the 
advanced state of educational institutions, more of a hindrance than 
a help. The school had been for many years a great advantage to the 
town, but having accomplished its mission, it quietly ceased to be. 

Evening schools of short duration, devoted to some special 
study, were not uncommon. The object was usually of a practical 
nature, and the students above childhood. The evening school of 
Consider Sterry, in 1798, covered, according to his program, the fol- 
lowing range of instruction : ' 'Bookkeeping in the Italian. American 
and English methods, mathematics, surveying and plotting of lands ; 
price Is. 6d. per week. Navigation and the method of finding longi- 
tude by lunar observations and latitude by the sun's altitude, one 
dollar for the complete knowledge. ' ' 

Few men are gifted by nature with such an aptitude for scien- 
tific research as Consider Sterry. His attainments were all self -ac- 
quired under great disadvantages. Besides a work of lunar observa- 
tions, he and his brother prepared an arithmetic for schools, and in 
company with Nathan Daboll, another self-taught scientific genius, 
he arranged and edited a system of practical navigation, entitled 
"The Seaman's Universal Dailv Assistant," a work of nearly three 

'165 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

hundred pages. He also published several small treatises, wrote 
political articles for the papers, and took a profound interest in free- 
masonry. 

In June, 1800, a school was inaugurated at the brick house on 
the Little Plain, with Mr. William Woodbridge for the principal. 
The assembly room was fitted up with desks and benches for an aca- 
demical hall; both sexes were admitted, and the whole was under the 
supervision of a board of four citizens — Joseph Rowland, Samuel 
Woodbridge, Thomas Fanning, Thomas Lathrop. But the situation 
was too remote from the centers of population, and after a trial of 
two or three years this school was relinquished for want of patron- 
age. 

A select school for young persons of both sexes was long sus- 
tained in the town-plot, but with varying tides of prosperity and de- 
cline. After a void of two or three years, it was revived in 1803 by 
Pelatiah Perit, who had just then graduated from Yale College, and 
was only eighteen years of age. Lydia Huntley, afterwards Mrs. 
Sigourney, was one of his pupils. 

Among other teachers of the town-plot, who were subsequently 
honorable and noted in their several callings, the following are well 
remembered: Daniel Haskell, president of the Vermont University; 
Henry Strong, LL.D., eminent in the law; John Hyde, judge of coun- 
ty court, judge of probate, etc. ; Dr. Peter Allen, a physician in Ohio ; 
Rev. Joshua L. Williams, of Middletown; J. Bates Murdock, after- 
wards an officer of the Second War with Great Britain; Phineas L. 
Tracy, who from 1827 to 1833 was Member of Congress from Gene- 
see county, New York. 

A proprietary school was established at the Landing in 1797, 
by twenty-seven heads of families. The school-house was built on 
the slope of the hill above Church street, and the school was assem- 
bled and organized by the Rev. Walter King. David L. Dodge was 
the first regular teacher. In 1802, the Rev. Thomas Williams was 
the preceptor. He was noted for his assiduous attention to the 
health and morals as well as the studies of his pupils. He drilled 
them thoroughly in the ''Assembly's Catechism," and used with his 
younger classes a favorite manual called "The Catechism of Na- 
ture." Other teachers of this school were Mr. Scarborough, Eben- 
ezer Witter, John Lord (president of Dartmouth College), George 
Hill, and others. But no one retained the office for so long a term as 
Dyar T. Hinckley, of Windham, a man of earnest zeal in his profes- 
sion, who was master of desk and bench in Norwich for twenty years 
or more, yet never removed his family or obtained a regular home 
in the place. He was a schoolmaster of the old New England type, 
devoted to his profession as an ulterior pursuit, and expending his 
best energies in the performance of its duties. 

Schools at that period consisted uniformly of two sessions a 

166 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

day, of three hours each, with a half-holiday on Saturday. Mr. 
Hinckley, in addition to this, had sometimes an evening or morning 
school, or both, of two hours each, for pupils not belonging to the 
day-school. The morning hours were devoted to young ladies, and 
from an advertisement of May, 1816, giving notice of a new term, we 
ascertain the precise time when the class assembled: "Hours from 
5 o'clock to 7 A. M." Let no one hastily assume that this early sum- 
mons would be neglected. Living witnesses remain to testify that it 
drew a goodly number of young aspirants who came out, fresh and 
vigorous, at sunrise or a little later, to pursue their studies. 

Another institution that made its mark upon society was the 
Chelsea Grammar School, organized in 1806, but not incorporated 
till 1821, when it was empowered to hold real estate to the value of 
$20,000. The school-house was on the side-hill opposite the Little 
Park, in Union street. This institution continued in operation, with 
some vacant intervals, about forty years, securing for its patrons the 
benefits of an academical education for their children without send- 
ing them home. Many prominent citizens of Norwich here received 
their first introduction to the classics, the sons in numerous in- 
stances taking possession of seats once occupied by their fathers. 

No complete list of the preceptors has been obtained ; but among 
the remembered names are several that have since been distin- 
guished in literary and professional pursuits — Dr. Jonathan Knight, 
of New Haven; Charles Griswold, of Lyme; Jonathan Barnes, 
Wyllis Warner, Eoswell C. Smith, Rev. Horace Bushnell, D. D., and 
Rev. "William Adams, D. D. These men were all young at the time. 
The preceptors of most schools, here and elsewhere, at that period, 
were college graduates, accepting the office for a year, or at most for 
two or three years, between taking their degree and entering upon, 
some other profession. But teachers to whom the vocation is but a 
stepping-stone to something beyond on which the mind is fixed, 
however faithful and earnest in their present duties, can never raise 
an institution to any permanent standard of excellence. It is well 
therefore that these temporary undertakings should give way to 
public schools more thoroughly systematized and conducted by per- 
sons who make teaching a profession. 

In Chelsea, beginning about 1825, a series of expedients for en- 
larging the bounds of knowledge afford pleasing evidence of the 
gradual expansion of intellect and enterprise. A lyceum, a circu- 
lating library, a reading club, a society for mutual improvement, and 
a mechanics' association, were successively started, and though most 
of them were of brief duration, they were cheering tokens of an ad- 
vance in the right path. 

The Norwich Female Academy was incorporated in 1828. This 
institution was greatly indebted for its origin to the persevering ex- 
ertion of Mr. Thomas Robinson, who was the principal agent of the 

167 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

corporation. The brick hall erected for its accommodation stood on 
the hill facing the river, higher than any other building then on the 
declivity. Neither court-house nor jail had gained a foothold on the 
height, which was well forested, and toward the north surmounted 
by a prospect station, overtopping the woods, and known as Rock- 
well's Tower. The academy had the rugged hill for its background, 
but on other sides the view was varied and extensive; and when at 
recess the fair young pupils spread in joyous freedom over the 
height, often returning with wild flowers and' oak-leaf garlands from 
the neighboring groves, neither poetry nor romance could exagger- 
ate the interest of the scene. 

The most prosperous year of this academy was 1833, when the 
number of pupils amounted to nearly ninety, many of them boarders 
from other places. But the exposed situation of the building, and 
the rough, steep ascent by which only it could be reached, were ad- 
verse to the prosperity of a female academy, and it soon became ex- 
tinct — disbanded by wintry blasts and icy foot-paths. 

In her "History of New London," Miss Caulkins thus covers 
the early history of public education in New London : 

The town school located on this spot was the free grammar- 
school, which had for its main support the Bartlet and other public 
revenues, and had been originally established further up the hill, on 
Hempstead street, but had descended from thence about 1750. It 
was now removed a few rods to the north, and placed in the highway 
fronting the Erving lot (Church street in that part not having been 
opened), with no wall or inclosure around it, these not being deemed 
at that time necessary. The dwelling houses in this part of the 
town were few, and the neighboring hills and fields were the play- 
ground of the boys. In the rear was the Hallam lot, extending from 
Broad street to the old meeting-house square, with but one building 
upon it, and that in its north-east corner. A little more distant, in 
the rear of the courthouse, was the Coit "hollow-lot," shaded by 
large trees, and enriched with a rivulet of pure water (where Cot- 
tage street now runs). Still further back was a vacant upland lot 
(known as Fosdick's or Melally's lot), containing here and there a 
choice apple-tree, well known to schoolboys ; this is now the second 
burial ground. 

We have heard aged people revert to these scenes, the days 
when they were pupils of the free grammar-school, under the sway 
of "Master Owen"; when a house of worship had not given name 
and beauty to Zion's Hill, and only a cellar and a garden, tokens of 
former residence of one of the early settlers of the town, were to be 
seen on the spot where the Trott mansion now stands. (This is sup- 
posed to have been the place where stood the house on Charles Hill, 

1 68 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

fortified in the time of the Indian war. The present house was built 
by Samuel Fosdick, at the head of Niantic river, but taken apart, 
brought into town, and erected in 1786. It has been occupied by J. P. 
Trott, its present owner, more than half a century.) Later than this 
(about 1796) General Huntington broke ground upon the hillside 
and erected his house (now Hurlbut's), in the style called cottage 
ornee. Beyond this, on the present Coit property, was a gushing 
spring, where the eager schoolboy slaked his thirst and cooled his 
heated brow; and not a quarter of a century has elapsed since the 
space now occupied by the Williams mansion and grounds was an 
open, irregular hillside over whose rugged surface troops of chil- 
dren, as they issued from the school-room, were seen to scatter in 
their various sports, like flocks of sheep spreading over the hills. 

In the year 1795, the old school-house, a low, red building of one 
room, with a garret above, entered by a flight of stairs and a trap 
door, where refractory pupils were committed for punishment; and 
with desks and benches, which, though made of solid oak, were des- 
perately marred by ink and knife ; was abandoned, and the school re- 
moved to a larger building of brick, erected for its accommodation 
in the highway, south of the court house, where it fulfilled another 
period of its history, of nearly forty years. Here the chair of in- 
struction, or more properly the throne (for the government was des- 
potic), was occupied after 1800 by Dr. Dow, the number of whose 
subjects usually amounted to about 150, though sometimes rising to 
200. 

In 1833, a new and much superior edifice was erected for the 
grammar school on a lot south of the Second Congregational Church, 
chiefly through the exertion and liberality of Joseph Hurlbut, to 
whom a vote of thanks was rendered by the town, October 9th, 1833. 
In this building the Bartlet or grammar school is still continued un- 
der the care of the town, but the fund is inadequate to its support 
and the pupils are taxed to supply the deficiency. 

The most noted teachers of this school since 1750, those whose 
office covered the longest term of years, were John Owen (the re- 
mains of "Master Owen," were laid in the second burial ground, but 
no memorial stone marks the spot. If a sufficient number of his old 
pupils are yet upon the stage of life to undertake the charge, it 
would be a creditable enterprise for them to unite and raise some 
simple but fitting monument to his memory. He was for many years 
both town and city clerk) — and Ulysses Dow; both were peculiar 
characters, and each remained in oi'iice nearly forty years. The 
former died in 1801, aged sixty-five ; the latter in 1814, aged seventy- 
eight. 

The Union School was an establishment incorporated by the 
General Assembly in October, 1774. The petition for the act was 
signed by twelve proprietors, who state that they had "built a com- 

169 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

modious school house, and for several years past hired and sup- 
ported a school-master." The original proprietors were Richard 
Law, Jeremiah Miller, Duncan Stewart, Silas Church, Thomas Al- 
len, John Richards, Robinson Mumford, Joseph Cristophers, Mar- 
vin Wait, Nathaniel Shaw, Jr., Roger Gibson, Thomas Mumford. 

This school was intended to furnish facilities for a thorough 
English education and the classical preparation necessary for enter- 
ing college. The school-house stood on State street, and by the sub- 
sequent opening of Union street was made a corner lot. This was a 
noted school in its early days, yielding a larger income than ordi- 
nary schools, and the station of preceptor was regarded as a post 
of honor. It has been heretofore stated that Nathan Hale held that 
office in 1775, and that he left the school to enter the army. He was 
the first preceptor after the act of incorporation. A few only of his 
successors can be named. Seth Williston, a graduate of Dartmouth 
College and since known as a divine of considerable eminence, was 
in charge for two years. Jacob B. Gurley, from the same seminary, 
succeeded Williston in May, 1794, and was the principal for three 
years. (Mr. Gurley is a native of Mansfield, Connecticut, but since 
1794 a resident of New London, where he began to practice as an at- 
torney in 1797.) Ebenezer Learned, a native of the town, and a 
graduate of Yale College, filled the chair of instruction in 1799. 
Knight, of the Medical College of New Haven, Olmstead of Yale, 
Mitchell of the University of North Carolina, and many other names- 
of note, are among the teachers after 1800. 

The school house was taken down and the land sold after 1830, 
and in 1833 a reorganization took place, a new charter was obtained 
and a brick school house flourished for a few years, but could not be 
long sustained. The Bartlet and common schools gathered in the 
great mass of pupils ; the number wishing to pursue a more extensive 
system of education was small, and the Union School, an old and 
venerated establishment, was discontinued. In 1S51 the building 
was sold to the Bethel Society, by whom it has been converted into a 
commodious house of worship. 

No provision seems to have been made for the education of fe- 
males in anything but needle-work, reading, writing, and the first 
principles of arithmetic, until the year 1799. A female academy 
was then built by a company of proprietors, in Green street, and in- 
corporated by the legislature. It continued in operation, with some 
intervals of recess, about thirty years. The property was then sold 
and the company dissolved in 1831. A new female academy was 
built the same year on Broad street, and the system of instruction 
commenced by Rev. Dr. Daniel Huntington. This institution has 
hitherto met with fair encouragement. Since 1S41 it has been in 
charge of H. P. Farnsworth, principal. The pupils are arranged in 
two departments, and for a few years past the average number has 
been about eighty. 

170 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

Private schools of similar nature were found in other towns of 
the county. Higher education was sought by many leading men. 
Miss Caulkins gives a list of eighty-six names of men native to New 
London who had received a college education up to the year 1850. A 
similar list for Norwich may be found in the "Norwich Jubilee Vol- 
ume," and includes over 130 names. 

Speaking in broad terms, the progress since 1856 might be 
grouped under the following heads : Better trained teachers, better 
text books, better school buildings and equipment, better supervi- 
sion, better teaching methods, compulsory attendance laws, graded 
schools, evening schools, continuation schools, trade schools, high 
schools, medical inspection, better financial support of schools, edu- 
cation of the deaf, care of the defective and the orphaned and desti- 
tute, restriction of child labor, and many forms of welfare work 
closely connected with education. 

Connecticut was the first State in the Union to set apart and 
establish a fund for the support of common schools. This was done 
after the sale of the "Western Reserve" lands in 1795 for $1,200,- 
000. By the Constitution of 1818, Article 8, Par. 2, this fund is 
forever set apart for public schools : 

§ 2. The fund, called the "School Fund," shall remain a per- 
petual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated to 
the support and encouragement of the public or common schools 
throughout the state, and for the equal benefit of all the people 
thereof. The value and amount of said fund shall, as soon as prac- 
ticable, be ascertained in such manner as the General Assembly 
may prescribe, published and recorded in the Comptroller's office; 
and no law shall ever be made authorizing said fund to be diverted 
to any other use than the encouragement and support of public 
or common schools, among the several school societies, as justice and 
equity shall require. 

By the Charter of 1662, given by Charles II., Connecticut was 
bounded on the north by the Massachusetts line, and on the south by 
the "sea" (Long Island sound), and extended from Narragansett 
bay to the "South sea" (Pacific ocean). The parts of this territory 
covered by the grants already made to New York and New Jersey 
were never claimed by Connecticut ; and the part covered by Penn- 
sylvania was given up to the claims of that State ; the remaining por- 
tion was held by Connecticut till after the Revolutionary War, 

171 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

when it was all ceded to the United States, except about 3,300,000 
acres in what is now the northwestern part of Ohio. The territory 
was known as the "Western Reserve," or the "Lands west of Penn- 
sylvania. ' ' In May, 1795, an act was passed appropriating the inter- 
est on the moneys which should be received on the sale of these lands 
to the support of schools, "to be paid over to the said societies in 
their capacity of school societies according to the lists of polls and 
ratable estate of such societies respectively." The societies here 
referred to were formerly known as parishes or societies, and later 
as ecclesiastical societies. This act recognizes them in a distinct 
capacity and denominates them school societies. 

The "lands west of Pennsylvania" were sold August, 1795, for 
$1,200,000, by a committee appointed for that purpose, and their re- 
port was accepted by the legislature in October of the same year. 
The first apportionment of the income of the school fund was made 
in 1779. 

We have spoken of the importance placed on education by the 
early settlers. The settlers also felt a responsibility for the welfare 
of the Indians. Many of these aborigines were suffering from drunk- 
enness and ignorance, and it was not easy to get them to take an in- 
terest in a higher life. The pastors in New London and Norwich did 
their best. We submit a curious document, signed by the Mohegan 
Chief, Uncas. 

When King Charles the First sent his red-faced well-beloved 
cousin "a Bible to show him the way to heaven, and a sword to de- 
fend him from his enemies," Uncas valued the latter gift much more 
than he did the former. But I am happy to bring forward one new 
fact to show that he was not at all times indifferent to the other 
present. It has often been stated that Uncas uniformly opposed the 
introduction of Christianity among the people of his tribe. Within 
a few days past an original document has come to light which bears 
important testimony on this interesting question. It is nothing less 
than a bond in which, under his own signature, the sachem promises 
to attend the ministrations of the Rev. Mr. Fitch, whensover and 
wheresoever he may choose to appoint. This paper is so remarkable 
that we give it in full. If we cannot call it the sachem's creed or con- 
fession of faith, it is at least his covenant : 

172 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

Be it known to all men and in special to the Authority of The 
Colony of Conecticott That I Uncas sachim of the Munheags, now 
resident, in Pamechaug doe by these presents firmly engage and 
binde my selfe, that I will from time to time and at all times here- 
after, in a constant way and manner attend up Mr. James Fitch Min- 
ister of Norwich, at all such seasons as he shall appoint for preach- 
ing and to praying with the Indians either at my now residence, or 
wheresoever els he shall appoint for that holy service, and further I 
doe faithfully promis to Command all my people to attend the same, 
in a constant way and solemn manner at all such times as shall be sett 
by the sayd Mr. James Fitch minister, alsoe I promis that I will not 
by any wayes or means what soe ever, either privatly or openly use 
any plots or contriveances by words or actions to affright or discour- 
age any of my people or others, from attending the Good work af ore- 
sayd, upon penalty of suffering the most grevious punishment that 
can be inflicted upon me, and Lastly I promis to encourage all my 
people by all Good waves and means I can, in the due observance of 
such directions and instructions, as shall be presented to them by 
the sayd Mr. James Fitch aforesayd, and to the truth hereof this 
seaventh day of June in the year one thousand six hundred seventy 
and three I have hereunto set my hand or mark. 

Witnessed by us mark 

JohnTaleott The * of Uncass 

Tho: Stanton, Ser. 

Samuell Mason. 

Let us look with charity, my friends, upon this promise, remem- 
bering that every man, red face and pale face alike, is accepted "ac- 
cording to that which he hath, and not according to that which he 
hath not." 

Of interest in education on the part of New London county citi- 
zens, the following is a proof, quoted from an address by Dr. Gil- 
man. Yale College is even more indebted to Norwich. Before it was 
chartered by the State, Major James Fitch (another son of Rev- 
erend James) gave to the new collegiate school a farm of 637 acres 
of land, and offered the glass and nails for a house. The following is 
his proposal: 

Majr. Fitch's Generosity Proposed 1701. — In that it hath 
pleased y Lord our God as a token for God To us and children after 
us to put it into the hearts of his faithful ministers : to take soe great 
paines, and be at soe considerable charge for setting up a colegeat 
schoole amongst us and now for farther promoating, of this God 
pleasing worke I humbly, freely and heartily offer, on demand to 
provid glass for a house and if people doe not come up to offer what 

173 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

is reasonable and needfull that I will than provid nails of all sorts: 
to be used in building a houes and hall : 21}' I give a farme, 637 Acrs 
of land and when I come home I will send ye draft and laying out to 
Mr. Danl. Taylor that he may make such a Deed proper in such a 
case the farme of value at 150£ I vrill alsoe take some pains to put it 
in a way of yearely profit t 30 £ charge I hope will bring 20 £ p yeare 
in a little time. 

Newhaven October 16 1701 James Fitch. 

It was this noble gift which insured at that time the establish- 
ment of the now venerable institution — Yale College. Not many 
years after, Dr. Daniel Lathrop, beside a large donation to the pub- 
lic school of his native place, gave £500 to the college without limita- 
tions ; and within the memory of most of those now present, Dr. Al- 
fred E. Perkins, impressed with the thought that "a true university 
in these days is a collection of books, ' ' gave a fund of $10,000 to the- 
college library in New Haven, thus perpetuating his name in grate- 
ful remembrance, and exerting an influence which will increase till 
the college and the country are no more. Three citizens of Norwich, 
"to the manner born," have thus given to Yale College the largest 
donations which, at each successive time, its treasury had received 
from any individual, and their example has been followed by many 
others, giving in proportion to their means. 

The most remarkable of the attempts to civilize the Indians is 
doubtless that of Rev. Eleazer IVheelock of Lebanon. The remarka- 
ble results of this effort with Samson Occum is shown in the follow- 
ing account of the origin of Dartmouth College, taken from Kurd's- 
"History of New London County, Connecticut": 

In 1735, Eleazer Wheelock, a clergyman of fine talents, of earn- 
est character, and of devoted piety, was settled over the Second Con- 
gregational Church, in the north part of the town of Lebanon. Like 
many other ministers of the day and afterwards, he had several 
young men in his family, whom he taught the higher branches of 
English and in the classics. 

In December, 1743, a young Mohegan Indian, about twenty 
years of age, Samson Occoin, whose name has since become more 
famous than that of any other of the tribe, unless perhaps the first 
Uncas, applied to Mr. AVheeloek for admission among his scholars. 
Occom was born in 1723, at Mohegan, and grew up in the pagan 
faith and the rude and savage customs of his tribe. During the great 
religious awakening of 1739-40 he had become convinced of the 
truth of Christianity, and deeply alarmed for his own lost condi- 

174 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

tion. For six months he groaned in the gloom of his darkness, but 
then light broke into his soul, and he was seized with an irresistible 
impulse-to carry this great light to his benighted race, and to become 
a teacher to his lost brethren, and with his heart swelling with this 
impulse he now stood before Wheelock, asking to be instructed for 
this great work. 

It was not in the heart of "Wheelock to resist this appeal, and he 
at once admitted him to his school and family with open arms, and 
in the spirit of his mission. Occom had already learned the letters 
of the alphabet, and could spell out a few words, and such was his 
zeal and devotion to study that in four years he was fitted to enter 
college ; but his health had been so impaired by intense application, 
and lacking also the means, he never entered. Leaving school, he re- 
turned to his tribe, preaching and teaching salvation through Christ 
alone, with power and effect, supporting himself meantime, like the 
rest of his tribe, by hunting and fishing, and the rude Indian arts of 
making baskets and other Indian utensils, and occasionally teaching 
small Indian schools, but during all this time still pursuing his own 
studies in theology and Bible literature. 

In this mission he visited other tribes. In 1748 he went over to 
Long Island and spent several years there among the Montauk, the 
Shenecock, and other tribes, preaching and teaching with great suc- 
cess. At one time a great revival occurred under his labors there, 
during which many Indians were converted. August 29, 1759, he 
was ordained by the Suffolk Presbytery of Long Island, and was ever 
after regarded as a regular member of that ecclesiastical body. 

The case of Occom and its instructive results attracted wide 
attention from the first start, and Air. Wheelock determined to open 
his school to other Indian youths who desired to engage in and 
be fitted for the same work and in a short time it became exclu- 
sively an "Indian School" for missionary purposes, so that by 1762 
he had more than twenty Indian students, preparing for the conver- 
sion of their countrymen. 

This new movement attracted the earnest attention of the lead- 
ing clergymen and Christian philanthropists throughout all New 
England and the Northern colonies. To all who looked with anxiety 
for the conversion and civilization of the aborigines of this part of 
North America, this school was long considered the brightest and 
most promising ground of hope. Notes of encouragement came 
pouring in from various sources throughout all the New England 
colonies, from ministers' councils, from churches, and from eminent 
leaders and philanthopists. with money contributions, cheering on 
the movement, and all aiming to increase the numbers in training, 
and to give to the school a wider sweep in its influence. Probably 
no school in this or any other land or age ever awakened so wide- 
spread and intense an interest or seemed freighted with such a 

175 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

precious and hopeful mission as did then this little parochial school, 
kept in the obscure parsonage of a country minister. 

' In 1765 a general conference of the friends of the school was 
held, at which it was determined to send Samson Occom to England 
to show to our English brethren there what Christianity had done 
for him, and what it could do for the natives of North America, and 
that Rev. Nathaniel Whitaker, of Norwich, should go with him, to 
enlist co-operation in the cause and to solicit contributions in its aid. 
Occom was then forty-three years old. well educated, and spoke 
English clearly and fluently. His features and complexion bore 
every mark of his race, but he was easy and natural in social man- 
ners, frank and cordial, but modest in conversation, and his deport- 
ment in the pulpit was such as to command deep attention and 
respect. He could joreach extemporaneously and well, but usually 
wrote his sermons. Such, then, was this son of the forest, and such 
his sublime mission to the English mother-land— to convert the 
natives of a pagan continent to Christianity and civilization through 
the ministry of pagan converts of their own race. 

His appearance in England produced an extraordinary sensa- 
tion, and he preached with great applause in London and other prin- 
cipal cities of Great Britain and Scotland to crowded audiences. 
Prom the 16th of February, 1766, to the 22nd of July, 1767, he deliv- 
ered between three and four hundred sermons, many of them in the 
presence of the king and the royal family and the great nobles of the 
land. Large contributions were taken up after each of these dis- 
couses ; the king himself gave £200, and in the whole enterprise £700 
sterling were collected in England and about £300 in Scotland. 

This success resulted in transferring Wheelock 's Indian School 
to New Hampshire, which it was thought would be a better place for 
an Indian seminary, as being more retired and less exposed to dis- 
turbing influences than the more thickly settled colony of Connecti- 
cut. It was then incorporated as Dartmouth College (taking its 
name from the pious and noble Earl of Dartmouth, whom Occom 's 
mission in England had warmly enlisted in the cause), for the 
special object and purpose of educating and training Indian youths 
for the ministry and missionary work of their race; but after the 
death of Eleazer Wheelock, its founder and president, and especially 
after the death of his son, John "Wheelock, who succeeded him as 
president, its original and distinctive character as an Indian semin- 
ary gradually changed until it became, as it still remains, assimil- 
ated in character and purpose with the other colleges of the country ; 
and so the glowing dream, the fervid zeal, and the sanguine hopes 
and expectations of its great-souled founders faded away. 

In 1771, a Mohegan Indian, named Aloses Paul, was tried at 
New London and condemned to death for the murder, in a drunken 
brawl, of Moses Clark. A large assembly of English and Indians 

176 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

collected to witness the execution. At the request of the prisoner, 
Samson Occom was appointed by the authorities to preach a funeral 
sermon in the presence of the poor wretch, as was the custom of the 
time, just before he was launched into eternity. Upon his own coffin, 
in front of the pulpit, sat the doomed man. Next around him were 
seated his brethren of the Mohegan tribe, the audience filling the 
rest of the church, a great crowd surrounding it, and a military com- 
pany acting as guard. 

The sermon is still preserved in the library of the Connecticut 
Historical Society at Hartford (Pamphlet No. 225) ; the text from 
Romans vi. 23: "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God 
is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." It is not eloquent, it 
is not grand oratory, but it is something higher than eloquence, and 
in its sad and solemn moaning over the degraded and lost condition 
of his race, in their pagan darkness, their wickedness, the awful con- 
sequences of drunkenness, their besetting sin, it has all the moving 
power and pathos of a Hebrew wail. 

The first part of the discourse dwells at length upon the peculiar 
meaning and significance of the term "death," as used in the text, 
its endless character, and was addressed to the audience at large, 
and rising with the vastness of the idea, he exclaimed, "Eternity! 
Eternity ! Who can measure it ? Who can count the years there- 
of? Arithmetic fails, the thoughts of men and angels are drowned 
in it. How shall we describe eternity? To what shall we compare 
it? Were a fly to carry off one particle of this globe to such a dis- 
tance that it would take ten thousand years to go and return for 
another, and so continue till he had carried off, particle by particle, 
once in ten thousand years, the whole of this globe and placed it in 
that distant space, just as it is now here, after all this, eternity 
would remain the same unexhausted duration! And this eternal 
death must be the certain portion of all impenitent sinners, be they 
who they may, Negroes, Indians, English, or what nation soever; 
honorable or ignoble, great or small, rich or poor, bond or free, all 
who died in their sins must go to hell together, 'for the wages of sin 
is death.' " 

He next addressed the doomed prisoner upon his coffin, pointed 
out to him the enormity of his crime, and how by drunkenness, and 
by despising the warnings and counsels of Christian teachers, he 
had been led to it; explained to him the way of salvation, urging 
him with pathos and earnest energy at once to accept it, and like the 
dying thief upon the cross beside the crucified Saviour, to throw 
himself upon the mercy of that same Saviour, and so, even at the 
eleventh hour, escape eternal death. 

He then turned to the Mohegans present: "My poor kindred!" 
he exclaimed, "you see the woeful consequences of sin by seeing this, 
our poor, miserable countryman, now before us, who is to die for his 

i/7 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

sins and his great crime, and it was especially the sin of drunkenness 
that brought this destruction and untimely death upon him. There 
is a dreadful woe denounced from the Almighty against drunkards ; 
and it is this sin, this abominable, this beastly sin of drunkenness 
that has stript us of every desirable comfort in this life. By this 
sin we have no name or credit in the world; for this sin we are 
despised, and it is right and just, for we despise ourselves. By this 
sin we have no comfortable houses, nor anything comfortable in our 
nouses, neither food, nor raiment, nor decent utensils; we go about 
with ragged and dirty clothing and almost naked, most of the time 
half starved, and obliged to pick up and eat such foods as we can 
find ; and our poor children suffering every day, often crying for 
food, and we have nothing for them, and in the cold winter shivering 
and crying, pinched with cold. All this comes from the love of 
strong drink. And this is not all the misery and evil we bring upon 
ourselves by this sin, for when we are intoxicated with strong drink 
we drown our rational powers, by which we are distinguished from 
ihe brute creation ; we unman ourselves, and sink not only to a level 
with the beasts of the field, but seven degrees beneath them ; yea, we 
bring ourselves to a level with the devils; and I don't know but we 
make ourselves worse than the devils, for I never heard of a drunken 
devil." 

Pie closed his discourse with a fervid exhortation to his Mohe- 
gan brethren to break off from their sins, and especially from their 
"besetting sin of drunkenness, by a gospel repentance; to "take 
warning by the doleful sight now before us," and from the dreadful 
judgments that have befallen poor drunkards. "You that have been 
careless all your day now awake to righteousness and be concerned 
for your never-dying souls." Fight against all sin, and especially 
against your besetting sin, "and above all things believe in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and you shall have eternal life, and when you come to 
die your souls will be received into heaven, there to be with the Lord 
Jesus and all the saints in glory, which God in His infinite mercy 
grant, through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Amen." 

In 1786 he gathered a few Mohegans and several other Indians 
from other tribes in Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Long Island, 
and went with them to Oneida county, New York, and there formed 
the nucleus of the clan afterwards known as the Brothertown tribe 
among the Six Nations. He continued as their minister, acting also 
as a missionary among the Six Nations, until his death, which oc- 
curred in July, 1792, more than three hundred Indians following 
him mournfully and tearfully to the grave. 

Another young Mohegan, Joseph Johnson, educated in Whee- 
lock's school, became also a preacher of great power and influence. 
He was sent early as a missionarv to the Six Nations of New York, 

178 



THE BEGINNINGS OF EDUCATION 

find afterwards co-operated with Occoru in the establishment there 
of the Brothertown clan. At the breaking out of the war of the Rev- 
olution the Six Nations, a powerful and warlike Indian confederacy, 
were at first much inclined to favor the English side and to become 
the allies of the British forces of Canada, and to this end were 
strongly tempted by the insidious wiles of British emissaries, backed 
by the glittering display and lavish use of British gold. 

Against this danger both Johnson and Occom exerted the whole 
weight of their great moral powers and their wide influence, the 
former especially appealing for help, in averting this impending dan- 
ger, to Governor Trumbull and other friends here, and to the Assem- 
bly. His zeal and patriotic efforts attracted the attention of Gen. 
"Washington, and while at Cambridge, directing the siege of Boston, 
he wrote him a letter with his own hand, dated Feb. 20, 1776, thank- 
ing him for his patriotic and important services, and in closing he 
says, "Tell the Indians that we do not ask them to take up the 
hatchet for us unless they choose it, we only desire that they will not 
fight against us. We want that the chain of friendship should al- 
ways remain bright between our friends, the Six Nations, and us. 
We recommend you to them, and hope by spreading the truths of the 
gospel among them it will always keep the chain bright." 

Editor's Note — The latter pages of the foregoing narrative are of special interest 
as relating to the beginnings of Yale and Dartmouth Colleges. 



>y& 




179 



Misunderstood Mythology 

By Jacob P. Dunn, Secretary of Indiana Historical Society, 
Indianapolis, Indiana 




vis\ 



i 



115w2ipiJN THE last number of "Americana" (Jan., 1923), in my 
article on ' ' Marquette 's Monsters, ' ' I presented the ex- 
planation of the noted pictographs on what has become 
known as "Piasa Rock." The average reader has 
probably been somewhat surprised that such extraordinary delu- 
sions should have existed as have prevailed concerning these pic- 
tographs ; and it may be of historical value to give some explanation 
of the rise of such delusions. This will perhaps be made more lucid 
by reproducing with this article contemporary illustrations showing 
the conceptions that such Europeans as Champlain and Father Laf- 
itau derived from descriptions by the Indians of their Manito of 
the Waters; and also the modern art conception derived from the 
same source. 

In one sense it is strange that, after more than four centuries of 
contact with the Indians, the American public should know so little 
concerning them. In another sense it is quite natural, because the 
prevalent ideas are derived chiefly from poetry and works of fiction. 
Longfellow's "Hiawatha" and Cooper's novels are more responsi- 
ble for American opinions of the Indians and their customs and be- 
liefs than all of the scientific works on the subject that have ever 
been published. 

To illustrate by a "fundamental" concept, Longfellow's Gitche 
Manito is the chief basis for the almost universal American belief 
that the Indians of themselves had arrived at a conception of a su- 
preme and beneficent being before the whites came in contact with 
them, and which they called The Great Spirit, which is what Gitche 
Manito means literally in the Ojibwa language. It is true that the 
Ojibwas now use this term for "God," but they got that concept 
from the missionaries, and the original Gitche Manito was The 
Great Serpent, who was neither supreme nor beneficent, but merely 

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Above, Indians frightening off Eclipse of the Moon. Below, Dragon and Man-Child 

(Revelations, Chap. XII). From Laiitan's "Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquarius," Paris, 

1724. Falling Stars and Flames of Hell at left indicate origin of Bible Dragon 




MISUNDERSTOOD MYTHOLOGY 

the most powerful of the manitos, and therefore the most to be 
feared. - 

But the use of this term was not continued by all of the Algonldn 
tribes. The Miamis were described by the early missionaries as the 
"most docile" of the western tribes, and they were the first to ac- 
cept Christianity. At the outset, they used Ki-ci-ma-net-o-wa (which 
is their form of the Ojibwa term) for "God;" but when the mission- 
aries learned that this manito corresponded more nearly to the devil 
than to God, they abandoned its use so completely that I have never 
found a Miami who had heard the word, though they all understood 
it at once as meaning The Great Spirit. They use Ka-ci-hi-wi-a, or 
"The Creator," for "God." 

When Count Volney visited the United States, he obtained in 
1797 a Miami vocabulary in which he gives for "God" the alterna- 
tive "Kitchi Manetoua, or Kajehelangoua." The latter word — Ka- 
ci-hi-lan-gwa — means He Who Made Us All; but it refers not to 
the Great Serpent, but to The Great Hare, who was the Algonldn 
demiurge, and is known to various tribes as Michaboo, Nanaboush, 
Manabozho, Ouisakedjak, etc. It is no more surprising that such a 
confusion should be made by a casual observer than that there should 
be general misconceptions ; but it is somewhat surprising that in two 
authoritative works Michaboo is confused with Micibisi, the Water 
Manito, (Jesuit Eolations, Vol. 30; p. 328; Brinton's "Myths of the 
Xew World," p. 197), for they were both prominent figures, and 
were traditional enemies. 

In fact, the Algonkin creation myth begins with their quarrel, 
which caused the water manitos to cover the earth with a deluge, 
from which Michaboo and the spirit animals took refuge on a raft 
(Jesuit Relations, Vol. 5, p. 155; Vol. 6, p. 157); although the re- 
corded legends of some of the tribes begin with this group on the 
raft, and no explanation of their being there. Michaboo told them 
that if he could get some earth from under the water, he could make 
an island on which they could live. The beaver first dove to get it, 
but came up after a long stay, insensible from exhaustion, and unsuc- 
cessful. Then the otter tried it with no better success. Then the musk- 
rat went down, and came up insensible, twenty-four hours later, but 
in one of his paws they found a grain of sand from which Michaboo 
made an island, and they went ashore. This island he enlarged from 
time to time; and when an animal died, or a dead fish was washed 

181 



MISUNDERSTOOD MYTHOLOGY 

up on the beach, he made a man of the carcase ; and this was the rea- 
son given for the names of their various clans. 

In none of the New "World concepts of supernaturals is there 
any approach to the God of the New Testament, or of the Hebrews, 
or of Plato. The manitos were all beings with supernatural powers, 
but with human characters, like the gods and goddesses of the Old 
World mythologies. But in four centuries there have been very 
material changes in the theology of both whites and Indians. To the 
early missionaries the manitos were simply "devils," — not theoret- 
ical devils, but actual ones. The early missionaries to the Peorias 
introduced bodily into their translation of the story of Genesis an 
account of the rebellion of the angels under the lead of Lucifer, and 
their expulsion from heaven; and informed the Indians that these 
fallen angels were their manitos. The fall of the angels is unques- 
tionably good Bible doctrine, and was plainly taught by Christ and 
His disciples ; but it is not usually given any practical application in 
modern religious teaching. 

In those earlier days, the chief function of the American "melt- 
ing-pot" was the adjustment of Old World and New World ideas; 
and naturally the Indian's ideas changed most. He had no written 
nor printed language, no Scriptures, no fixed creeds. His religion 
was handed down by the medicine men, and the old men who in- 
structed the youth orally. These did not hesitate to adopt a new 
idea if it seemed to be an improvement on previous ones. In conse- 
quence, even the non-Christian Indians have made very material 
changes in their mythology. I ran across a striking illustration of 
this in a Wis-sa-ka-tcak-wa (all the "a" sounds as in "father," and 
the accents on the second and fourth syllables) story. 

But first, it may be well to explain that Wissakatcakwa is a sort 
of incarnation of Michaboo, and that the stories about him constitute 
a large part of present-day Algonkin folk-lore. In these, however, 
the hero has little of the original character of Michaboo, but, while 
he occasionally exercises supernatural powers, and converses freely 
with birds and animals, he is usually represented as a rather silly 
fellow who attempts impossible things. As Brinton aptly puts it : 
"This is a low, modern and corrupt version of the character of 
Michaboo, bearing no more resemblance to his real and ancient one 
than the language and acts of our Saviour and the Apostles in the 

182 




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Above, Conventional "Piasa Bird." following Marquette's description. Below, the Dragon 
included in "Fauna of Canada." by Champlain 



MISUNDERSTOOD MYTHOLOGY 

coarse Mystery Plays of the Middle Ages do to those revealed by the 
Evangelists." 

In this particular story, Wissakatcakwa meets a Frenchman, 
Ma-ti-ko-ca. This word, meaning literally "big ship," is a monu- 
ment to LaSalle's voyage up the lakes in the Griffon; and, in all 
probability the ingenious LaSalle selected that name for his craft as 
the French counterpart of the Water Manito. The two started down 
the river in a canoe, but, owing to injudicious singing of the French- 
man when near the Manito 's resort, were sucked into its lurking 
place, and behold, instead of the traditional Micibisi, it is a seven- 
headed monster — Swa-tats-win-da-pi-kang ma-net-o-wa. However, 
the monster finally goes to sleep, and Wissakatcakwa blows it up 
with a keg of gunpowder that is conveniently at hand ; after which 
the two adventurers and other unfortunate captives make their es- 
cape. 

This seven-headed monster is not an Indian concept. There is 
no indication of more than one head in Marquette's description or 
the pictures of Champlain and Lafitau. It was obviously derived 
from the Biblj dragon. For a terrifying monster, seven heads are 
plainly better than one, and the Indian story tellers altered their 
mythology accordingly. On the other hand, it was equally natural 
for Champlain to assume that the Water Manito was an actual ani- 
mal. Nicolas Perrot did the same when, in his description of Indian 
divinities, he said: "Those which are on the earth consist of all evil 
and harmful creatures, particularly the serpents, panthers, and 
other animals or birds similar to griffons." Griffons and dragons 
were not wholly out of date in France. 

But of all causes for misconceptions of Indian mythology, the 
most potent is our lack of knowledge of their languages. Anyone 
may assure himself of our extraordinary ignorance in this field by 
undertaking to learn the meaning of the Indian place names, which 
are so common in this country, and trying to reconcile the conflicting 
opinions concerning them. Max Muller expressed surprise that 
Americans had not given more attention to the record and study of 
Indian languages, and so have others. The obvious reason is that 
there is no practical or pecuniary profit in it. There has been an 
occasional Trumbull, Brinton or Shea who did valuable work, appar- 
ently from the love of knowledge, but their efforts were never ade- 
quately appreciated by the public. Schoolcraft came nearest secur- 

183 



MISUNDERSTOOD MYTHOLOGY 

ing popular appreciation ; but he did it by making language a minor 
consideration, and devoting his attention to descriptive writing. 

In our Indian schools the use of Indian languages is discour- 
aged, because the practical object is to teach the pupils English, and 
thereby help fit them for the struggles of life ; so that even among the 
Indians the knowledge of their native tongue is dying out. Our gov- 
ernmental efforts for the preservation of Indian languages have 
been curiously perverted, and today the ranking ethnologists of the 
country are groping in the dark, under the influence of the canons of 
German philology, which have no more application to Indian lan- 
guages than the rules of English grammar have to the Zulu or 
Chinese languages. 

In the main, the real study of Indian languages in this country 
has been by missionaries ; but here again the practical end of bene- 
fiting the Indians has caused most of their printed works to be pub- 
lished in Indian without translation and therefore as unintelligible 
to the average American student as if they were in cuneiform 
inscriptions. There are, however, scattered over this country and 
Europe, a number of manuscript Indian dictionaries and gram- 
mars wln>L. are the products of years of patient labor, and which 
would give an entirely new aspect to this field for research if they 
were put in print. These manuscripts have never been printed on 
account of the lack of money by those who did the work; and today, 
if any American wishes to erect a monument more imperishable than 
granite, he could not do it more surely than by endowing a society 
for the Preservation of Indian Languages, to take up this work. 
The crying need is not for essays and discussions, but for the pre- 
sentation of the material in form available for the use of students. 
The opportunity for doing this work is decreasing every year. Let 
me cite an illustration. 

In the John Carter Brown Library, at Providence, Rhode 
Island, is preserved a manuscript Freneh-Peoria dictionary, made 
by priests in the Illinois country two centuries ago or more. It is a 
veritable mine of information. John Gilmary Shea, the great Cath- 
olic historian, was very much impressed with its value, and 
attempted to print it in his Cramoisy texts but had to abandon 
it after printing twenty-four pages, on account of lack of financial 
support. The Peoria language is not now spoken, but it had only 
slight dialect difference from the Miami, and when allowance for 

184 



MISUNDERSTOOD MYTHOLOGY 

this difference is made in speaking, the Miamis understand the text, 
which becomes in fact their own language. 

A few words, however, have gone out of use— both French and 
Indian words— and the translators have occasionally resorted to 
expressions that are not easily grasped by the modern Indians, 
especially in their effort to convey ideas that are abstract, or that 
have developed a religious sense. Having no conception of God sim- 
ilar to ours, the Indians had no word to express " worship," or "holi- 
ness," and the like, in the sense in which we use them. The concept 
of "angel" was entirely out of Indian range of thought, and so the 
missionaries naturalized it in the word an-ge-la, plural an-ge-la-ki, 
which met all the requirements of Miami grammar. For some ten 
years past I have given spare hours to a translation of this docu- 
ment into English-Miami, completing about one-third of it. In that 
time I have found four Miamis who were competent for the transla- 
tion work. Three of them are now dead. 

When one considers the vast expenditure of labor and money 
that have been made in recovering the languages of Egypt and 
Assyria, this neglect of dying American languages becomes the more 
appalling, for an Indian language, if once lost, is lost forever, as 
they have no written language. It is true that their pictographs are 
usually language; but these are wholly ideographic, and have no 
relation to the spoken languages. To a speculative mind there is 
gr<vind for wonder what future generations will think of us if we 
.allow these languages to be lost. 



^===—=^§ 



185 



Palisades Interstate Park, New Jersey 

By Frank R. Holmes, New York City 
3f] HE natural scenic beauties of a country are amongst its 




'Tj most valuable possessions. For centuries the river 
':Sj Rhine has been exploited by the brush of the painter and 
iii the pen of the poet, and extolled by tourists representing 
every nation of the world. What the Rhine is to Continental Eu- 
rope, the Hudson is to the American Republic; this naturally 
creates a sentiment amongst her citizens to preserve the natural 
beauties of the river shores. Commercialism had commenced to 
despoil its western shore where the noted cliffs known as "The Pal- 
isades" reared their uncrowned heads towards the azure of the 
skies, wmen the State of New Jersey, by an act of the Legislature 
known as Chapter 415, laws of 1895, created a board of commis- 
sioners to confer with a similar representation from the State of 
New York, the primary object being the acquisition of the Palisades 
of the Hudson river by the United States. 

Governor John "W. Griggs appointed as the New Jersey Com- 
missioners, Messrs. Henry D. Whiton, Edward P. Murray, and C. 
B. Thurston. The first report of the Commissioners was made De- 
ceinbei" 5, 1895, in which it was suggested that the States of New 
York and New Jersey should assent to the acquisition of the United 
States of certain lands fronting on the Hudson river, within which 
the cliffs known as the Palisades were situated. These lauds were 
to be exempted from all State taxation and assessments. These sug- 
gestions were approved by the Legislatures of the two States and 
became known as the Laws of New York, chapter 15, 1896, and Laws 
of New Jersey, chapter 23, 1896. 

The Hon. William J. Sewell, then United States Senator from 
New Jersey, introduced a bill in the Senate, and the Hon. Ben L. 
Fairchild in the House of Representatives, which was referred to 
the Committee on Military Affairs, and through its recommenda- 
tion a bill was passed to establish a military park upon the Palisades 
of the Hudson. The tract as far as its boundaries in the State of 

186 



PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, NEW JERSEY 

New Jersey were described as follows: "Beginning in the town- 
ship of llidgefield in the county of Bergen, New Jersey, at high 
water line on the west shore of the Hudson River at a point where 
the south line of the lands of Dupont and Company intersects, 
thence in a southwesterly direction to the Fort Lee and Haekensack 
road, thence northerly along the westerly line of said road to its 
junction with Hudson Terrace, thence northerly into the township 
of Englewood to Palisade avenue, thence westerly to the point of the 
junction of Palisade avenue with the westerly side of Sylvan avenue 
and of the Boulevard into the townships of Palisades and Harring- 
ton and to the boundary line between the States of New York and 
New Jersey." These boundaries by subsequent purchases and don- 
ations have been enlarged in the State of New Jersey. The sum of 
$50,000 was appropriated for the purchase of necessary lands and 
for what other disbursements that were necessary. 

The Commission was incorporated by an act of the Legislature 
in 1900, being chapter 87 of that year, under the title of the Pali- 
sades Interstate Park Commission, and was to consist of ten mem- 
bers, five from each State, to be appointed by the governors. New 
Jersey appropriated $5,000 and New York $10,000 towards the 
expenses of the Commission. Upon investigation, the Commission- 
ers found there was no correct survey of the territory, nor an accur- 
ate list of property owners, and action was taken to make a complete 
survey, also to obtain an authentic list of the owners of the real 
estate. One of the first efforts of the Commission was the attempt 
tc :*oi3 the blasting of rock on the Palisades, which they found 
could not be accomplished by legal methods, therefore the moneys 
appropriated by the Legislature of the States were utilized in secur- 
ing lands where blasting was going on. After months of negotia- 
tions, arrangements were entered into, securing the lands used for 
blasting, for $132,500; also, the owners of the lands between the 
base of the cliffs and the Hudson river agreed to accept five hundred 
dollars an acre for their holdings. The Commissioners further 
agreed to endeavor to establish an Interstate Park running from 
Fort Lee Ferry to some point in New Y'ork State below Piermont 
creek, to embrace all the land from the top of the steep edge of the 
cliffs down to the water's edge, and to construct a boulevard at the 
base of the cliffs as speedily as possible. The appropriation of ten 
thousand dollars by the Legislature of New York was used in obtain- 

187 



PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, NEW JERSEY 

ing options on these lands, the balance of the amount for the pur- 
chasing of the blasting lands being guaranteed by private individ- 
uals of New York City, The New Jersey appropriation was ex- 
pended in the survey and research of titles and maps of the proper- 
ties purchased. The estimates of the engineers showed the total 
acreage acquired was from Fort Lee to Huyler's Landing, 367 
acres ; from Huyler's Landing to New Jersey State Line, 332 acres ; 
and from the State Line to the northern limits, 417 acres. The 
shore front represented upwards of 73,900 feet, extending from the 
Old Fort Lee Dock in Bergen county, New Jersey, into Rockland 
county, New York. The Legislature of New York in 1901 appropri- 
ated $400,000 without restrictions for the use of the Commission. 

The personnel of the Commission since its incorporation in 1901 
was : Edwin A. Stevens of Hoboken, New Jersey, president ; D. 
McNeeley Stauffer of Yonkers, New York vice-president; J. 
DuPratt White of Nyack, New York, secretary; Abram De Ronda 
of Englewood, New Jersey, treasurer; Nathan F. Bassett of New 
Rockelle, New York; Abram S. Hewitt, of Ringwood, New Jersey; 
Franklin W. Hopkins, of Alpine, New Jersey; William L. Linn, 
of Hackensack, New Jersey; George W. Perkins, of New York 
City; and Ralph. Trautmann, of New York City. The death of Mr. 
Hewitt caused a vacancy which was filled by Governor Murphy of 
New Jersey by the appointment of William B. Dana of Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey. On the death of Mr. Trautmann, November 12, 
1901, William H. Porter, of New York City, was appointed to fill 
the vacancy. 

The entire jurisdiction of the Commission in 1905 extended 
along a river frontage of 13.86 miles, of which 11.02 miles were in 
New Jersey and 2.84 miles in New York. The Legislature of New 
Jersey in 1901 appropriated $50,000 for the purchases of lands, all 
of which with an exception of $6,391.60 had been expended in 1906. 
The formal dedication of the Park took place September 27, 1909, 
at the old Cornwallis Headquarters in the Park at Alpine Landing, 
New Jersey. The Empire State was represented by Governor 
Charles Evans Hughes, and New Jersey by Governor J. Franklin 
Fort. 

In the history of the preservation of the scenic beauty of the 
west shore of the Hudson river, two years will always stand out 
prominent, 1900, when the Interstate Park Commission was incor- 

188 



PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, NEW JERSEY 

porated by the States of New York and New Jersey; and 1910, the 
year when important gifts of lands and moneys amounting to $284,- 
000 were received and the jurisdiction of the Commission was 
extended to Newburgh, New York, with power to acquire the High- 
lands. The gift of ten thousand acres by Edward H. Harriman of 
lands situated in Rockland and Orange counties, supplemented with 
a trust fund of a million dollars, formed a basis for the subscription 
of $1,650,000 from private citizens of New York City, the list being 
headed with the names of John D. Rockefeller and J. Pierpont 
Morgan with $500,000 each, thus creating a fund to enable the Com- 
mission to extend its domains and beautify it with landscape archi- 
tecture. 

To fill a vacancy, Richard V. Lindabury, of Newark, New Jer- 
sey, was appointed as successor to William B. Dana. In 1913, Ed- 
ward L. Partridge, of New York City, succeeded D. McNeely Stauf- 
fer as vice-president ; Frederick C. Sutro, of Basking Ridge, New 
Jersey, succeeded Abram De Ronda as treasurer; and Charles 
Whiting Baker, of Montelair, New Jersey, was appointed to replace 
William A. Linn as a commissioner. The retirement of Edwin A. 
Stevens as president caused the choice of Richard V. Lindabury to 
fill that office. To fill other vacancies in the Commission, Mornay 
Williams, of Englewood, New Jersey, John J. Voorhees, of Jersey 
City, New Jersey, and W. Averill Harriman, of New York City, were 
appointed. 

The construction of the Henry Hudson Boulevard was com- 
menced in 1912. The State Legislature of New Jersey in 1910 
appropriated $500,000 towards its construction, payable in yearly 
Mstalments of $100,000, and in 1911 $200,000 of this amount had 
been paid. The popularity of the Palisades Interstate Park was 
firmly established in 1917. The New Jersey Legislature of that year 
appropriated $25,000 towards the completion of the Henry Hudson 
Drive, and there was still a final instalment of $100,000 to be paid on 
the appropriation of $500,000 passed by the Legislature of 1910. 
Greenbrook Park, located in the borough of Tenafly, was purchased, 
consisting of 133 acres of land on the summit of the Palisades. This 
purchase, with the donation of an adjoining tract of land of thirty- 
two acres, gave a cliff frontage of 5100 feet. The following year 
the Commission completed negotiations with P. Sanford Ross for 
eight acres below the cliffs, in the borough of Fort Lee, thereby com- 

189 



PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, NEW JERSEY 

pleting without a break real estate holdings in New Jersey between 
the top of the cliffs and the river shore from the most southerly 
point in its jurisdiction to the New York State line. 

The Englewood-Alpine section of the Henry Hudson Drive 
from its beginning at the Englewood approach and its terminus 
at the Boulevard on the top of the cliffs at Alpine, five miles and one- 
half in length, with a spur to the Alpine Dock, a half mile in length, 
was completed and open to traffic October 29, 1921. Simple cere- 
monies marked the opening of the Drive, at termination of which the 
ribbon stretched across its entrance was cut by Mrs. George W. Per- 
kins, and it was opened for public use. The cost of the Drive was 
$628,747.19, which was defrayed out of the New Jersey State appro- 
priations, it having been planned and constructed by the Commis- 
sion's own organization. 

The surface of the driveway is sixteen feet in width, with four 
feel gutters on each side, and is constructed of telford macadam 
bituminous bound. Dry masonry retaining walls hold the back 
slopes, the parapet wall consisting of boulders weighing from one 
to three tons each. A bridge spanning Greenbrook Falls, a chasm 
down the face of the cliffs hundreds of feet in depth, is of rein- 
forced concrete with a spandel arch sixty feet in the clear at an ele- 
vation of one hundred and eighty feet above the Hudson river. 
The Drive follows as near as possible the natural topography 
between the foot of the Palisades Cliffs and the shore front of the 
Hudson river, the grade in only a few places exceeding six per 
cent. At places it dips almost to the water's edge, and at other 
places it rises to elevations of from three hundred to four hundred 
feet. The views are unsurpassed. Now appear short vistas through 
the foliage on the water front, and again the whole panorama of the 
Hudson will be unfolded from some commanding height. The Drive 
is in no sense an automobile speedway; it is more in the nature 
of a trail affording to those that travel it, everchanging scenes of 
wonderful beauty. 

The Storm King Highway, which was opened to the public in 
1922, was hewn out of the side of a mountain of rock. In surveying 
for this road, the engineers stood on Crows Nest Mountain and shot 
paint over onto the side of Storm King Mountain to obtain the 
correct elevation. When the road was constructed it was necessary 

190 



PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, NEW JERSEY 

to place nets below the roadbed in order to prevent blasted rocks 
from falling on the railroad track below. 

To approach this highway from Manhattan, the traveler passes 
along the east shore of the Hudson river to Garrisons, where the 
river is crossed by ferry to West Point. About a mile or more from 
this point is the commencement of the new Storm King Mountain 
road, built around the side of the mountain. Proceeding in a north- 
erly direction, Newburgh is reached, where a detour is taken west to 
Middletown, and thence in a curving southerly direction the New 
Jersey State line is reached, passing in transit Ramsey, Hohokus, 
Areola, Hackensack, Leonia, to Fort Lee, where the One Hundred 
and Thirtieth Street ferry is taken for New York City. 

The Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate Park announced 
in 1922 that there would be no closed season during the winter 
months. The Bear Mountain Inn was to remain open for the entire 
year; a toboggan slide was to be erected, and Highland Lake flooded 
to obtain good skating; the cabins in the woods were to be heated 
and rented to week-end parties. 

The present officers of the Commission are Richard V. Lind- 
abury, of Newark, New Jersey, president; Edward L. Partridge, 
of New York, New York, vice-president; W. Averell Harriman, 
of New York, New York, secretary; Frederick C. Sutro, of Basking 
Ridge, New Jersey. They with Charles "Whiting Baker, of Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, John J. Voorhees, of Jersey City, New Jersey, 
Myran W. Robinson, of Hackensack, N. J., J. DuPratt White, of 
Nyack, New York, William H. Potter, of New Y'ork, New York, 
and Otis H. Cutter, of Suffern, New Y r ork, constitute the Board of 
Commissioners. 




'9i 




Sayles Family 

By Mrs. Heeold R. Finley, St. Louis, Mo. 

Arms — Argent, on a fess cotised engrailed azure between three wolves' heads erased 
sable, as many griffins' heads erased or. 

Crest — In front of a wolf's head couped sable, gorged with a collar gemel or, three 
escallops gold. 

Motto — Who most has served is greatest. (This motto is given only in English). 

^f]]0 MORE distinguished name than that of Sayles occurs in 
the history of the State of Rhode Island, in the annals 
of its business, financial and industrial development in 
the last century. From the first days of Rhode Island's 
existence as a Colony the name has carried a prestige 
and influence in large affairs which subsequent generations have not 
allowed to wane. In the career of the late Frank Arthur Sayles, 
prematurely cut off at the height of its gigantic achievement and use- 
fulness, we have an example of inspired strength welding together 
structures of men and minds for great industrial advancement, 
combined with the resourcefulness and inventive genius of the New 
England intellect, such as occurs but few times in a century. Frank 
A. Sayles took undisputed place as one of the greatest Captains of 
Industry of the twentieth century, and his reputation was world- 
wide. 

The Sayles family in Rhode Island dates from the year 1651, 
when the first mention of the name of the progenitor, John Sayles, 
appears on the records of the Colony. That he had been here for at 
least a short period prior to that date is evident from the fact that 
about 1650 he married Mary Williams, daughter of Roger. Williams. 
They were the progenitors of a family which has figured largely in 
the affairs of Colony and State from the very beginning. Although 
not numerous, their descendants have been divided into several 
clearly defined branches, according to the localities in which they 
have resided. 

The surname is of ancient English origin, and considerable in- 
terest attaches to its derivation. It is local in source, and signifies 
literally "at the hurdles," sayles being the old English word for 
hurdles, or the upright stakes of a hurdle. Charles Wareing Bards- 
ley, M. A., in his "Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames," in 
tracing the origin of the name, says : "The only instances I can find, 
ancient or modern, are in County York. The name has remained 
there at least five hundred years." From this fact we cannot go far 

192 




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SAYLES FAMILY 

astray if we claim Yorkshire as the home of the early Sayles ances- 
tors. 

/. John Sayles, immigrant ancestor and founder, was born in 
1633, and is first recorded in Providence Plantations, January 27, 
1651, when he purchased a house and lot of John Throckmorton* On 
May 12, 1652, he bought land of Ralph Earle, near West River. In 
the following year, 1653, already risen to a position of prominence 
in Colonial affairs, he was chosen assistant to the governor. In 1655 
he was admitted a freeman, and in 1653, 1655, 1657, 1659, was com- 
missioner. From 1655 to 1657 he served the town of Providence as 
clerk; member of the General Council, 1658; warden, 1648; treas- 
urer, 1653, 1657, 1659, 1661, 1662. On May 26, 1660, he sold William 
Hawkins a piece of property which indicates how vast were his hold- 
ings in the early Colony. On that date he conveyed all rights in land 
lying between Pawtucket and Pawtuxet rivers, "beginning at the 
end of seven miles upon a west line from the hill called Foxes' Hill 
(the town of Providence having the same for a boundary), and so to 
go up the streams of those rivers unto the end of twenty miles from 
the said Foxes' Hill." On February 19, 1665, he had lot twenty- 
four in a division of lands. On May 31, 1666, he took the oath of 
allegiance. He served on the grand jury in 1669-71, and in 1669-70- 
71-74-76-77-78, was a deputy to the Rhode Island General Assembly. 
On May 4, 1670, he and three others were appointed to audit the Col- 
ony's account. On June 24, 1670, he sold to Stephen Arnold a thir- 
teenth of the island, called the vineyard, at Pawtuxet, "which my 
father-in-law Mr. Roger Williams gave me." In 1670-71 he waa 
a member of the Town Council. On August 21, 1671, he and Thom- 
as Roberts were appointed to prize and transport the horse belong- 
ing to the town of Rhode Island, and to deliver it to Joseph Torrey 
in payment for debts due from the town. On May 24, 1675, he drew 
lot eighteen in the division of lands. His last appearance on the 
public records is on July 1, 1679, when he was taxed Is. 3d. 

John Sayles married, about 1650, Mary Williams, daughter of 
Roger Williams, who was born at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in Au- 
gust, 1633. 

II. John (2) Sayles, son of John (1) and Mary (Williams) 
Sayles, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, August 17, 1654. He 
was admitted a freeman, May 3, 1681, and in 1688 served on the 
grand jury. On January 23, i694, he had laid out to him thirty-five 
acres, "which land he had of his grandfather Mr. Roger Williams." 
In 1694 he was chosen to the office of deputy to the General Assem- 
bly, and again in 1706. On August 14, 1710, he was licensed to keep 
an inn and sell liquor. John Sayles died on August 2, 1727. His 
will, dated September 14, 1726, and proved August 21, 1727, be- 

193 



SAYLES FAMILY 

* 

queathes to his sons : Thomas, Richard and John, and his daughter 
Mary. The gravestones of John Sayles, his wife Elizabeth, and son 
Daniel are still to be seen in the old graveyard west of the railroad 
track, nearly opposite the foot of Earl street. 

John (2) Sayles married Elizabeth Olney, born January 31, 
1666, daughter of Thomas Olney. She died November 2, 1699. 

III. Captain Richard Sayles. son of John (2) and Elizabeth 
(Olney) Sayles, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, October 24, 
1695, and died in Smithfield after May, 1775. In 1731 he was town 
clerk of Providence. There is a record of his delivering the two 
children of his wife by a former marriage to their grandfather, 
Maturin Ballou, September 25, 1742. He removed, in 1731-32, to 
Smithfield, a stronghold of the Rhode Island Friends, and some of 
his children joined the Society of Friends. His brothers also set- 
tled in Smithfield, and became very prominent citizens. Richard 
Sayles held the rank of ensign in the Second Providence Company, 
Second Regiment of Militia of the Main Land, 1722, 1723, 1721, 1725. 
He was a lieutenant in the same company in 1725 and 1726, and cap- 
tain in 1729. In 1731, 1733, he was captain of the Smithfield com- 
pany. He was deputy for Providence to the General Assembly of 
Rhode Island in 1730, and deputy for Smithfield in 1738. On Feb- 
ruary 21, 1750, Richard Sayles deeded a house lot of two and three- 
quarter acres to his son Richard, and on July 5, 1757, deeded land to 
his sons, Jonathan and Gideon, including the homestead. 

Captain Richard Sayles married (first), November 24, 1720, 
Mercy Phillips, daughter of Richard and Sarah (Mowry) Phillips. 
He married (second), May 14, 1738, Alice Arnold, of Smithfield, 
widow of David Arnold, and daughter of Maturin and Sarah Ballou. 
He married (third), January 10, 1742, Susannah Inman, widow of 
John Inman, and daughter of James and Susanna (Whitman) Bal- 
lou. 

IV. Captain Israel Sayles, son of Captain Richard and Mercy 
(Phillips) Sayles, was born March 17, 1726, and died April 22, 1801. 
He was a farmer, and an unusually skilled mechanic. For many 
years he was president of the Town Council of Glocester. He held 
the rank of lieutenant in the First Company of Glocester, Provi- 
dence County Regiment, in 1754, and was captain of the same in 
1754, 1755, and 1756. In 1757 he was enlisting officer for Glocester. 
Israel Sayles served in the Revolutionary War as a member of Cap- 
tain Hopkins' company, Colonel Lippitt's regiment, and according 
to report, under General Sullivan. 

Captain Israel Sayles married Mercy Whipple, daughter of 
Daniel and Mary (Smith) Whipple. 

194 




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V. Aliab Sayles, son of Captain Israel and Mercy ("Whipple) 
Sayles, was born October 17, 1760, and died April 17, 1819. His 
homestead lands were between Pascoag and Chepaehet, on the line 
which in 1806 was made the boundary line between Burrillville and 
Glocester. The family mansion was then situated in Burrillville 
instead of in Glocester as formerly. 

Ahab Sayles married, in January, 1786, Lillis Steere, daughter 
of Samuel and Martha (Colwell) Steere, and member of an old 
Kkode Island family. She was born August 17, 1766, and died 
March 9, 1851. 

VI. Clark Sayles, son of Ahab and Lillis (Steere) Sayles, was 
born in Glocester, Rhode Island, May 18, 1797. He was educated in 
the local schools, and as a youth was an omnivorous reader. At the 
age of eighteen years he entered the employ of Mr. Elias Carter, a 
master-builder of Thompson, Connecticut. He later went to 
Georgia, where he was employed in building the Burke county court 
house. Returning, he assisted in building the Congregational 
church edifice at Milford, Massachusetts. Finally establishing him- 
self independently, he erected a residence for his brother, Nicholas 
Sayles. He again went to G eorgia, where for a time he constructed 
dwellings for planters, and completed a large hotel at Waynesbor- 
ough. On his return from the South he built the meeting house in 
Greenville, Smithfield, Ehode Island. In the spring of 1822 he 
removed to Pawtucket, and settled as a master-builder. Among the 
contracts which he was awarded during the ensuing period were 
houses for David W 7 ilkinson, the adding of the middle section of the 
First Baptist Church edifice, the building of the First Congrega- 
tional Church edifice in Pawtucket, which he also planned, a church 
in North Scituate, and one in Attleboro, Massachusetts. 

In addition to this work, Mr. Clark Sayles engaged in the coal 
and lumber business, and was the first man to introduce coal into 
Pawtucket in vessels. Mr. Sayles associated himself in business 
with Mr. Daniel Greene, and in the financial panic of 1829 the firm 
of Clark Sayles & Company assumed to a great disadvantage, as the 
issue proved, the business interests of Mr. Greene, who had failed. 
Mr. Sayles was chosen director of the New England Pacific Bank, 
and was one of the two of its thirteen directors who did not fail. 
Chosen president of the bank as successor to Dr. Asa Messer, Mr. 
Sayles stood at the head of the institution for seventeen years, and, 
"by most skillful financiering," brought the bank through all its dif- 
ficulties. In 1837, closing most of his large business interests in 
Pawtucket, he again went South and engaged in the wholesale lum- 
ber trade for the firm of which he was head, and also as agent of 
another company, operating steam saw mills, one on an island at the 
mouth of the Altamaha river, and one on the Savannah river, oppo- 

195 



SAYLES FAMILY 

site the city of Savannah. He was occupied in this way for about 
twenty years, but finally returned to Pawtucket. He did not again 
enter business for himself, but assisted his sons, William Francis 
and Frederic Clark Sayles, in purchasing materials and in the con- 
struction of the buildings added to their extensive Moshassuck 
Bleachery, in Lincoln, Khode Island. He was also general superin- 
tendent in the erection of the beautiful Memorial Chapel in Sayles- 
ville, near the Bleachery. 

In 1832 Mr. Sales became a member of the Congregational 
church, and was prominent in the stand against slavery, and for 
temperance, educational and moral reform. In politics he was an 
Old-Line AVhig, and was finally identified with the Republican party. 
Contemporary record tells us that "Mr. Sayles was a strong, ener- 
getic, independent, incorruptible man." He stands out preemi- 
nently as one of the strong, admirable, constructive figures of busi- 
ness life in Khode Island in the latter half of the nineteenth century. 

Clark Sayles married, December 25, 1822, Mary Ann Olney, 
born June 21, 1803, daughter of Paris and Mercy (Winsor) 01ney r 
and a descendant of Thomas Olney, founder of the family in Amer- 
ica, who was one of the thirteen original proprietors of Providence 
Plantations. Thomas Olney came from Hertford, England, in the 
ship "Planter," and settled first in Salem, Massachusetts; he was 
one of the founders of Providence, with Roger Williams. From him 
the line descends through Epenetus Olney, who married Mary Whip- 
ple; Epenetus Olney, Jr., who married Mary Williams; James 
Olney, married Hannah Winsor; Emor Olney, married Amey Hop- 
kins; Paris Olney, married Mercy Winsor. Clark and Mary Ann 
(Olney) Sayles were the parents of five children, three of whom died 
young. The sons, William Francis, mentioned below, and the late 
Hon. Frederic Clark Sayles, both rose to commanding positions in 
the industrial and business life of Rhode Island. 

VII. William Francis Sayles, son of Clark and Mary Ann 
(Olney) Sayles, was born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, September 
21, 1824. He received his early education in the Fruit Hill Classical 
Institute, under Mr. Amos Perry; the Seekonk Classical School, 
under Mr. Stanton Belden ; and for two years was a student in Phil- 
lips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. 

In 1812 Mr. William Francis Sayles began his business life as 
bookkeeper for the firm of Shaw & Earle in Providence. He was 
afterwards salesman, and eventually was placed in charge of the 
financial affairs of the concern. In December, 1817, he bought at 
public auction the Moshassuck Bleachery, which is situated about 
two miles west of Pawtucket. For some time the plant had been 
used as a print works. Mr. Sayles began immediately to erect addi- 
tional buildings and converted the plant into a bleachery for shirt- 

196 






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SAYLES FAMILY 

ings and sheetings, having a capacity of two and a half tons daily. 
By 1854, despite the fact that he had entered the business without 
experience and with small capital, he had increased the capacity of 
the works to about four tons a day. About three-fourths of all the 
finer cotton goods came to his bleachery. The water of the Moshas- 
suck river, for which the bleachery is named, is well adapted for the 
purposes of the plant, but the additional advantage of a fountain of 
water from a hundred springs, enclosed in a wall some three hun- 
dred feet in circumference, has been added. In June, 1S54, the entire 
plant was destroyed by fire, but Mr. Sayles immediately set himself 
to work to rehabilitate his loss, and the establishment was rebuilt 
on even a larger scale than the old. The new plant had a capacity 
of six tons a day, and from year to year additions have been made 
until the daily output is now expressed in terms of hundreds of 
thousands of yards. The buildings cover an area of thirty acres 
and are models of architecture for buildings of this kind and class, 
substantially built of brick. The surrounding grounds are tastefully 
laid out and carefully kept. The works are lighted by electricity, 
and are well equipped with fire apparatus and with every conveni- 
ence for safeguarding the life and comfort of the workmen. Mr. 
Sayles was a pioneer in providing for the welfare and health, com- 
fort and happiness of his men, and the most harmonious relations 
always existed between him and his employees. He was a prime 
mover in the establishment of a school district for the village, and on 
the first Sunday of June, I860, he organized a Sunday school, and 
as its superintendent devoted himself to the work during the remain- 
der of his life. The village which grew about the bleachery has come 
to be called Saylesville, and now has a population of more than two 
thousand, with stores, post office, and all the attributes of a model 
manufacturing community. In 1863 Mr. Sayles admitted to partner- 
ship his brother, Frederic C. Sayles, with whose cooperation the 
business was constantly enlarged. 

In 1873 William F. and Frederic C. Sayles, to meet the religious 
needs of the growing community in Saylesville, and to raise a suit- 
able memorial "to the memory to their deceased children," erected 
a beautiful chapel of Westerly granite, in the Gothic style. The fol- 
lowing names are inscribed on marble tablets on the interior walls 
at each side of the pulpit: "Louisa Marsh Sayles, and Xannie Xye 
Sayles, children of William F. and Mary W.," on the west side; 
and "Benjamin Paris Sayles, son of Frederic C. and Deborah C," 
on the east side. In 1877 William F. Sayles erected a tower on the 
corner of the church as a memorial to his deceased son, William 
Clark Sayles, who died in the previous year while a student in 
Brown University. A few years later, Mr. Sayles, with his brother, 
erected, at a cost of $30,000, a large hall for the use of those in their 
employ, containing a library and reading room, and a room for the 

197 



SAYLES FAMILY 

association of firemen in the bleachery and for other social pur- 
poses. One writer said of the village a generation ago what is just 
as true to-day in a larger sense : 

The Moshassuck Bleachery, with its numerous substantial buildings, the neat ap- 
pearance of the tenement houses around it, the elevated grounds on either side of the 
winding stream, which gives the valley its name, the pleasant homes of the permanent 
residents, the chapel, the school house, the public hall, the absence of drinking saloons 
and the concomitants, the peacable and orderly character of the people, give to Sayles- 
ville its enviable reputation as the model manufacturing village of Rhode Island. 

In 1877 William F. and Frederic C. Sayles built the Mos- 
hassuck Valley railroad, which connects their village with the Wood- 
lawn station of the Xew York, New Haven & Hartford railroad. The 
senior partner became president of the road, and his brother treas- 
urer. This spur track greatly facilitated the transportation of 
goods to and from the bleachery and opened up an opportunity for 
indefinite expansion of business. Between Woodlawn and the bleach- 
ery, the firm established an extensive business in the Lorraine Mills, 
in manufacturing ladies' dress goods of the finest quality, especially 
French cashmeres. At Lorraine another model village grew up 
about this industry, and the firm erected a chapel there, pursuing 
the same generous policy which they had followed at Moshassuck. 

Mr. Sayles was prominently identified with many of the fore- 
most business and financial institutions in the State of Rhode Isl- 
and. He was president of the Slater National Bank of Pawtucket, 
and a director of the Third National Bank of Providence. He was a 
large stockholder in numerous manufacturing industries, and was 
president of the Slater Cotton Company of Pawtucket, of which he 
was founder. He was a director of the Ponemah Mills, of Taftville, 
Connecticut, the largest cotton manufacturing business in the State, 
and one of the largest in New England. He was president of the 
Stafford Manufacturing Company of Central Falls, and a stockhold- 
er in numerous mill corporations in Massachusetts. 

In politics, Mr. Sayles was a Republican. He served two terms 
as State Senator from Pawtucket, and proved a wise and efficient 
legislator. For many years he was president of the trustees of the 
Pawtucket Free Public Library. In 1878, in memory of his son, Wil- 
liam Clark Sayles, Mr. Sayles gave to Brown University the sum of 
$50,000 for the erection of a memorial hall. The .gift was subse- 
quently increased to $100,000, and on June 4, 1881, Sayles Hall was 
dedicated. In 1879 Mr. Sayles was elected to the board of trustees 
of Brown University, and held that office until his death, May 7, 
1894. In his younger days he served in the State Militia, and was 
lieutenant-colonel of the Pawtucket Light Guard. During the Civil 
War he gave earnest and loyal support to the government, contribut- 
ing freely from his wealth for many patriotic jjurposes. 

In 1870-72 Mr. Sayles erected a beautiful mansion overlooking 

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SAYLES FAMILY 

the cities of Pawtucket and Providence. Here he collected a fine li- 
brary and many works of art. He was fond of literature and the 
arts, and travelled extensively in this country and abroad. A con- 
temporary wrote of him : 

Active and public-spirited as a citizen, upright, and honorable in all his dealings 
with his fellowmen, he won and retained the respect and confidence of the community 
in which he always resided. From the beginning of his business career, he believed in 
the principle of hard, persistent work and honesty of purpose as the only sure ground of 
success. Acting upon this belief he succeeded by his own unaided exertions in raising 
himself from the position of a clerk in a commercal house to the possessor of an ample 
fortune. Endowed with a sympathetic nature, and bestowing substantial aid where 
deserved, he strove always to make the applicant depend upon himself rather than on 
others. While from his door none were turned away empty, his charities were of the 
practical kind, and calculated to confer permanent aid, as well as to relieve present 
necessity. His convictions of right and duty were decided and firm, and uncompromis- 
ingly maintained, and though a positive man, he viewed the faults of others with 
charity, his creed being, 

That mercy I to others show 
That mercy show to me. 

He attended and generously contributed to the work of the Cen- 
tral Congregational Church in Providence, but was not sectarian in 
his beliefs. 

William Francis Sayles married, October 30, 1849, Mary Wilk- 
inson Fessenden, who was born October 24, 1827, and died Septem- 
ber 20, 1886. She was the daughter of Hon. Benjamin Fessenden, of 
Valley Falls, Ehode Island, and Mary (Wilkinson) Fessenden, his 
wife. Their children were : 1. Mary Fessenden. 2. Louise Marsh. 
3. William Clark. 4. Martha Freeman. 5. Frank Arthur, of whom 
further. 6. Nancy Nye. 

VIII. Frank Arthur Sayles, son of William Francis and Mary 
Wilkinson (Fessenden) Sayles, was born December 14, 1866, in Paw- 
tucket, Rhode Island. He was educated in preparatory schools, and 
was graduated from Brown University in the class of 1890. He en- 
tered immediately into his father's bleaching industries, and devoted 
the period ensuing between his graduation and the death of William 
F. Sayles to learning the business in all its departments. On the 
death of his father, Frank A. Sayles inherited the Sayles Finishing 
Plants at Saylesville and Phillipsdale, and the Moshassuck Valley 
railroad. He inaugurated at once the policy of expansion and pro- 
gressive development which within a short period made the Sayles 
bleaching industries the most noted of their kind in the world. He 
was a man of inventive as well as executive genius, and to the ad- 
vancement of the Sayles industries brought the valuable gift of fa- 
miliarity with mechanical and scientific affairs, as well as his ability 
as an organizer and director. Broad of vision, thoroughly cognizant 
of every changing phase of the vast enterprises which he directed, 
devoting himself to his work with a singleness and intentness of pur- 
pose which admitted of no distractions, he reared on the foundations 

199 



SAYLES FAMILY 

laid by his father and uncle a business which has no peer in Europe 
or America to-day, and stands as a monument to his intellectual and 
creative strength. 

Mr. Sayles' interests, although confined largely to the field of 
woolen and cotton manufacture, were wide and diversified. Rhode 
Island industries which he operated and of which he was president 
included the Sayles Finishing Plants at Saylesville and Phillipsdale, 
above mentioned; the Hamlet Textile Company of Woonsocket and 
Pawtucket ; the Slater Yarn Company of Pawtucket ; and the River 
Spinning Company of Woonsocket. He was president and principal 
stockholder of the Lorraine Manufacturing Company, and of the 
Slater Trust Company of Pawtucket. It has been estimated that 
fully ten thousand persons were employed in the plants which he 
controlled. Other business enterprises in which he was heavily in- 
terested were: The French River Textile Company of Mechanics- 
ville, Connecticut, of which he was president ; and the Ponemah Mills 
at Taftville, Connecticut, of which he was president and member of 
the board of directors. He was a director in the following corpora- 
tions: The Blackstone Valley Gas and Electric Light Company; the 
Castner Electrolytic Company, director and vice-president; the 
Chase National Bank, of New York City; the Moshassuck Valley 
Railroad; the Norfolk Southern Railroad Company; the Putnam 
(Connecticut) Light and Power Company; the United Gas and Elec- 
tric Company; and the Wauregan Mills. He rendered invaluable 
service along industrial lines throughout the World War. Part of 
his service was devoting his plants at Woonsocket, A^alley Falls and 
Phillipsdale to the bleaching of cotton linter used in the manufacture 
of explosives; the weekly output of these plants was 2,500,000 
pounds. 

Throughout his entire career, Mr. Sayles was a generous sup- 
porter of worthwhile charities and benevolences, giving freely and 
liberally for the alleviation of suffering and for the advancement of 
the arts, education, religion, and civic interests. His gifts to war 
charities were very great and were exceeded by no resident of Paw- 
tucket. Other notable gifts made possible the Pawtucket Memorial 
Hospital, which Mr. Sayles erected and presented to the city in 
memory of his mother and sister. He also endowed the Sayles Me- 
morial Hospital with $75,000. 

Mr. Sayles was no seeker after public honors. His life, away 
from the cares of his great business interests, was essentially sim- 
ple. He had no fraternal connections and cared little for social 
life. In his leisure hours he shunned the artificialities and pretenses 
of modern life, reverting to the simple, homely interests and pleas- 
ures of the preceding generation. He was a lover of outdoor life 
and horses. Of magnetic personality, brilliant in mentality, yet un- 
ostentatious, he numbered among his friends some of the foremost 

200 






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SAYLES FAMILY 

men of the State and Nation, men who valued and loved him for the 
cultured, kindly gentleman and man of affairs that he was. His 
funeral was carried out with the impressive and dignified serious- 
ness and freedom from poinp and affection with which he had lived 
his life. 

Mr. Sayles had a notable Colonial ancestry, being descended 
from many of the early Rhode Island families, distinguished in the 
aimals of the Colony. He traced his line from Roger Williams, the 
founder of Rhode Island, by six different descents, through the 
Sayles, Winsor and Olney families. He was descended from Thom- 
as Olney, one of the thirteen original proprietors of Providence 
Plantations, through three lines; from John Whipple, commander 
of an expedition against the Indians in King Philip's War, 1675-76, 
by four lines ; and from Thomas Angell and Joshua Winsor, two of 
the thirteen signers of the first written compact of the Providence 
Plantations, by three lines each. 

The well known Field, Arnold, Jenckes, Mowry, Inman, Wicken- 
den, Rhodes and Wilkinson names were also duplicated by the fre- 
quent intermarriages of that era. Other notable Rhode Island an- 
cestry included the Hopkins, the Chad Brown, the Obadiah Holmes, 
the Harris, Barker, Randall, Scott and Smith families, showing that 
the Sayles family record was closely interwoven with a large part of 
early Rhode Island history. Through his maternal ancestry, Mr. 
Sayles was descended from John Howland and John Tilley of the 
''Mayflower." 

Cape ancestry of note included the Newcomb, Bourne, Skiff, 
Chipman, Freeman, Otis, Bacon, Russell and Mayo families, while 
other Massachusetts lines included the Colton, Marshfield, Chapin, 
Johnson, Marsh, Wilson, Hobart, Adams, Wright, Moody and Col- 
lins families. Branches straying into Connecticut were the Rev. 
Thomas Hooker, the Newton and Talcott lines. 

Members of all of these families performed distinguished Colon- 
ial service. Indeed, it is worthy of notice that Mr. Sayles claimed 
over eighty Colonial ancestors, whose services have been recognized 
and entered in the different hereditary societies, three of whom were 
Colonial governors, or presidents. He was a member of the Rhode 
Island Society of Colonial Wars, by right of such services, and al- 
though he was not affiliated with the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion, he claimed six Revolutionary heroes. 

Frank Arthur Sayles married, June 9, 1892, Mary Dorr Ames, 
daughter of Commander Sullivan Dorr Ames, of the United States 
Navy, and Mary Townsend (Bullock) Ames, his wife. They were the 
parents of the following children : 1. Mary Ames, born October 13, 
1S93; married Neville Jay Booker, of New York, June 8, 1918; 

201 



SAYLES FAMILY 

one child, Mary Sayles, born January 1, 1921. 2. Martha Free- 
man, born July 18, 1896; married Paul Coe Nicholson, of Provi- 
dence, June 23, 1917 ; they have children : Paul Coe Nicholson, Jr.,.. 
born October 12, 1918; Martha Savles Nicholson, born October 5, 
1922. 3. William Francis, born April 23, 1901, died March 21, 1902. 
4. Nancy, born April 12, 1905. 5. Hope, born February 21, 1907. 

Mrs. Sayles resides at "Saleholme," the Sayles' mansion, in 
Pawtucket. 

Frank A. Sayles died in New York City, March 9, 1920, at the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. Neville Jay Booker. 



Editor's Note — The related Ames Family will appear in the July number of "Ameri- 
cana," and the related Dorr Family in the October number. 






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ank Hervey Peti 



I. Richard Pettingell, born 1620, on September 4, 1667, made 
at Newbury, Mass., a deposition in which he testified that he was 
then forty-seven years old; was admitted a freeman (when twenty- 
one years old) at Salem, Mass., June 2, 1641; died shortly sub- 
sequent to July 15, 1695, at Newbury, Mass.; married about 1643, at 
Salem, Mass., Joanna Ingersoll, daughter of Richard and Ann 
(Langley) Ingersoll, of Salem, Mass., born 1625, died 1692-3 (about 
two or three years previous to her husband), at Newbury, Mass. 

Richard Pettingell came from England and was in Salem, Mass., 
before June 2, 1641, as he was made a freeman there on that date;. 
Savage (on what authority we do not know) says that, "tradition 
suggests that he came from Staffordshire, England. He removed to 
Enon (now Wenham), Mass., being recommended to the church 
there 1649; he removed to Newbury, Mass., where he bought land 
April 8, 1651, and where he lived until his death. The year of his 
birth is well established by various dated depositions in which his 
age, in each instance, is specifically stated. On July 15, 1695, he 
deeds to his sons Samuel, Matthew and Nathaniel, and died shortly 
thereafter, his wife having predeceased him by two or three years. 
In his deposition made at County Court held at Hampton (now in 
New Hampshire), 14, 8mo, 1673, when he "was about 52 years old," 
he states that he knew Giles Fuller (deceased) of Hampton and Mat- 
thew Fuller of Bastable [Barnstable] both in Old England and in 
New England. Matthew Fuller is positively known to have come 
from Topcroft, Norfolk Co., England, and it is supposed by some 
that Richard Pettingell came from the neighborhood of Shottesham 
or Topcroft in Norfolk county, England. Children: Samuel, bap- 
tized, Salem, Mass., 9(12) 1644; Matthew (see below); Mary, born 
Newbury, Mass., July 6, 1652 ; Nathaniel, born Newbury, Mass., Sep- 
tember 21, 1654; a son, born November 15, 1657, died November 17, 
1657, at Newbury ; Henry, born January 16, 1659, died January 20, 
1659, at Newbury. 

II. Matthew Pettingell, born 1648, about, at Enon (now Wen- 
ham), Mass., probably; died between October 24, 1714, and Septem- 
ber 29, 1715; will dated October 24, 1714; guardian was appointed 
for his daughter Abigail, September 29, 1715; married April 13, 
1674, at Newbury, Mass., to Sarah No}*es, daughter of Nicholas and 
Mary (Cutting) Noyes, of Newbury, Mass., born August 22, 1653, at 
Newbury, Mass.; she was living April 14, 1718, as evidenced by her 
signing a letter with other relatives on that date. Matthew Pettin- 

203 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

gell lived in Newbury, Mass. ; he took the oath of allegiance in 1678, 
then "aged 30." He was a felt maker. Children, all born in New- 
bury, Mass.: Son, probably died young; Nathaniel (see below); 
Matthew, Joanna, Cutting, Nicholas, Sarah, Mary, John, Abraham, 
Abigail. 

III. Nathaniel Petting ell, born January 21, 1675-6, at New- 
bury, Mass., was baptized there February 6, 1675-6; he was living 
September 7, 1743, on which date he deeded land to his sons Ephraim 
and Cutting; married December 22, 1702-3 (intention published at 
Newbury, October 10, 1702), at Newbury, Mass., to Margaret Rich- 
ardson, daughter of Edward and Anne (Bartlett) Richardson, of 
Newbury, Mass., born July 7, 16S2, died subsequent to October 20, 
1726, when her last child was born. 

Nathaniel Pettingell resided at Newbury, Mass., and was a felt 
maker. His wife was admitted to full communion in the church there 
February 10, 1717-18. Children, all born at Newbury: Anne, Ste- 
phen, Margaret, Moses, Sarah, Mary, Ephraim, Cutting (see below), 
Elizabeth, Joanna. 

IV. Cutting Pettingell* born January 17, 1721-2, baptized Jan- 
uary 28, 1721-2, at Newbury, Mass.; died about March 23, 1793, 
as he was buried at Newbury, Mass., March 26, 1793, at Newbury, 
Mass.; married (first) January 13, 1746-7, at Newbury, Mass., by 
Rev. John Tucker of the First Church of Newbury, to Judith Atkin- 
son, daughter of John and Judith (Worth) Atkinson, of Newbury, 
Mass., born November 1, 1724, at Newbury, Mass., died May 6, 1755, 
aged thirty-one years, at Newbury, Mass. ; gravestone in Oldtown 
graveyard, Newbury, Mass., gives her age as thirty-one; he was 
married (second) August 26, 1756, at Newbury, by Rev. Jonathan 
Parsons of Old South Church, Newbury, (now Newburyport), Mass., 
to Ruth Davis, daughter of Benjamin and Ruth (Brown) Davis, of 
Newbury, Mass., born February 19, 1732, at Newbury, Mass. 

Cutting Pettingell was a fisherman and a coaster ; he was a pri- 
vate in the train band of Col. John Greenleaf 's company, according 
to a return dated June 8, 1757. He was one of those who November 
26, 1745, signed the petition for the formation in Newbury of a new 
religious society (now the Old South) and who on March 1, 1746, 
made a petition to the General Court of Massachusetts to build the 
Presbyterian church, and he was one of the original members of that 
church. On May 27, 1893, Benjamin Davis (probably father of his 
second wife), gave bond to exhibit an inventory of Cutting Pettin- 
gell 's estate, which estate was declared insolvent. Children all born 
at Newbury, Mass. ; by first marriage : Eunice, Cutting, Jonathan, 
Josiah (see below) ; by second marriage: Nathaniel, Judith, Nathan, 
Samuel, Benjamin. 

♦Descendants eligible to Society of Colonial Wars. 

204 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

V. Josiah PeUingill,-f born April, 1753, at Newburyport, 
Mass.; died June 30, 1826, at Newburyport, Mass.; married (first) 
(intention' published Newbury, Mass., October 22, 1774), to Phillipa 
French; died June 21, 1796, at Newburyport, Mass.; he married 
(second) January 6, 1802 (intention published December 18, 1801, at 
Newbury, Mass.), Mary Duggan. He resided in Newbury, Mass., 
where he was taxed 1789 to 1799, and then in Newburyport, where 
he was taxed 1815-1818. He was a fisherman; was in Captain Ste- 
phen Kent's company raised for coast defense, Essex county, Mass., 
in November and December, 1775. Children, all by first marriage : 
Phillipa, Nathaniel, Judith, Cutting (see below), Josiah, Moses, 
Henry. 

VI. Cutting Pettingellt born May 9, (or 23), 1785, at New- 
bury, Mass. ; died September 1, 1865, at Newburyport, Mass. ; mar- 
ried September IS, 1808, at South Hampton, New Hampshire, to 
Olive Smith, daughter of John and Lydia (Graves) Smith, of New- 
bury, Mass., born December 16, 1791, at Newbury, Mass., died Janu- 
ary 14, 1871, at Newburyport, Mass. He resided in Newbury and 
Newburyport, Mass. He was a member of Capt. John Woodwell's 
company, Lieut. -Col. Ebenezer Hale's regiment, Second Brigade, 
Second Division, service at Newbury, Mass., between September 30 
and October 4, 1811. Children, all born at Newbury, Mass. : Cutting 
(1st), Cutting (2nd). Olive, Moses, Lydia Graves, Lucy Goodwin, 
Mary A., Elizabeth Bobbins, Nathaniel Henry (see below). 

VII. Nathaniel Henry PettingeU, born September 11, 1835, at 
Newbury, Mass.; died November 12, 1874, at Newmarket, New 
Hampshire, and was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Newburyport, 
Mass. ; married September 6, 1863, at Newburyport, Mass., (by J. A. 
Ames, clergyman), to Mary Anna Feltch, daughter of Joseph Harris 
and Mary (Haskell) Feltch, (q. v.) of Newburyport, Mass., born 
September 10, 1813, at Newbury, Mass., died August 6, 1894, at New- 
buryport, Mass., and was buried by side of her husband in Oak Hill 
Cemetery, Newburyport, Mass. Children, all born at Newburyport, 
Mass. : Agnes Leah, Frank Hervey (see below); A-Valter F., died 
young; William F., died young; Walter Joseph, Cutting. 

VIII. Frank Hervey PettingeU, born January 2, 1868, at New- 
buryport, M^ass.; married (first) January 19, 1898, at Independence, 
Missouri, to Mary Agnes Morgan, of Independence, Missouri, born 
February 27, 1876, at Independence, Missouri; married (second) 
September 5, 1905, Medora Anna Wilson, daughter of John Mitchell 
and Rosabel (Cantril) Wilson, of Denver, Colorado, born February 
27, 1881. 

tDescendants eligible to societies representing service in Revolutionary War and to 
Society of Founders and Patriots. 

^Descendants eligible to Society of War of 1812. 

205 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

Frank Hervey Pettingell resided in Los Angeles, Cal. He re- 
sided in Newburyport, Massachusetts, from birth until 1SS9; re- 
moved that year to Colorado Springs, Colorado, and was connected 
with the First National Bank of that city for three years, since then 
has been engaged in stock and bond business. While a citizen of 
Colorado Springs was elected vice-president and subsequently presi- 
dent of the Colorado Mining Stock Exchange of Denver, Colorado. 
He was a charter member (and is still a member) of the Colorado 
Springs Mining Stock Association. Since December, 1912, he has 
been a resident of Los Angeles, California, and at present (March, 
1918) is serving his fourth term as president of the Los Angeles 
Stock Exchange. 

Mr. Pettingell is an officer or member of the following organ- 
izations: Suretie, Baronial Order of Runnemede (Sureties of the 
Magna Charta, A. D. 1215) ; Society of Colonial Wars in the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts ; Society Sons of the Revolution in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts; Massachusetts Society, Sons of 
the American Revolution; New England Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety (Mass.) ; Society for the Preservation of New England An- 
tiquities (Mass.) ; Society of the War of 1812 in the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts; Society of Old Plymouth Colony Descendants 
(Mass.); New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N. H. ; life 
member Historical Society of Old Newbury, Newburyport, Mass. ; 
Order of Knights of the Golden Horeshoe (headquarters, Balti- 
more, Md.), knight commander for the State of California; member 
The Paul Jones Club, Portsmouth, N. H. ; member the Pike Family 
Association of America (headquarters, Pike, N. H.) ; honorary vice- 
president general, National Society, Americans of Royal Descent* 
honorary president California Genealogical Society 1923 (head- 
quarters, San Francisco, Cal.), vice-president, 1919 to 1923; life 
member California Society of Colonial Wars; governor California 
Society of Colonial Wars, 1919-1920; deputy governor general to 
General Society of Colonial W T ars, 1921; historian general of the 
Society of Colonial Wars, 1921-1921; life member Sons of the Revo- 
lution in the State of California, president, 1921-1922 ; president In- 
ternational Congress of Genealogy, San Francisco, California, 1915 ; 
chevalier commander for California, Order of Lafayette (head- 
quarters, Washington, D. C.) ; vice-president and charter member 
Lafayette Society of California; State regent for California, the 
National Patriotic Society of the Lion, (headquarters, San Fran- 
cisco, California) ; vice-president Piscataqua Pioneers, Portsmouth, 
N. II. ; member New Jersey Society of the Order of the Founders and 
Patriots of America; member Orkney Antiquarian Society, Orkney 
Islands. Scotland (headquarters, Kirkwell, Orkney) ; vice-president 
board of library directors, Los Angeles Public Library, 1919-20-21- 
23 ; president Los Angeles Stock Exchange (ninth term) ; senior vice- 

206 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

president National Mining and Stock Brokers' Association; charter 
member Colorado Springs Mining Stock Association, still a member; 
formerly president (1896) Colorado Mining Stock Exchange, Den- 
ver, Colorado; member B. P. 0. Elks, No. 309, Colorado Springs, 
Colo., 1895 to 1919, demitted to No. 99, Los Angeles, California; 
member California Club, Los Angeles, California, since June 9, 
1919; president trustees section California Library Association, 
1920-21-22 ; chairman trustees section, American Library Associa- 
tion, 1920-1921; delegate to California Library Association to Na- 
tional Conference of American Library Association at Colorado 
Springs, Colorado, June 2nd to 9th, 1920; member American Library 
Association; member of war finance committee, American Library 
Association, 1917-191 S; member Red Cross Team, No. 25, Los An*- 
geles, California, during World War. 

Children, all by first marriage : Frank Hervey, born November 
27, 1899, at Colorado Springs, Colorado ; Mary Agnes, born January 
27, 1901, at Detroit, Michigan. 

Authorities : 

"Pettingell Genealogy," by John Mason Pettingell, pp. 2-7, 9-10, 19-20, 42, 85-6, 
145-8, 234-5, 324. 

Pope's "Pioneers of Massachusetts," pp. 252, 356. 

Savage's "Gen. Dictionary of N. E.," vol. ii, p. 521 ; vol. iii, pp. 297-8, 403-4, 535. 

"Vital Records of Newbury, Mass.," vol. i, pp. 26, 165, 367, 393-401, 481; vol. ii, pp. 
21, 171, 385-6, 388-690. 

"New England Hist. Gen. Register," vol. xxxii, p. 345. 

"Record Index of Muster Rolls," series 1710-1774, Massachusetts Archives (for 
service of Cutting* Pettingell). 

"Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution," vol. xii, p. 256, for Revolu- 
tionary services of Josiah" Pettingell. 

"History of Newbury, Mass.," by John J. Currier, pp. 604-5, 625-8. 

"Essex Institute Hist. Collections," vol. xxxv, p. 162. 

Records of War Department, Washington, D. C, for service of Cutting* Pettingell. 

(The Felch or Feltch Line). 

I. Henry Felch, the immigrant ancestor, born 1590, about, in 
Wales (possibly); died August 1670, at Boston, Massachusetts; 
married (first) (before coming to this country probably), to Mar- 
garet (whose maiden surname and parentage are not as yet deter- 
mined), died 23rd of fourth month (June), 1655, at Boston, Massa- 
chusetts; married (second) (after 2nd of eighth month, 1656), at 
(Boston, Massachusetts, probably), to Elizabeth (widow of Thomas 
Wiborne, who died at Boston, 2nd of eighth month, 1656; her 
maiden surname and parentage are not as yet determined), died 
May 12, 1682, at Boston, Massachusetts. 

Henry Felch, the first of the name in this country, was born 
about 1590. He is supposed to have come from Wales (of which 
tradition there is no proof) with the party of Rev. Richard Blynman 
m 1640. This party landed first at Plymouth, where Mr. Blynman is 
mentioned in the records, March 2, 1641; they next appeared at 

207 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

Marshfield, which town was incorporated March 1, 1642, and was 
then called Green's Harbor. In less than a year the party removed 
to Gloucester, Massachusetts, where in 1642 Henry Felch was owner 
of ' ' six acres of hoed ground, ' ' of which ground there is no grant on 
the records, so it may be inferred that he was in Gloucester before 
its incorporation as a town. Gloucester was settled between Octo- 
ber, 16-11 (when the bounds of the town were approved by the Gen- 
eral Court) and May, 1612, when it was established or incorporated 
as a plantation called Gloucester. The first marriage recorded in 
Gloucester is that of "a daughter of Henry Felch to Samuel Haie- 
ward, March 2, 1611 (X. S.) " Savage (vol. ii, p. 393) indicates that 
Samuel Haieward's wife was named Isabel, but there are several 
reasons why this is not likely. Henry Felch was a proprietor in 
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1612, and was perhaps of Reading, 
Massachusetts, in 1611. He lived during his later years in Boston, 
Massachusetts, where he died between July -1. 1670 (the date of his 
will) and September 27, 1670, the date of its probate. Presumably 
before coming to this countrv, he married his first wife, Margaret, 
who died in Boston in 1655 ; his second wife was the widow of 
Thomas Wiborne, who came to this country on the ship "Castle" in 
163S, from Tenterden, County Kent, England, and who died in Bos- 
ton, 2nd of eighth month, 1656, and whose will was dated September 
12, 1656, and proved October 28, 1656. Children, all by his first 
marriage: 1. Henry, born 1610, about. 2. Daughter (perhaps Isa- 
bel), married March 2, 1611, at Gloucester, Massachusetts, to Samuel 
Haieward. 3. Anna (or Hannah), married Samuel Dunton of Read- 
ing, Massachusetts, who died November 7, 1683; she died July 11, 
1689. 4. Mary, married John 2 Wiburn (or Wiborne), son of Thomas 
Wiborne of Boston, by his wife Elizabeth, who became the second 
wife of Henry 1 Felch. 

Elizabeth Wiborne had by her first husband, Thomas Wiborne, 
five sons and two daughters, viz. :— 1. Thomas, executor of his 
father's will; married (first) Abigail Eliot, who died at Boston, 
April 24, 1660; married (second) Ruth. 2. James, of Boston, who 
died March 7, 1658-9; he was one of the executors of his father's 
will. 3. John, who married his step-sister, Mary Felch. 4. Jona- 
than, who died at Boston, 10th of tenth month, 1653. 5. Nathaniel, 
born in Boston, March 12, 1655. 6. Elizabeth, who married, 3rd of 
second month, 1655, John Merrick. 7. Mary, mentioned in her 
father's will. 

II. Henri/ Felch, born and baptized. 1610, at Wales (possibly) ; 
died Nov. 11, 1699, at Reading, Massachusetts; married, 1619, to 
Hannah Sargent (daughter of Rev. AVilliam and his first wife Han- 
nah Sargent of Charlestown. Maiden and Barnstable, Massachu- 
setts), born (baptized July 13, 1629), at Northamptonshire, 

England; died December 15, 1717, at Reading, Mass. 

208 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

Henry Felcb was born about 1610, according to tradition in 
Pembrokeshire, Wales, Great Britain, and came to America with bis 
parents. He was a proprietor at Gloucester, Massachusetts, and 
settled for a time in Watertown, Massachusetts, and then removed 
to Reading, Massachusetts, in 1647. where he was prominent in town 
affairs, being a selectman in 1647-48-51, and in 16S1, and surveyor 
of highways in 164S. He probably resided in Boston for a time as 
several of his children were horn there. His estate was inventoried 
December 13, 1699, his son John Felch being administrator. In the 
town records of Beading he is often spoken of as "Sergeant Henry 
Felch," which shows that he was a member of the first military 
corps of Reading, formed probably at the time of the incorporation 
of the town in 1644, and called "Reading Infantry Company." The 
first captain of this company was Richard Walker, who was also an 
ancestor of the proponent, Frank Hervey Pettingell. 

Children: 1. Hannah, born February 26, 1650; died April 23, 
1668. 2. Mary, born July 31, 1653 ; died June 3, 1676 ; married 
William Green of Woburn, Massachusetts. 3. Elizabeth, born July 
15, 1655; died October 8, 1657 (or 18th of eighth month, 1657), at 
Boston, Massachusetts. 4. Samuel, born June 3, 1657, at Boston, 
Massachusetts; died October 22, 1661. 5. John (Deacon), born 
February 26, 1660; died Weston, Massachusetts, April 9, 1746; 
married Elizabeth Gowing. 6. Samuel, born July 12 (or 22), 1662; 

died January 14 (or 31), 1683. 7. Joseph, born — ; died Mav 

31, 1727; married Mary . 8. Elizabeth, born March 9, 1666; 

died ; married Thomas Cutler. 9. Daniel, born January 5, 

1668 (see below). 10. Hannah, born September 18, 1672; died 
; married Samuel Parker. 11. Ruth, born June 1, 1675. 

III. Dr. Daniel Felch, born January 5, 1668, at Reading, 
Massachusetts; died October 5, 1752, aged 84 years, 9 months, in 
that part of Hampton Falls now called Seabrook, New Hampshire ; 
married (first) May 6, 1702, at Reading, Massachusetts, to Deborah 
Dean (or Dane) of Charlestown, Massachusetts (perhaps daughter 
of Joseph and Elizabeth (Fuller) Dean, of Concord, Massachusetts, 
and if so) born September 29, 1678; died January 7, 1715; he 
married (second) Sarah 3 Fuller (dau. of Benjamin (Lieut. Thomas) 
and Sarah (Bacon) Fuller) ; he married (third) January 12, 1725, 
at Salem, Massachusetts (ceremony performed by Rev. Peter 
Clarke), to Hepsibah Curtis (daughter of Corporal John (Zacheus) 
Curtis and his wife Mary Looke, who was a daughter of Thomas and 
Sarah Looke, of Lynn, Massachusetts), born November 28, 1694, at 
Topsfield, Massachusetts, baptized January 6, 1694-5, at Boxford, 
Massachusetts; died at the Felch homestead in Seabrook, New 
Hampshire. Residence: Salem Village (now North Parish, Dan- 
vers), Massachusetts, as four of his children were baptized in the 

209 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

church tliere between 1718 and 1728. Shortly prior to 1730 he set- 
tled in that part of Seabrook, New Hampshire, then included within 
the jurisdiction of Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. His name 
appears among the taxpayers in Hampton Falls in 1747-8-9 and 
1750. He doubtless studied medicine under some physicians in or 
near Reading, Massachusetts, and was for many years a practicing 
physician in and about the vicinity of Hampton Falls, New Hamp- 
shire. Seabrook was set off from Hampton Falls, New Hamp- 
shire, on June 3, 1768. 

Children, by first marriage : 1. Daniel, born March 8, 1703, 
died September 13, 1713, aged 10 years, 6 months and 5 days, at 
Reading, Massachusetts. By second marriage : 2. Daniel, born 
April 5, 1718, baptized April 20, 1718 ; married Jane Paige. 3. De- 
borah, born January 13, 1720, baptized April 24, 1720; married 
Abner Harris. By third marriage, four sons and two daughters, viz. : 
4. Curtis, born 1726, about; married and removed to Fitzwilliam, 
New Hampshire. 5. Samuel, baptized April 23, 1727, at church in Sal- 
em Village (nowDanvers, North Parish), Massachusetts (see below). 
6. Sarah, baptized April 21. 1728, at church in Salem Village, 
Massachusetts; died January 13, 1811, at Seabrook, New Hamp- 
shire, not married. 7. Joseph, baptized April 24, 1728; died Feb- 
ruary 5, 1803, at Weare, New Hampshire ; married Mary Hoyt. 
8. Hannah, born October 24, 1731; married Paul Presey (int. pub. 
Nov. 30, 1750, at Salisbury, Massachusetts). 9. Henry, born July 
21, 1735, at Hampton Falls, New Hampshire ; died June 27, 1807 ; 
married (first) ; married (second) Deborah Palmer. 

IV. Samuel Falch {or Felch), baptized April 23, 1727, in 
church at Salem Village, now Danvers North Parish, Massachu- 
setts, died June 3, 1811, at Salisbury, Massachusetts; married 
January 1, 1755, at Seabrook, New Hampshire, to Jemima Selley 
— later spelled Cilley — (daughter of Thomas (Benoni) Selley 
by his second wife Lydia French), born April 5, 1737, at Salisbury, 
Massachusetts, died June 5, 1817, at Salisbury, Massachusetts. Res- 
idence : Seabrook, New Hampshire, where he lived in the old Felch 
liomestead. He was a farmer and fisherman. On November 29, 
1808, he divided this old homestead into five equal parts which he 
conveyed in severalty to his five sons by deeds bearing that date. He 
•signed the Association Text as a resident of Seabrook, New Hamp- 
shire, with his brother Joseph Felch, April 12, 1776. 

Children : 1. Nicholas, born June 12, 1755 ; died April 13, 1841 ; 
married Sarah Gove. 2. Jenne, born June 23, 1757 ; died March 11, 
1836; married Jeremiah Brown. 3. Samuel, born November 18, 
1759; died July 17, 1818; married Sarah (March) Harris, widow of 
Nathaniel Harris. 4. Jemima, born April 16, 1762 ; died November 
15, 1816; married Belcher Dole. 5. Hepsibah, born October 15, 

210 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

1765; died November 10. 1840; intention of marriage published 
Feb. 2, 1791, to Benjamin Joy, Jr. 6. Phineas, born March 7, 1768; 
died April, 1840; married Sarah Ward. 7. Daniel, born October 
13, 1771; died June 30, 1839 ; married Jenny Eaton. 8. Jacob, born 
February 3, 1777 (see below). 9. Betty, born December 3, 1781; 
died November 13, 1856; married Thomas Chase. 

V. Jacob Falch (or Fetch), born February 3, 1777. at Sea- 
brook, New Hampshire; died January 28, 1856, at Newburyport, 
Massachusetts; he was married Aug. 5, 1802, at Salisbury, Massa- 
chusetts, by Edward Noyes (5th minister of the First Church at 
Salisbury, Massachusetts), to Hannah Wharf Harris, daughter of 
Nathaniel Harris, by his wife Sarah March, who after the death of 
Nathaniel Harris, became the wife of Samuel Falch (or Felch), 
brother of Jacob Falch (or Felch), born Feb. 2, 1783, at Salisbury, 
Massachusetts; died January 30, 18S0, at Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts. Jacob Falch (or Felch) settled early in Kensington, New 
Hampshire, where he was a resident and tax payer from 1808 to 
1819. A family tradition persists that he was an officer of militia 
during the War of 1812, but this tradition has never been substan- 
tiated by proof. 

Children: 1. Sarah (or Sally), born 1803, about; died Novem- 
ber 17, 1892, at Newburyport, Massachusetts, aged 89; married 
Moses Floyd. 2. Jacob, born at Seabrook, New Hampshire ; noth- 
ing further known of him at this writing. 3. Joseph Harris, born 
April 25, 1804; died September 25, 1882 (see below). 4. Char- 
lotte, born 1807; died October 17, 1892, at Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts, unmarried, aged 85. 5. William Alfonzo, died March 8, 1880 ; 
married (first) Lucy M. Page; married (second) Abby Goodwin. 
6. Gorham, died April 17, 1881 ; not married. 7. Mary M., died 
August 29, 18S7 ; married William L. Shuff. 8. Clara M./born 1817, 
about; died March 14. 1901, aged 86; married John B. Nelson. 9. 
Emeline Morrill, born December 24, 1819; died November 30, 1909; 
married Hiram Janvrin. 10. Lucy Goff, born about November, 
1823 ; died October 23, 1883 ; married Benjamin W. Coffin. 

VI. Joseph Harris Felch {or Feltch), born April 25, 1804, at 
New Hampshire ; died September 25, 1882, at Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, and was buried in Oldtown graveyard, Newbury, Massa- 
chusetts; married (first) by Rev. Leonard Withington, pastor First 
Church, Newbury, Massachusetts, at Newbury, Massachusetts, April 
16, 1834, to Mary Haskell (daughter of John Haskell and his wife 
Margaret (Thomas) Clouston. of Newburyport, Massachusetts), 
born July 5, 1804, at Newburyport, Massachusetts ; died April 9, 
1861, at Newburyport, Massachusetts; married (second) by Rev. 
James B. Miles, at Charlestown, Massachusetts, January 30, 1866, to 

211 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 

Leah (Osgood) Folsom (widow and second wife of Levi G. Folsom., 
and daughter of Captain John S. Osgood and his wife Leah Pres- 
cott of Gilmanton, New Hampshire), born September 23, 1816, at 
Gilford, New Hampshire ; died Aug. 29, 1SS7, at Charlestown, Mass- 
achusetts. Joseph Harris Felch (or Feltch) was a farmer in New- 
bury and Newburyport, Mass. Children: two (Fletch), both by first 
marriage, viz. : — 1. Rev. Joseph Haskell, Jr., born May 20, 1837, at 
Newbury, Mass. ; died January 19, 1870, at Cummington, Mass., not 
married. 2. Mary Anna, born September 10, 1843 (see below). 

VII. Mori/ Anna Feltch, born September 10, 1S43, at Newbury, 
Massachusetts; died August 6, 1891, at Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts and was buried beside her husband in Oak Hill Cemetery, New- 
buryport, Massachusetts; married September 6, 1863, at Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, by Rev. J. A. Ames, clergyman, to Nathaniel 
Henry Pettingell (son of Cutting and Olive (Smith) Pettingell, of 
Newbury and Newburyport, Massachusetts), born September 11, 
1835, at Newbury, Massachusetts, died November 12, 1874, at South 
Newmarket (now Newfields), New Hampshire, and was buried in 
Oak Hill Cemetery, Newburyport, Massachusetts. Nathaniel Henry 
Pettingell 's line of ascent is as follows: Cutting, Josiah, 5 Cutting, 4 
Nathaniel, 3 Matthew, 2 Richard 1 Pettingell, the immigrant ancestor. 
Residence: Newburyport, Massachusetts. Children: 1. Agnes 
Leah, born May 17, 1S66; died July 27, 1880, at Newburyport, Mass- 
achusetts. 2. Frank Hervey, born January 2, 1868 (see below). 
3. Walter Feltch, born and died March 10, 1869, at Newburyport, 
Massachusetts. 4. William Feltch, born and died September 25, 
1869, at Newburyport, Massachusetts. 5. Walter Joseph, born Jan- 
uary 2, 1871, at Newburyport, Massachusetts, and died there Sep- 
tember 29, 1911. 6. Cutting, born December 24, 1872, at Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts; married and removed to Seattle, Washington; 
no children. 

VIII. Frank Hervey Pettingell, q.v., ante. 

Authorities : 

"Boston Records," Commissioners' Reports, vol. for year 1883, Document 130, pp. 42, 

50, 51, 52, 56, 59, 61, 62, 66, 75. 
Pope's "Pioneers of Massachusetts," pp. 163, 400, 517. 
Savage's "Genealogical Dictionary of New England," vol. ii, 

p. 662. 

Bond's "Watertown, Mass.," pp. 206-7, and Appendix, p. 1008. 
"N. E. Gen. Hist. Reg.," vol. ii, pp. 31, 183; vol. vi, p. 289; vol. x, p. 219; vol. xiii, 

pp. 360-1 ; vol. xviii, p. 263; vol. liii. pp. 234-241. 
"History of Gloucester, Mass.," by John J. Babson, pp. 53, 93, 97. 
"Genealogical and Family History of New Hampshire," by Ezra S. Stearns, p. 1185. 
"Historic Homes and Places and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs Relating to 

Middlesex Co., Mass., by Wm. R. Cutler, vol. ii, p. 407. 
"Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, Mass.," by Wyman, pp. 342, 845. 
"Genealogical History of Reading, Mass.," by Eaton, pp. 8, 11-13, 15, 19-20, 32, 34, 

37. 7h 134, 281-2. 



pp. 150-1, 393; vol. iv, 



212 



FRANK HERVEY PETTINGELL 



"Sargent Genealogy," by J. S. and A. Sargent, pp. 32, 171. 
"Essex Institute Hist. Coll.," vol. xvi, pp. 61, 312-13, 318; 
New. Hampshire State Papers, vol. xxx, p. 142. 
Published and unpublished records of Salisbury, Mass. 
Published and unpublished Records of Seabrook, N. H. 
Concord Births, Marriages and Deaths, 1635-1850, p. 22. 



vol. xviii, p. 34. 




390-I. 



"N. Y. Gen. and Biog. Record," vol. 49, pp. 194-5 







213 




Plalofield, New Jersey 

Its Settlement axd Development 

By A. Van Doeex Honeymax 

^1 MUCH has been loosely and unauthoritatively written 
concerning the early history of Plainfield that unusual 
pains have been taken to state herein the real facts. The 
late Mr. Oliver B. Leonard was a prolific writer about 
the early inhabitants of the city, but largely confined 
himself to family genealogies and certain of the churches. We have 
had advantage of much of his material, but almost all the facts fol- 
lowing, which are verified by the early State's survey maps, records 
of grants, etc., are the contribution of Mr. Cornelius C. Vermeule, 
now of East Orange, a civil engineer in New York City, who has 
courteously devoted a great deal of time to secure accuracy in this 
chapter. He has plotted out every grant and practically every own- 
ership within the "Blue Hills" region, the name by which this 
vicinity was originally designated. 

Among those who originally took up land within the present 
city limits, the largest holder was Peter Sonmans, who in 1685 pat- 
ented 3,500 acres (two tracts), including all from the base of Wat- 
chung mountain to a line parallel with and a little southeast of 
Eighth street, and from Clinton avenue northeast to the present 
pumping station of the Plainfield-Union Water Company at Nether- 
wood. This tract included North Plainfield and nearly all of Plain- 
field. All of Plainfield southwest of Sonmans' patent was pur- 
chased by Benjamin Hull from the Indian "Cowankeen," in 16S3. 
In this deed Plainfield was called "Blondyn Plains." This pur- 
chase was included in a grant of the Proprietors to Sir Evan Cam- 
eron of Lochier, Scotland, the grant being bounded approximately 
by Sonmans, the base of the mountain and the Bound Brook of 
Piscataway. 

On April 22, 1681, Thomas Gordon, "of Edinburgh," received 
"confirmation" of one-tenth of one-forty-eighth share of land of the 
East Jersey Proprietors, and in November temporarily settled on 
Cedar Brook, in present Plainfield, where ex-United States Senator 
James E. Martine resides. On February 16, 1685, he wrote back to 
Scotland, dating his letter at "Cedar Brook," among other things 

Note — These pages are taken from advance sheets of "History of Union County, 
New Jersey." (Lewis Historical Publishing Company, New York and Chicago; 1923.) 

214 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

paving: "Upon the ISth day of November I and my servants [there 
were seven servants] came here to the woods, and eight days there- 
after my wife and [four] children came also. I put up a wigwam in 24 
hours, which served us until we put up a better house, which I made, 
24 feet long, 15 feet wide, containing a hall and kitchen, both in one, 
and a chamber and a study." 

He then says he cleared ground and made fences, and speaks of 
Robert Fullerton as going to join him "for a plough this spring, 
consisting of four oxen and two horses." He also adds: "There 
are eight of us settled here within a half mile or a mile of each 
other," and names them as "John Forbes, John Barclay, Dr. John 
Gordon, his servants, Andrew Alexander and myself." Thomas 
Gordon soon left Plainfield for Perth Amboy, and subsequently be- 
came Attorney-General of East Jersey, and held other important 
offices. Neither Dr. John Gordon nor Andrew Alexander took up 
land in this vicinity, but Robert Gordon, of Pitlochie, held 1,000 
acres west of Ash Swamp. 

Between Sonmans' northeast line and the present northeast 
limit of the city was a tract of 300 acres, granted September 2, 1687, 
to "Robert Fullerton, gent., brother to the Laird of Kennaber." 
James and Thomas Fullerton, brothers to Eobert, were also in this 
vicinity, but probably resided near South Plainfield. Next, north- 
east of the Fullerton 's was a grant of 482 acres to George and John 
Alexander, "of Scotland," in 1688; and from this tract northeast 
came a grant of 125 acres to James Coole, Sr., of "Blew Hills," also 
in 1688. The northeast line of Coole 's tract is now Park avenue, 
Scotch Plains. The name "Blew Hills" first appears in Coole 's 
grant, but the triangular tract, lying between the mountain, the 
Short Hills on the east and the Bound Brook of Piscataway on the 
south, was known for tw T o generations thereafter as "At the Blue 
Hills." 

The name "Plainfield" was first given to John Barclay's grant 
of 700 acres, surveyed to him and his brother, "Robert Barclay of 
Urie," January 18, 1685. This land lay at what is now South Plain- 
field, reaching from Cedar Brook over east to the Short Hills, and 
Barclay already had a house there in 1684. Cedar Brook was for- 
merly a larger stream than now and, like Green Brook, appears in 
many early deeds. It originated in Plainfield, and winds its way to 
the present New Brooklyn Pond. At present it is inconsequential 
and often dry. 

On the opposite side of Cedar brook, west of Barclay, a grant of 
425 acres was surveyed to John Forbes, "brother of the Laird of 
Boynho, Kingdom of Scotland." This was in 1686, and Forbes also 
had a house there before the survey was made. His grant ran 
round north of Barclay, reaching over east to the Short Hills, and 

215 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

its north boundary ran nearly parallel with and a quarter of a mile 
south of the present south line of Plainfield. 

North of Forbes, and including all of the triangle between 
Forbes, Sonmans, and the Short Hills, there was a tract of 1,000 
acres granted to Robert Burnett "of Lethenty" in 16SS. The en- 
tire area of Plainfield was taken up by the foregoing grants, but of 
all these excellent Scotchmen only the Cooles remained as perman- 
ent residents after 1710. 

Barclay's plantation passed, in 1692, to John Laing, and he set 
up at his house the Plainfield Meeting of the Society of Friends. In 
1713 his son William purchased the Forbes tract, while his other 
son, John, whose wife was Elizabeth Shotwell, inherited the Bar- 
clay place. 

About 1718 William Webster (born 1692) and his wife, Su- 
sannah Cowperthwait, came and built their house near the east bank 
of Cedar Brook, about where Prospect avenue now is. (His first 
child was born 1718; see "Records, Plainfield Meeting.") 

In 1720 John Shotwell "of Plainfield" (i. e., of the Plainfield 
Meeting), came and settled on the Fullerton tract. Another prom- 
inent Friend, John Vail, purchased 1,200 acres of Peter Sonmans 
in 1731. It was the northeast end of Sonmans' great tract, and 
joined John Shotwell on the northeast. He was of Woodbridge, and 
his wife was Martha Fitz Randolph. His son John (2nd), who was 
born at Woodbridge in 1713, married (1) Margaret Laing, and (2), 
about 1750, her sister, Mary Laing, both daughters of John Laing. 
John Vail (1st) was a millwright and, about 1735, built a mill on 
Greenbrook near Grand avenue, at what was later Tier's pond. 
He was a Quaker preacher, and lived until 1774, dying in his 89th 
year, but his son John died in 175-1, when only 41 years of age. About 
1760 William Webster owned the Vail gristmill; French's mill, as 
known to the present generation, is said to date from about 1782, 
but by whom built does not appear. 1 

Peter Sonmans found sales slow. In 1733 he sold 660 acres at the 
southwest end of his tract to Henry Slydorn, who sold again, in 1735, 
to Adrian Vermeule and his brother-in-law, Dirck Cadmus, of Ber- 
gen. This tract extended along present Front street from Clinton 
avenue to within 200 feet of Geraud avenue, thence northwest to the 

'As to mills generally in this place and vicinity, Henry Lines had one in 1738, where 
Mountain avenue now crosses Green Brook, near Scotch Plains. In 1740, Lawrence 
Reuth had a mill up in the gap back of Scotch Plains, just above what was later Seely's 
mill. Luke Covert built a mill at Rock avenue and Green Brook about 1760, and this 
was purchased by Cornelius Vermeule after passing through the hands of Abner Hamp- 
ton, in 1767. It was there through the Revolution. Just before the Revolution the 
Vermeules built a second mill about 600 yards below the present West End avenue 
bridge. During the Revolution John Manning had a mill on Stony Brook in the gap, 
and Isaac Doty had two, a grist and saw mill farther up stream, the latter being where 
the large ice plant now is at Washingtonville. 

2l6 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

mountains. When it was surveyed in 1733, "the widow Miller" had 
a house near the present intersection of Front street and Clinton 
avenue. (Doubtless she was the widow of Andrew Miller of Pis- 
eataway, and the mother of Rev. Benjamin Miller (1715-1781), pas- 
tor of Scotch Plains Baptist Church, but proof is not absolute). 
Adrian Vermeule died at Bergen shortly after purchasing, but his 
widow and two sons— Frederick, who never married, and Cornelius 
— occupied two-thirds of the purchase at once. Dirck Cadmus never 
came, but his son Andries occupied his third about 1765. 

In 173-1 William Webster purchased of Sonmans a tract extend- 
ing north from present Watchung avenue to John Yail's land. After 
Sonmans' death, Judge Samuel Nevill, his executor, sold the re- 
mainder of the tract to Isaac Drake, Isaac Manning, Peter Wooden, 
Andrew Drake, Thomas Clawson, Richard Lenox and the Vermeules, 
all before 1745. Of these Isaac Drake already owned a tract east 
of Cedar Brook, of which the south line is now Randolph road. He 
was born in Piscataway, Middlesex count}', in 1686. He was the son 
of Rev. John and Rebecca (Trotter) Drake, and was living with his 
aged father on the Cedar Brook farm. He now purchased of Nevill, 
in 1743, for his grandson Nathaniel, a farm lying between Plainfield 
and Grant avenues, and Front and Ninth streets. Near Geraud 
avenue, northeast of the Dirck Cadmus tract, it had a small frontage 
on Green Brook, and on this Nathaniel built a house about 1746. 
(This is what is called "Washington Headquarters.") Nathaniel 
Drake (born 1725; died 1801) lived here until his death, and was a 
prominent deacon of the Scotch Plains church. Next north to 
Drake, Joseph Fitz Randolph purchased the land extending from 
Plainfield to Watchung avenues and from Green Brook to Eighth 
street. He was the eldest son of Joseph and Hannah (Conger) Fitz 
Randolph, and was born at Piscataway in 1691. He married Re- 
becca, a sister of Isaac Drake. 

James Manning (born 1700, a son of James and Christian, the 
latter a daughter of John Laing) built his house along the west bank 
of Cedar Brook in 1729. His wife was Grace, daughter of Joseph 
Fitz Randolph. He acquired by successive purchases several tracts 
on both sides of Cedar Brook. Isaac Manning, who purchased the 
tract lying northeast of Dirck Cadmus, between the mountain and 
Green Brook, was James' brother, and was an active organizer of 
the Scotch Plains Baptist Church in 1740. Between Isaac Manning 
and the present Somerset street was Peter Wooden's farm, and, 
just northeast of Somerset street, was Andrew Drake. These were 
all Piscataway township families. 

Richard Lenox married, 1746, Mercy Dunham of Piscataway, 
and came to live on a small farm he had purchased of Thomas Claw- 

217 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

son. His homestead on Clinton avenue was, later, the home of Rich- 
ard McDowell Coriell, but, about 1757, Richard Lenox died and, later, 
his son Levi, a soldier of the Revolution, succeeded to the farm. The 
Vermeule brothers purchased land all around him, including prac- 
tically all between Grant and Clinton avenues, Green Brook and 
Eighth street. Their home was across Green Brook, at the westerly 
end of Clinton avenue, near the spot where Mr. A. J. Brunson re- 
cently resided. A former owner, Jeremiah Van Deventer, tore down 
the homestead, which was the real "AYashington Headquarters" in 
this vicinity, in June, 1777. 

Apparently "the widow Miller" held by Elizabethtown right 
and sold her claim to Luke Covert about 1740. In 1745 Covert pur- 
chased a Proprietory title from Drummond and Alexander, suc- 
cessors to Sir Evan Cameron, to the land southwest of the Ver- 
meules, reaching from Clinton avenue to a little beyond Rock avenue. 
He had been born in Brooklyn in 1699. Southwest of his place, ex- 
tending along Green Brook to beyond the limits of Plainlield, was 
the farm of Ide Marselis, who had settled there about 1735 under 
Elizabethtown right but also took title from Drummond and Alex- 
ander in 1745. Marselis was of another old Bergen family. In 1740, 
Cornelius Vermeule married his daughter Maritic, while a little later 
Luke, a son of Luke Covert, married another daughter, Annatie. 
These four families, Vermeule, Covert, Cadmus and Marselis, as 
well as the Coriells and Clawsons of Quibbletown, attended the 
Raritan Dutch Church (Somerville), of which Cornelius Vermeule 
was an elder. 

In 1740 the known houses within the present limits of Plainlield 
were those of John Shotwell, William Webster, James Manning, 
Widow Miller, John Vail and Isaac Drake. Just below Drake in 
Middlesex county, at the then Plainfield Meeting, were the five sons 
and six daughters of John Laing, who died in 1731, and west, across 
Cedar Brook, the rive sons and two daughters of William Laing, who 
died in 1735, while west of Green Brook, in what is now North Plain- 
field, the Vermeule homestead stood alone. 

From 1775 to 1783, what is now Plainfield was open farming 
country. Quibbletown, now New Market, and Scotch Plains, were 
hamlets, and their names were often loosely applied to the territory 
lying between. As this territory east of Green Brook was in the 
"Westfield ward of Elizabeth Town borough, all of these names are 
used at times also; hence Revolutionary history is much confused. 

There w T as an important Revolutionary militia post with a 
large fort, about 200 yards square, along the east bank of Green 
Brook, about mid-way between Clinton and West End avenues, the 
encampment covering about 95 acres, reaching from the present line 

218 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

of Central Railroad to the Brook. It guarded both the main road 
leading from Quibbletown through Scotch Plains and Springfield 
and the mountain pass, through which Somerset street now leads. 
It was located on the Vermeule tract, then increased to 1,200 acres, 
on which then there were three houses. The homestead in North 
Plainfield was occupied by Cornelius Vermeule, a member of the 
Provincial Congress of 1775, and of the Somerset Committee of 
Correspondence, and his younger sons Frederick and Cornelius, 
who were privates in the First Somerset Regiment. His eldest son, 
Adrian, had his own house along the road leading across the moun- 
tain (Rock avenue). His second son, Eder, lived along the Scotch 
Plains road in the midst of the encampment and was a lieutenant in 
Captain Benjamin Laing's Company of the First Essex. Adrian 
Vermeule, while carrying despatches, was captured by the enemy at 
Quibbletown in January, 1777, carried off to prison in the Sugar 
House in New York City, and died there March 9, 1777. 

Of the Covert family living on Rock avenue east of Green 
Brook, the father, Luke (1734-1828), who was, in 1777, 43 years old, 
and his sons Luke, Jr., 19, Eder 17, and John 17 years old, all served 
in Capt. Laing's company. Peter Covert, a brother of Luke, was 
then 49 years old. He had married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Clawson, and they had eleven children, but Peter, nevertheless, be- 
came a private in Capt. Jedediah Swan's Company and fought 
through the war. Peter Marselis and John, his brother, living far- 
ther along the road toward Quibbletown, also did their bit, as did 
Isaac Manning (a grandson of Isaac the settler, living north of 
Andries Cadmus), who was under arms eleven months in all, in 
the First Somerset. 

Captain Benjamin Laing (174G-1819) was a most active, efficient 
patriot and his company was made up in and about the present 
Plainfield. He lived on the west side of Cedar Brook, near the Mid- 
dlesex county line, on part of the land which his grandfather, "Wil- 
liam Laing, had purchased of John Forbes. He was a son of Ben- 
jamin and Mary (Blackford) Laing. Through intermarriage this 
branch of the Laing family had strayed from the Friends into the 
Baptist fold. 

Another active captain was the Jedediah Swan, already men- 
tioned, who lived west of the Scotch Plains church and organized a 
company in that vicinity, which, however, also had several men from 
the present Plainfield. including Peter Covert. This company fought 
at Long Island, and Recompence Stanbery, the Captain's brother-in- 
law, was severely wounded there. Stanbery later joined Laing's 
company and, still later, Capt. Samuel Meeker's Light Horse. Cor- 
nelius Drake, a son of Deacon Nathaniel, served with the Morris 
county militia. Levi Lenox (1748-1828), who lived on the road to 

219 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

Samptown, now Clinton avenue, just south of the Fort, where, later, 
lived his grandson, the late William McDowell Coriell, was also in 
Captain Laing's Company. 

All of those mentioned served at the Fort during the winter of 
1776-1777. Col. Oliver Spencer's Battalion of Bergen, Essex and 
Morris troops, and the First Somerset regiment of Col. Frederick 
Frelinghuysen, which included all the young men west of Green 
Brook, were also there. Col. Moses Jaques, of Westfield, command- 
ed a battalion there. The commandant of the post was Col. Wil- 
liam Winds of Morris county. 

The Friends living here in the B evolutionary period by no 
means included all whose names have been mentioned by historians 
as "of Plainiield," for many members of the Meeting lived over in 
Piscataway, and others at Railway or W T oodbridge. Joseph, Abra- 
ham, David and John Vail lived west of Green Brook. They were 
sons of John (2nd), and grandsons of John, the first settler. John 
Shotwell's lands had passed to Jacob, Abraham and Benjamin, and 
his grandson, John Smith Shot well. John and Hugh Webster had 
the lands of their father, William, the original settler, including a 
large tract north of Watchung avenue, reaching from Green Brook 
to the Short Hills, with more to the south of said avenue (then the 
road to Railway) and east of Cedar Brook. Zachariah Pound lived 
southwest of Luke Covert, along Green Brook. These, with John 
and William Laing, appear to be the only Friends who were then 
landowners. Abraham Shotwell, Hugh Webster, John Vail and 
Elijah Pound, a brother of Zachariah, were members of a Commit- 
tee for the Relief of Sufferers during the War. 

The name "Plainfield" came up from John Laing's place to the 
Meeting-House in 1788-89. At about that time, however, the vi- 
cinity of Front street and Somerset street was known locally as 
"Milltown," continuing as such until 1800, when the Plainfield post- 
office was first established, while up in the gap was "Brotherton. " 
During the Revolution we do not find the name "Plainfield" used 
except in connection with the Friends' Meeting. 

The Revolutionary Encampment was usually located by its 
garrison as "at the Vermeule's" ("Van Muliner's," as the name 
was often incorrectly written), but, when Sullivan returned to it 
after his Indian Expedition, he spoke of the locality as "Scotch 
Plains." The southwest corner of the Vermeule plantation, which 
then comprised 1,200 acres mostly under cultivation, was just below 
Washington Rock. Family correspondence shows that Washington 
quartered at the homestead, and that social relations existed is con- 
firmed by the fact that, in 1811, Cornelius, a son of Capt. Cornelius 
Vermeule, then a Professor at Rutgers College, was entertained at 
Mt. Vernon by Judge Bushrod Washington. Another interesting 

220 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

and not now locally-known fact is that in 1799, when war with France 
was threatened, the United States Government purchased the camp 
site above mentioned and erected buildings thereon for a canton- 
ment. In 1802, when the war "scare" was over, the land and build- 
ings so purchased were sold back to the Vermeule family. 

It is interesting to note that the house of Luke Covert still 
stands southeast of Green Brook on the northeast side of Rock ave- 
nue, not, however, within the city limits. Also the house of Capt. 
Cornelius Vermeule, built in 1784, and in fine preservation. This 
also is out of the city on the Green Brook road, but near present 
West End avenue. The only very early house still standing in the 
city is the Nathaniel Drake House, now locally called "Washington 
Headquarters," and which is occupied by the Plainfleld and North 
Plainfield Historical Society, but has been taken over by the city 
of Plainfleld (1922) to preserve as the oldest existing house in the 
city, the adjoining land to be incorporated in a new public park. 
Most of the early names mentioned in this chapter are still to be 
found in the Plainfield Directory of to-day. 

On March 7, 1881, the Common Council of the city of Plainfield 
adopted a resolution to establish and maintain the Plainfield Public 
Library and Reading Room, pursuant to the provision of an act 
of the Legislature of 1S79. On October 3, 1881, Mr. L. V. F. Ran- 
dolph, then mayor of the city, appointed as directors, Mason W. 
Tyler, George H. Babcock, Henry E. Daboll, John B. Dumont, John 
II. Evans, Walter L. Hetfield, Craig A. Marsh, J. Kirtlandt Myers 
and Henry P. Talmadge, who met and organized, October 26, 1881, 
by electing Mr. Babcock president; Mr. Tyler vice-president; Mr. 
Dumont treasurer, and Mr. Hetfield secretary. On May 10, 1882, 
the library was opened in a room rented on the second floor of the 
building on the south side of Front street, about thirty feet east of 
Park avenue, with Mr. J. Oakley Nodine as librarian. 

The growth of the library for the first five years was slow, as it 
was not until 1886 that the collection of books numbered 1,000 
volumes. During the following year 5,000 odd volumes were pur- 
chased or presented, and records reveal that subsequent years had 
fairly equal proportions in accessions. During these years the in- 
fluence of the library in the future development of the community 
was augmented through the interest of Mr. Job Male, who in 1884 
was appointed a member of the board, and in xVugust of the same 
year was elected president. At this time Mr. Male made known to 
the board his purpose to erect a building upon the land owned by 
him at the corner of Eighth street and Park avenue, valued by 
him at $25,000, and to donate such lot and building to the board of 
directors for the benefit of the city of Plainfield for the purposes of 

221 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

a public library, art gallery and museum, to be known as the Job 
Male Public Library, whenever money and works of art and other 
articles of personal property suitable for such purpose, to the 
value of $20,000, should have been donated by other persons. Ten 
thousand dollars of this sum, it was understood, should be subscribed 
and paid in money and be applicable to the purchase of books. Un- 
der this arrangement the sum of $10,000 was subscribed for the 
purchase of books and works of art and other articles, valued at 
$10,000, were contributed or acquired for the art gallery. 

By an Act of the Legislature, approved March 6, 1886, the act 
under which the library and reading room was established, was 
amended so as to authorize libraries and reading rooms organized 
under it to receive such donations as Mr. Male contemplated, and the 
levy, for purposes of maintenance, of an annual tax not exceeding 
one-half of one mill on the dollar of the taxable property in the city, 
and thereupon Mr. Male conveyed the land with the building he had 
erected thereon to the directors of the library. Again, in 1887, Mr. 
Male offered to give to the directors the plot of land fronting on 
College place adjoining in the rear the land in which the library 
building had been erected, on condition that $500 should be donated 
by other persons for the purpose of "fencing and grading and put- 
ting in order the said lot and grading and flagging the sidewalks ad- 
joining the same." The other members of the board provided and 
paid the sum required. In February, 1895, the directors received, 
through the will of Mr. George H. Babcock, who died in Decem- 
ber, 1893, the sum of $10,000 for the purchase of industrial, me- 
chanical and scientific books, founding what was to be known as the 
Babcock Scientific Library. Mr. Babcock also bequeathed to the 
directors three brick houses in Plainfield, the rents from which 
were to keep up and enlarge the Babcock Library, which, at this time 
of writing, numbers 10,388 volumes. Later Mrs. George PI. Bab- 
cock presented the directors $1,000 toward a fund for cataloging 
this collection. The rapid growth of the general library and the 
increased accommodations required for the Babcock Library neces- 
sitated additional stackroom accommodations and in March, 1897, 
the Common Council granted an additional appropriation of $7,000 
with which a fire-proof addition was built accommodating 50,000 
volumes. 

In 1907 Col. Mason W. Tyler, president of the board, died. It 
was at Col. Tyler's suggestion that the initiative was taken to organ- 
ize the library and he was appointed a member of the first board of 
directors. This library had been the recipient of many donations 
during his lifetime on occasions when the exchequer was exhausted 
and, through his will, received $10,000 to be invested to found the 
Tyler Library of Americana, which at the present time consists of 

222 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

2,027 volumes. During the twelve years following 1 the erection of 
the stackroom the library had extended its hours of circulation not 
only during the day, but to include evenings ; instituted special 
privileges to teachers and adults following special courses of study 
and opened Sunday afternoons for reading. 

The housing capacity of the building had been more than reach- 
ed by the year 1909, at which time the directors decided to approach 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie, who had been giving so liberally for the 
erection of public libraries throughout the country. Through the 
special appeal of Mr. L. V. F. Randolph, a member of the board 
of directors and an acquaintance of Mr. Carnegie's in his early 
business career, the directors were assured of a gift of $50,000 
with which to build a new building and in February, 1912, ground 
was broken for its erection. Just one year following the building 
was opened, at which time the hours for circulation were extended 
daily from 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. and on Sundays and holidays, Thanks- 
giving and Christmas excepted, from 2 to 6 P. M. The new building 
contains a large reading and circulating room across its entire width, 
lighted naturally, until late in the afternoon, by five large sky lights. 
Off from the north corner is a modern, three story, fire-proof equip- 
ped stack, having half the capacity of the original stack-room. In 
the basement is an auditorium used by various civic societies. The 
Young People's department occupies the south end of the main 
room in the old building while the 2,000 volume law library of the 
late Corporation Counsel, Craig A. Marsh, is housed in the north 
end. The musical library of classical composers numbering 2,205 
volumes is housed in this building while the circulating picture col- 
lection numbering 2,100 mounts is located in a basement room in the 
new building. 

At the end of the library year, May 31, 1921, the total volumes 
in the library numbered 69,181, and the total circulation was 113,353, 
the largest in the library's history, approximating four books per 
capita. The young people's department circulated 37,874 volumes, 
while at the six stations 13,201 volumes were circulated. There are 
262 periodicals regularly received, 71 of which are technical, and 
13 newspapers are taken regularly. The library cooperates with 
the public and private schools in putting its reference and research 
department at the disposal, daily, of the teachers and pupils. 

The art objects acquired at the founding of the Plainfield Li- 
brary proved an incentive to increase this phase of civic work, as 
Mr. Male acquired a choice collection of Chinese porcelains and 
cloisonne which he intended presenting to the Art Gallery and 
Museum to enhance the value of the collections, and which were ob- 
tained after his death. A valuable collection of ancient, foreign and 
United States colonial coins from the children of the late John 

223 



PLAINFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

Taylor Johnston, presented in November, 1S97, and in June, 1911, a 
valuable collection of U. S. Continental currency from present Con- 
gressman Ernest R. Ackerman, have added to the interest and value 
of the museum. On October 2, 1900, Mr. Alexander Gilbert, a mem- 
ber of the board of directors, in fulfillment of a request of his wife 
before her death, presented for the Museum a very large and valu- 
able collection of butterflies, and also provided sixteen large cases 
specially constructed for their preservation and exhibition. This 
collection, made by Mrs. Gilbert, is believed to be the finest and 
most valuable of its kind in the State of New Jersey. The city of 
Plainfield was fortunate in having a resident who was not only an 
excellent, taxidermist but a student of bird life, and as a result the 
Museum owns the splendid collection of New Jersey birds, all of 
which were collected and prepared by Mr. Andrew J. Gavett. 

Having as a resident of our city an artist of world repute, Mr. 
Jonas Lie, Plainfield should easily, through his efforts, become an 
art center and to further this idea Mr. Lie, with the directors, plan- 
ned to have a series of art exhibitions. The first was held in Janu- 
ary, 1921, when Mr. Lie exhibited fifty of his own paintings and gave 
art talks to the children of the public and private schools in the art 
gallery. The result was spontaneous, as approximately 5,000 people 
came to the exhibition during the two weeks the pictures were shown. 

Among the best known newspaper men and writers of the lo- 
cality have been Ernest Chamberlain, now deceased, who rose from 
journalistic ranks in Plainfield to become one of the editors of the 
New York "Sun" and New York "World;" also (now living) 
Arthur Brisbane, who received his early education in Plainfield and 
at present draws an immense salary as editor of the New Y T ork 
"American" and "Evening Journal;" also James R. Joy, of North 
Plainfield, editor of publications of the Methodist Book Concern, of 
New York City. One of the most eminent of writers and authors is 
Rev. Jesse Lyman Hulbert, D. D., formerly pastor of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Plainfield; he now resides in New- 
ark. A still more widely-known preacher and writer was the late 
Bishop John H. Vincent, founder in 1871 of the Chautauqua As- 
sembly, who resided from 1866 to 1888 in Plainfield, and here carried 
on that wonderful educational institution until it was removed to 
Jamestown, New York. 



224 



Editorial— Bock Notice 



e 



AN INTERESTING EVENT 



It is not within the province of such a publication as "Ameri- 
cana" to concern itself with social events, but the recent marriage 
of Hon. Alton Brooks Parker and Miss Amelia Day Campbell justi- 
fies the present innovation. As Miss Campbell, the lady had been 
on occasion a contributor to the pages of our magazine, performing 
her work with enthusiasm, intelligence, and excellent taste. Her 
"Myles Standish, Military Commander and Defender of the Ply- 
mouth Colony," (of whom she is a lineal descendant), and her ''Wo- 
men Patriots and Heroines of New York State in the Revolution," 
show her devotion to lofty ideals and admiration for noble historic 
characters; while in her "Alaska: The Land of Possibilities," she 
displayed her powers of portraying the picturesque as well as of de- 
scribing more material conditions. Judge Parker is so much of a 
national character that he need only be named. The union is as- 
suredly a happy one. 



FAMILIARITY THAT BREEDS CONTEMPT 

The writer of this has personal knowledge of Chicagoans who 
never saw Cropsey's "American Autumn," that superb piece of 
autumnal forest scene, unfortunately lost in Chicago's great fire; 
of St. Louisians who never visited Shaw's Garden, with its unsur- 
passable collections of flowers and herbs; of Cincinnatians who 
never saw the Probasco Fountain, or the women's marvelously beau- 
tiful wood carving on the organ front in Music Hall. It has even 
been said that there were Bostonians who never heard what Artemus 
Ward called "the grate orgin," and people within the hearing of 
Niagara Falls who never saw them. And yet all these were known 
of by intelligent foreigners who eagerly sought them when visiting 
in this country. 

225 



EDITORIAL 

These reflections were awakened by the articles in our Magazine 
of January and the present number on Indian history and mythol- 
ogy by Mr. Jacob P. Dunn, and his incidental reference to the inat- 
tention given to Indian language, that is, in such systematic manner 
as is only possible with organization and means. It is true that 
there are individuals who, like Mr. Dunn, are giving intelligent 
attention to the matter, but of necessity only in an incidental way. 
That there is an increasing interest in the subject is attested by the 
frequency with which such authorities are asked for information; 
and, most interesting to note, the Boy and Girl Scouts, particularly 
in the middle and northwestern States, are acquiring valuable infor- 
mation along this line. It has been positively learned that through- 
out the country there are yet many who have knowledge coming 
under this head, who are not writers, and who must be seen or com- 
municated with in order to make such knowledge available. More 
than once has been suggested a Society for the Preservation of the 
Indian Languages, and various persons of national repute have fav- 
ored the plan, which has not been carried out for want of endowment 
funds to the amount of perhaps $200,000. It seems to be not very 
difficult to induce people of wealth to contribute generously toward 
exploration work in Egypt and South America, but our own antiqui- 
ties command little attention. The pages of this magazine are freely 
open to any who may desire to follow up the subject, with a possible 
remedy as the result. 



BOOK NOTICES 



"Journal of Indian History;" published three times yearly. 
Editor, Shafaat Ahmad Khan, Litt.D., F. R. Hist. Soc. ; University- 
Professor of Modern Indian History, Allahabad, India; Editorial 
Board: Dr. S. Krishnaswamy Aiyakgar, University of Madras; 
H. G-. Rawlinson, M. A., University of Bombay; Shafaat Ahmad 
Khan, University of Allahabad. Oxford University Press, London, 
New York, Bombay, Madras, etc. 

This new accession to our exchange table is most heartily wel- 
come, and its pages contain matter of captivating interest. The 
story of "The Accession of Shah Jahan," (1592-1637), is that of one 
of the most romantic and pathetic oriental figures of the seventeenth 

226 



EDITORIAL 

century. "The Pallavas" is the history of a remarkable people pos- 
sessed of a remarkable literature, aud of kindred interest is "The 
Rise of the Imams of Sanaa." Corning down to a more practical 
age, is "Early Trade Between England and the Levant," by H. G. 
Rawlinson, M. A., F. R. Hist. Soc, going back to the Middle Ages 
beginnings of the trade in oriental drugs and spices, and the influ- 
ence of early European art upon oriental painters. The number 
concludes with a well considered book review department. 

"One "Who Gave His Life; War Letters of Quiney Sharpe 
Mills, Lieutenant 168th U. S. Regiment; with a Memoir by James 
Luby. " G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London; Knicker- 
bocker Press, 1923. 

Of books relating to the W r orld War, there has not been a super- 
abundance of such as those of Admiral Sims, W r alter H. Page, 
Franklin Lane, and others whose writings were of intense interest 
on the moment, and will be aidful to the future historian. Of 
another class of books there have been altogether too many— har- 
rowing tales exploiting exceptionally abnormal and vicious charac- 
ters. Of yet another class there have been too few— such as tell 
of the modest unobtrusive soldier who left home and occupation to 
"do his bit," who did it well, with spirit and determination, as an 
incident of his life work, without esteeming himself a hero or as 
entitled to any special distinction. Of such were they who consti- 
tuted the soul of such an army as was led by a Grant, a Lee, a Foch, 
a Pershing, the memories of whose dead are treasured in every 
hamlet and town, and become an inspiration to soldiers of later gen- 
erations. 

"One WTio Gave His Life" is such a volume as is to be highly 
commended in the light of the foregoing observations. Lieutenant 
Mill's letters to his parents and a few most intimate friends reveal 
most impressively, because of their unstudied modesty, the everyday 
acts and thoughts of a true soldier. There are no complaints, no 
harsh criticisms, but hopefulness and faith in his cause and its ulti- 
mate triumph; and his determination to "see it through" is only 
discerned in his diarylike story of duty performed. And yet it is 
known that he felt a conviction that he would not survive his effort. 
He came to his instant death from shell wound on the very front line, 
alone, erect, under heavy fire, making preparation for his platoon 
which was to follow him. 

227 



EDITORIAL 

To enter the service, he had left the editorial staff of a metro- 
politan newspaper, his position permanent, his qualities as a man, 
a thinker and a writer, generously recognized, and every promise 
of a brilliant future. His memorialist, who was his chief in his 
newspaper work, has performed his task with dignity and sympathy, 
without effusiveness, but withal in such phrase as to lead the reader 
to perceive within the lines that while the writer had lost a dear 
personal friend, his tribute was not to him alone, but to the many 
fallen ones of whom he was a most significant type. 

"John Randolph of Roanoke, 1733-1833; A Biography based 
largely on New Material; by William Cabell Bruce, Author of 'Ben- 
jamin Franklin Self -revealed,' and 'Below the James.' " Two vol- 
umes; G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London. The Knicker- 
bocker Press, 1922. 

Book-jackets are in so many instances an abomination that they 
fully justify the mean-looking term by which they are generally 
called — "blurb." The jacket which envelopes the volumes above- 
named is such a commendable exception and such an admirable epit- 
omization of the work it covers, that it is well worthy of reproduc- 
tion : 

"By virtue of his descent from King Powhatan and Pocahontas 
and the aristocratic Randolph and Bland families of Virginia, his 
social and plantation background, his love of the horse, the dog, and 
the gun; his unique presence; his bitter misfortunes; his pride, vio- 
lence and vindictiveness, combined with the tenderest impulses of love 
and pity; his brilliant social, literary and rhetorical gifts, and the 
splendid fame he acquired in Congress and on the hustings, John 
Randolph of Roanoke is one of the most intensely vivid and inter- 
esting figures in American history; and to realize this, one needs 
but to read this book." 

In this masterly work and in a fashion all his own, the author 
has made one of the most admirable contributions that adorn Amer- 
ican literature, one well worthy to be laid beside his "Benjamin 
Franklin Self-revealed" which won for him the Pulitzer Prize for 
Biography. Disdaining the arts of the many wordy writers who af- 
fect startling style and exuberant word-painting and set up fictitious 
psychological distinctions of mental traits, Mr. Bruce has succeeded 
in largest degree as deep student and discriminating analyist in con- 
structing a story more entrancing than fiction, because of its vividity 

228 



EDITORIAL 

and literary style. A multitude of writers, some of them of no mean 
ability, have at various times before him essayed the task of por- 
traying the remarkable John Randolph of Roanoke, but he has far 
surpassed them all. He has delved into the deepest recesses of the 
Randolph era, and brought forth memorabilia which had escaped all 
his predecessors, enabling him not only to give a most impressive 
character portraiture of his immediate subject, but also of that sub- 
ject's contemporaries, of men and far-reaching events of one of the 
most remarkable eras in all American history. Were Mr. Bruce to 
devote his life to writing biographies of men who have shone in our 
national life, he might well be styled the American Plutarch. 

"A Study of Monarchical Tendencies in the United States from 
1776 to 1801." By Louise Burnham Dunbar, Ph.D., Instructor in 
History, University of Illinois. 

The work entitled as above is No. 1 of Volume X of the exceed- 
ingly valuable "University of Illinois Studies in the Social 
Sciences." It is a most interesting as well as instructive compen- 
dium of information upon a subject of which general histories take 
little note, one which was of magnitudinous importance at the time 
when was under discussion the form of government which the 
American colonies were to adopt, and concerning which the average 
reader has little knowledge, but only a general impression, to use a 
familiar phrase, that "The United States would be a monarchy had 
not Washington rejected a crown which was within his grasp." 

In treating her subject, the author has made most diligent re- 
search, as is well attested by her abundant footnotes and appendical 
profuse bibliography. The work opens with the attitude of the 
Americans towards kingship on the eve of the Revolution, setting 
forth at length that throughout the Stamp Act controversy the peo- 
ple with almost one accord rendered deepest respect to the King, and 
cast reproach only upon his ministers. The "Stamp Act Congress" 
of 1765 was effusive in its expressions; it was "sincerely devoted, 
with the warmest sentiments of affection and duty to his Majesty's 
person and government ; inviolably attached to the present happy 
establishment of the Protestant succession;" called George III "the 
best of sovereigns," and declared "we glory in being the subjects 
of the best of kings." To quote from "Letters of Junius," "They 
(the colonies) were ready enough to distinguish between you (the 

229 



EDITORIAL ^ 

King) and your Ministers. They complained of an Act of the Legis- 
lature, but traced the Origin of it no higher than to the Servants of 
the Crown." 

As the time approached when it became evident that the people 
must establish a government of their own, there were many who 
contended for a monarchical form, mostly out of lack of confidence 
in the various congresses which were conducting or at least aiding 
in the Revolution, and in point of which may be quoted one who 
shortly afterward became a foremost opponent of a monarchical sys- 
tem — Thomas Paine, who in his indignation exclaimed "if I must 
be enslaved, let it be by a King at least, and not by a parcel of law- 
less committeemen." As time went on, various ambitious foreigners 
busied themselves to create a monarchical movement, and to the dis- 
gust of Jefferson, who associated with them certain American army 
officers who he said "were trained to monarchy by military habits." 
Out of this latter sentiment grew that bitter opposition to the So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati formed by army officers at the close of the 
Revolution, and in protest against which was organized the Tam- 
many Society that as a great political power exists to the present 
day. The proposed American monarchy collapsed almost on the 
instant when it was proposed to Washington, provoking him to 
"frown indignantly at the proposition." The diligent author whom 
we here review has treated this entire chapter of history covering a 
quarter of a century period, in most exhaustive fashion. It would 
require a highly accomplished student of American history who 
could not be interested if not instructed by the reading of this 
"Study of Monarchical Tendencies." 



=223= 



230 






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ROBERT TREAT PAINE 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. Eor twenty years 

a resident of Taunton, Massachusetts 



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ROBERT TREAT PAINE 

Signer of Declaration of Independence. Eor twenty years 

a resident of Taunton, Massachusetts 



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JULY, 1923 



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>6g?nnings of Bristol. County, Massachusetts 

Massasoit, Zerviah Mitchell and Elizabeth Poole. 

By Frank Walcott Hutt, Taunton, Mass. 

T the close of three hundred years, the most eventful in 
the history of our country, we again approach as near 
as possible to the threshold of their times and motives, 
and inquire: Who were the founders of Bristol county, 
and the cities and towns contained therein? And, witnessing our own 
day and achievement, we desire to know how the present has fulfilled 
the expectations of the founders. The past has undeniable funda- 
mental values ; the present is working and building upon the founda- 
tions that have been laid; both are one in the purpose and progress 
of their structure. History depends upon their mutual aid. And 
so the workmen of yesterday and today join forces as the labor 
proceeds. 

As we, from our summits, survey some of the results of the deal- 
ings and ventures of the first settlers, it appears to us that they were 
men and women of the psychological time and the hour, endowed 
with special capacity for home-building and town-making, equipped 
both spiritually and physically to begin the colonization of their land 
of promise. This is no mere sentiment, either, for that which they 
began has progressed and thriven to this hour. 

Historians of earlier works have not made it clear that Bristol 
county was so named as the result of a promise made by the General 
Court at Plymouth in 1677 to the inhabitants of the town of Bristol, 
now in Rhode Island. The promise was, in effect, that when the 



Note — These pages comprise excerpts from forthcoming "History of Bristol County, 
Massachusetts," by Mr. Frank Walcott Hutt, Secretary of the Old Colony Historical 
Society; member of Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. (Lewis 
Historical Publishing Company, Inc., New York and Chicago). 

231 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

time came that sixty families should have settled in the town, a new 
county should then be established, and that Bristol should be de- 
nominated the county seat. It was on September 1, 1681, that the 
townsfolk named the village for the great English port, Bristol, and 
four years later, in June, 1685, the county was incorporated, with 
Bristol as the shire town. Up to that time all this territory had been 
a part of the Old Colony, whose General Court headquarters had 
been established since 1639. Bristol county towns were represented 
at the court only seven years ; for after June, 1692, the General 
Court of Massachusetts Bay issued all orders to the military and for 
the civil conduct of the towns of the Old Colony. Thus were the 
workmen laying foundations. At the time of King Philip's War, 
1675-6, these towns were included in the limits of the county that was 
to be — Attleboro, Berkley, Easton, Dighton, Dartmouth, Freetown, 
Raynham, Norton, Eehoboth, Swansea and Taunton — with an ag- 
gregate population of 22,571. The other towns of this section were 
not yet incorporated. 

In 1685, then, New Plymouth, or the Old Colony, as it soon began 
to be called by the sons of Pilgrims, was divided into the three coun- 
ties of Plymouth, Barnstable and Bristol, the town of Bristol con- 
tinuing as the county seat up to November, 1746, when Taunton was 
made the shire town. From that date the town of Bristol went over 
to Rhode Island, and keeping it company were the towns of Barring- 
ton, Little Compton and Warren. A petition had been presented to 
the General Court from several of the towns, asking that Dighton 
be made the county town in place of Taunton ; but it was reported 
back from the court that "they are of opinion that Taunton will be 
most benefitiall for the county. ' ' 

All courts up to the year 1828 were held at Taunton, where to 
the present time a series of four court houses have been constructed. 
But in that year, New Bedford, then being the largest town in the 
county, with a population of 6332, was created a half-shire town, 
with its own court house. The growth of the county called for 
further division in 1860, when Pawtucket and a part of Seekonk 
were set off to Rhode Island, and a part of Tiverton was given from 
Rhode Island to Fall River. The latter city, with its then population 
of 46,000, was made a half-shire town, with its court. 

Retaining its ancient name, and linking its past with that of the 
colonial era, Bristol county, known for great industry, holds an ad- 

232 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

vanced place in the line of march of the State's success. With an 
area of six hundred square miles, with Norfolk county on the north, 
Plymouth county on the east, Ehode Island on the west, and Rhode 
Island and the Atlantic on the south, the county occupies a southern 
block of the State, about thirty-five miles from Boston. Within the 
county limits there are now four cities, namely: Fall River, Taun- 
ton, Attleboro and New Bedford ; and fifteen towns, namely : Aeush- 
net, Berkley, Dartmouth, Dighton, Easton, Fairhaven, Freetown, 
Mansfield, North Attleboro, Norton, Eaynham, Rehoboth, Seekonk, 
Somerset, Westport. 

# # # * * 

Few rolling-land sections of the State, such as Bristol county is, 
are more pleasingly situated, both for charming lake and river 
scenery and for practical utilities. There are a number of rivers 
that not only water the lands and furnish means of transportation, 
but provide water power for some of the largest textile mills in the 
world. The Taunton river, known to the red race as the Tetiquet, or 
Great river, is a small stream compared with many New England 
rivers, but it is the most noted among this county group of rivers, 
rising in Plymouth county, and flowing southwesterly, directly 
across Bristol county, and emptying into Mount Hope Bay, or 
Sachem's Bay, as it was called in early times. This river has a re- 
markable industrial history that began with the Leonard iron-work- 
ers and the Lincoln saw-millers, in the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The head of navigation is at Weir Village, Taunton, though 
the ocean tide itself flows to East Taunton, rising in Scadding's 
pond to the north of the city, and joining the Taunton river near the 
location known as the Neck-of-Land. 

Three Mile river, which the Indians called the Nistoquahannock, 
is formed by the Wading and Rumf ord rivers, and, flowing through 
West Taunton, it makes the boundary between Taunton and Dighton 
and becomes a part of Taunton river. For many miles Ten Mile 
river constitutes the boundary between Seekonk and Rhode Island. 
Palmer river rises in the town of Rehoboth, and flows into the War- 
ren river at Swansea. The Segregansett river rises in Taunton, and 
flowing southwesterly across Dighton, eventually becomes a part of 
Taunton river. The Westport river has its east and west branches 
in Westport, and the Slocum and Aponagansett rivers are in Dart- 
mouth. 

233 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Bristol county lakes and ponds share largely in the topographic 
features of the region. The Watuppa lakes are in Fall River; Sab- 
batia lake and Seadding's pond are in Taunton; Winnecunnet pond 
is at Norton; Wilbur pond is at Easton; and Reservoir pond is in 
North Attleboro. 

We can have no actual comprehension of the manner of living 
of the first settlers in Bristol county bounds; we are better ac- 
quainted with that which is nearer our day, a century or two after 
the Pilgrims — the story of the simplicity of the pre-Eevolutionary 
times; that is, as compared with the luxury that followed, and of 
our own day. But it was upon their frugality and their laborious 
life that the foundations of these townships were laid; it is in their 
artlessness that we of today can find a great deal that is worthy of 
imitation. Their "board" was actually a board, seldom a table as 
we know it, and the hands were employed more than any other 
utensil for the holding and breaking of food. Porridge, fish, meat, 
some vegetables, constituted the early dishes. Coffee and tea were 
not to be had. Beer and ale were brewed, and were drank freely, 
as was the custom in all lands. It is interesting to note that the 
laws regarding spirituous drink were always sharply restrictive, 
and that even as early as 1667 cider was added in the restriction ; 
and measures were taken to keep everything of the sort from the 
Indians, although the law was outwitted then, as now. The point is, 
that Colonial law in these and all essential matters was in effect. 

Town meeting, wherever we find it, had its New World origin 
in the Old Colony. From this hither period of time, students of his- 
tory's eras rejoice in and make much of the rediscovery, too, that 
the "town" of New England was the cropping up again of a most 
ancient Saxon institution. But to the forefathers here it was all so 
natural and primitive a proceeding that they were unaware of any 
intention on their part to resurrect that old town idea and practice. 
All they were concerning themselves with, in reality, reducing the 
matter to its simplest terms, was the making of an independent home 
and an independent living and the securing of these by mutual plans 
for government. Whatever the origin of the institution, no one 
for a moment believes that any of the first-comers to the Bristol 
county towns went into the business of town-making because the 
Saxons or the Angles or any of the Aryan nomads before them did 
so and so. The germ of it all may have been transplanted by the 

234 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Pilgrims; but the Old Colony and the counties that were divided up 
from it -had their inception by the different towns only because of 
the practical needs of home-makers and independent nation-builders. 
The first of the town meetings in this part of the country was 
not inaugurated upon a stated day, nor with celebrations. It was a 
quiet and at times unannounced gathering of the leading men of 
the town in one another's houses for deliberate purposes, and look- 
ing into the everyday welfare of the community. It was the early 
mark and sign of the living needs, the essentials, the individual and 
community rights in the process of civilization. The senior, the 
patriarch, the man of chief influence, whether in Bristol county or 
elsewhere, was the acknowledged leader, and in the course of time a 
man of that calibre became the meeting moderator, or the keeper 
of records, or the town clerk. Though the first regularly organized 
town meeting was held at Marshfield, (outside these bounds), in 
1642, yet it was not until four years later, or in 1646, that the Gen- 
eral Court at Plymouth established the office of town clerk. Town 
meeting exercised from the first an influence upon the governing 
power and customs of the community that today is deeply felt and 
recognized. It is at this hour a great event in the town life of Bristol 
county. No assemblage can be more democratic. None signifies 
so much directly by and for the people. 



The most famous landmark of any sort within the bounds of 
Bristol county is the "Dighton Writing Rock," at Berkley, the lat- 
ter town having originally been a part of Dighton. This noted gran- 
ite rock within the river margin is eleven and one-half feet long and 
five feet high. Since the year 1889 it has been the property of the 
Old Colony Historical Society at Taunton, from a deed of gift of the 
Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen. The rock 
was purchased in 1857 of Thomas T. Dean, of Berkley, by Neil 
Arneen, of Fall River, who placed it in the possession of the Copen- 
hagen Society in the belief that the findings of the archaeologist 
were proof positive that the markings were those of Danish ex- 
plorers. 

Up to the present time, and dating from the year 1680, there 
have been proposed more than twenty distinct theories concerning 
the origin of the symbol-like drawings and letter marks that cover 

235 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

the face of the rock but all of which traceries are slowly becoming 
defaced both by tides and weather. The theories of the writings are 
many and varied, the leading one being that they were originally 
those of native red men. Professor E. D. Delabarre, renowned 
archaeologist, whose earlier criticism was that the drawings might 
have been made by Egyptians, 2000 B. C, has compiled three vol- 
umes from the publications of the Colonial Society of Massachu- 
setts on the subject of the rock. His more recent theory is that 
here are marks on the rock that appear to disclose the name of 
Miguel Cortereal, Portuguese explorer, and the date 1511. In the 
realm of ethnology, archaeology and cheirology, this monument of 
great age has been visited and written about by savants of all times, 
and during many centuries. John Fiske and others refute the Norse 
origin of the writings. Schoolcraft, the explorer, in 1853 decided 
they were of Indian origin. Yet concerning the source of the writ- 
ings on the rock, about which a small library has been written, no 
one is absolutely sure. 

# # * # # 

Imbibing, as we do, the realism of our times, it follows that we 
must consider the Red Man's story as genuine as that of the age 
that ensued, although historians now and then have seen fit to in- 
vest much of their era with the glamour of romance. The Indians 
were real people ; their troubles and sorrows were actual ; and those 
of our Massachusetts shores possessed very little of comfort and 
enjoyment in life, whether from the white man's point of view or 
their own. 

We are now nearly two hundred and fifty years away from 
King Philip's War, and weighing all causes, as we must, we know 
that while the colonists had good and sufficient reasons for the 
eventual retirement of the Indian from the scene, we grant that the 
natives often suffered at the hands of the newcomers, whose de- 
mands, like those of AVinslow himself, upon King Philip, were fre- 
quently made in an offensive manner. In the formative period of 
the Old Colony, the transactions between the races were rather ideal, 
as a whole, but, as the years passed, in spite of the strict governmen- 
tal rules for clemency of dealings with the Indians, individuals on 
both sides gradually undermined the fabric of friendship and of mu- 
tual help. 

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MELINDA MITCHELL (TEEWEELEEMA), DESCENDANT OF MASSASOIT 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Massasoit was easy going; King Philip was crafty; yet the rea- 
sons for rebellions outbreak on the part of the natives were not al- 
ways fictitious ones. The real Indians hereabouts were a poor and 
needy type of humanity ; but they bitterly resented and always re- 
membered the enforced enslavement of certain of their kind by ma- 
rauding Europeans before the "Mayflower" came. Naturally, they 
disliked being driven from pillar to post ; they found fault when their 
gardens were destroyed and when members of their families were 
mistreated. Their methods of vengeance were terrible in result ; but 
through the heavy mists of the blood that was shed, it was very hard 
for that generation of white people, or succeeding ones, to maintain 
any faith whatever in the ethnological value of the Indian. 

The honor once accorded the writer in being granted an inter- 
view with Zerviah (Mitchell) Robinson, Indian princess by right, 
then ninety-three 3 T ears of age, was augmented by the consciousness 
that she was a direct descendant of Massasoit, chief of the Pokanoket 
confederacy of the originally powerful tribe of AVampanoags, first 
recorded occupants of the present Bristol county region. That 
Indian woman, who in her early years had been a teacher in public 
schools, was in her nineties bright and active. Her eyes flashed 
with hereditary brilliance of her nomadic forbears ; but her features 
were sharp and mummy-like, and drawn with advanced age. She 
was one of the few that remained of her race ; yet, living in our times, 
as she was, she had made the best of her life. But Zerviah was a 
living reminder of all that had been known and verified of that wise 
and peace-performing Massasoit who with his tribe and offspring 
were familiar to all this section before Taunton or Fall Elver or 
New Bedford were foreseen, and who for a half century, when the 
Europeans appeared and set up their homes here, generally fra- 
ternized with the strangers and allowed them the settlers' privileges. 
After nearly three hundred years, then, practically the last remnant 
of the people of the woods and barrens had disappeared, and the 
city and its builders had taken their place, race annihilating race in 
the ages-old way. 

So far as the first settlement of the white people in the old 
bounds of this county is concerned, their combats with their Indian 
neighbors were nil — there was no menace, to speak of, on the part 
of the first dwellers here, no disastrous breaks — a condition not 
usual with the invasion of newcomers elsewhere. At Cape Cod 

237 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

and Plymouth the skirmishes were few and far between, and in early 
Bristol county the Indians peacefully conveyed lands and were satis- 
fied with whatever was given in exchange. 

The paucity and segregation of the branches of the tribes were 
the main causes for the easy foothold obtained here by Europeans. 
And the leading reason for the lack of anticipated wholesale war- 
like front on the part of the Indians is found in the declaration made 
by the Indians and the settlers, that a plague understood by many 
writers to have been like influenza, had already swept thousands of 
the Red Men hereabouts out of existence, and that, only a few years 
before the "Mayflower" arrived. Everywhere graves were abun- 
dant, and remains were found heaped together in pits. Those that 
survived of the nearby Wampanoags, therefore, were weak and gen- 
erally unhostile. Hence, so far as the traditions have declared, the 
new homes of civilization increased, and the Red Men's tents were 
bound to retreat. The Indian occupancy in this region, however, 
had been and was to be for many years to follow, a real possession. 
It is too actual a chapter that it should ever be dismissed from the 
whole story. Romance, poetry and song are not powerful enough 
realms to absorb the hard realities of the existence of the Indian. 

The immediate newcomers landed practically unopposed, and, 
living up to their ideals of fair play, they sent their delegates a long 
way in order to find the nearest head man of any tribe, for good 
fellowship's sake. It was Samoset who welcomed the Englishmen; 
it was Squanto, who claimed that he was last of the Pawtuxet tribe, 
that led the way to Massasoit. 

The town of Bristol, now in Rhode Island, formerly in Massa- 
chusetts, and the head of the county, was founded upon the site of 
the Indian encampment of the Pokanokets, at Montaup (the English- 
men phonetically calling it Mt. Hope), and there lived Massasoit, 
who is accounted one of the wisest chiefs that ever ruled a savage 
race. In 1619 Captain Dermer, a transient visitor, had stopped at 
Nemasket, just outside this section, and had there met Massasoit 
and his brother Quadequin. But in July, 1621, was made the first 
record of white men traveling the Bristol county territory, when Ed- 
ward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, accompanied by Squanto, 
sought out Massasoit in order to make their treaty of friendship. 
Their visit was successful; so were all their dealings thereafter with 
that chief. 

238 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Yet there were displeasing episodes. One was that connected 
with the sub-chief Corbitant, whom Winslow pronounced a "hollow- 
hearted friend;" though his hospitableness afterwards was con- 
ceded. It is said that Corbitant had been inimical towards Squanto, 
whose part being taken by Myles Standish and the Plymouth people, 
Corbitant himself, thereupon, was constrained to sign a treaty of 
peace at Plymouth. When Winslow made his second visit to Mas- 
sasoit in 1623, while passing through Corbitant \s dominions, at the 
present Swansea, he was alarmed at the report of the death of Mas- 
sasoit, lest the latter be succeeded by Corbitant to the chieftaincy. 
But the report was negatived, and Corbitant proved a generous host 
to Winslow and his friends. Another episode concerned Awashunks, 
the squaw-sachem of Seaconnet, whose husband was the Indian 
Tolony, and who had sons Peter and William. She nearly preci- 
pitated a war at Freetown, in August, 1671 ; and again, in 1675, she 
was almost persuaded, •with her warriors, to cast in her lot with that 
of the English. 

Massasoit, who was also known as Ossamequin, as has been 
pointed out, ruled over the Wampanoags, whose sub-tribes and 
branches were included in thirty villages, at least, throughout the 
present Bristol and other counties. 

The principal of the sub-tribes that have to do with this section 
were the Seaconnets, who lived where Little Compton, Rhode Island, 
now is, and they were ruled by the squaw-sachem Awashunks, to 
whom reference has been made. The tents of the Pocassets were 
pitched throughout the territory that is now Fall River, Tiverton, 
and a part of Swansea, and their rulers were Corbitant and Wee- 
tamoe. In succession also were the Tetiquets, who lived on the east 
side of the Tetiquet (now Taunton) river; and the Assawampsetts, 
their next door neighbors. 

Massasoit was born in 1581. His w T ife was living in 1621; and 
besides the brothers of the chief, Quadequin and Akkampoin, there 
was a sister. Massasoit's two famous sons were: Wamsutta, after- 
wards known as Alexander; and Metacomet, better known as King 
Philip ; and his daughter was Amie, who married Tispauquin, from 
whom Zerviah Mitchell was descended. Massasoit died in 1662. A 
monument to his memory was dedicated at Warren, Rhode Island, 
October 19, 1907, at the Massasoit Spring, there, by the Massasoit 

239 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Monument Association. Charlotte and Alonzo Mitchell, direct de- 
scendants of the chief, were present, and unveiled the monument. 

Many names for many occasions, the Eed Men seemed to have. 
The English at first knew Wamsutta as Mooanam, but after 1656 he 
and King Philip were called by the Christian names they afterwards 
bore. Alexander, the chief who took Weetamoe, daughter of Cor- 
bitant, for his wife, had from the first held an unfriendly attitude 
towards the whites, generous though his father had been with the 
new-comers. Yet Alexander was chief only a few months after the 
death of Massasoit, when he died, having "fretted himself to death," 
in all probability because he foresaw the powerlessness of his race 
and, as King Philip did, their extinction. It was Alexander who dis- 
posed of lands where Taunton and Attleboro now are. His squaw, 
Weetamoe, was one of the most noted Indian women of her times 
in the story of this region. "When Corbitant, her father, died, she 
automatically became the ruler of the Pocassets. Known at first as 
Nunmampaum, and being called Weetamoe first in 1662, she married 
in 1675, just before King Philip 's War, Petonowomet, or Peter Nun- 
nuit, as the English phonetically styled him. Later, and before the 
close of that war, she married the Narragansett sagamore Quinna- 
pin. The unique description that exists of the squaw leader is worth 
repeating: "She was dressed in a kersey coat covered with girdles 
of wampum, from the loins upwards. Her arms from the elbows to 
the hands were covered with bracelets; and besides a handful of 
necklaces about her neck, there were several sorts of jewels in her 
ears. She had fine red stockings and white shoes ; her hair was pow- 
dered, and her face painted red. She ^vas a severe and proud dame, 
bestowing every day in dressing herself as much time as any of the 
gentry in the land; and when she was dressed her work was to make 
girdles of wampum and beads." Yet in spite of her finery while she 
was at her best, the lot of Weetamoe was an unenviable one. With 
the breaking out of the King Philip War. she had about three hun- 
dred armed Indians subject to her rule. Her second husband, "Pe- 
ter Nunnuit, " went over and aided the English, but she remained 
faithful to her race and shared their lot. Separating herself from 
Nunnuit, she became the wife of 'Quinnapin, both of them then being 
the followers of Philip. Quinnapin, being accused of plotting with 
Philip, was shot at Plymouth. His queen, Weetamoe, fled, but by 
means of the perfidy of a deserter from her camp, her hiding place 

240 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

was made known. In all probability she drowned herself, but her 
corpse drifted ashore, and being seized by the white settlers, her 
head was cut off and exhibited upon a pole at Taunton. 

Philip, whose Indian name was pronounced Pometacum, 
though at first the English called him Metacomet, is remembered by 
us of today, chiefly because of the fact that his name was connected 
with the Indian war of this section, as its leader, in 1675-6. He mar- 
ried a sister of Weetarnoe, named Wotonekanuske ; and one of the 
blots on the pages of our history, as we view it today, is the fact that 
she was sold into slavery with her son, at Bridgewater. 

And so Philip, the plotter, and yet the fighting man for his race, 
came into view on the stage of the time— Philip, untutored, unlet- 
tered, vengeful — but whom we must credit with a great love for his 
people, and as having in his heart a great regret that a new race had 
come into possession of the lands of his ancestors. While the charge 
of the colonists was that King Philip and his followers, in a time of 
comparative peace, were plotting against the new government of the 
settlers, it should be conceded today, after weighing carefully much 
that has been recorded with regard to the arrogance and the tres- 
passing of the whites upon the property and the rights of the In- 
dians, that the latter were no more than rebels against what they 
believed to be a tyrannizing of the colonists. The following incident 
told in brief, was one of the causes that brought on the war. 

John Sassamon, a Massachusetts Indian, though attached to 
King Philip, had received his education at the Indian school at 
Natick, and became a home missionary to the Nemasket Indians 
(where Middleboro now is). He also received the favor of the chief 
Tuspaquin, who conveyed to him 27 acres of land at Assawampsett 
Neck, in the Town of Lakeville. Sassamon had a daughter, Asso- 
wetough by name, called "Betty" by the English, who married the 
Indian Felix. To him Tuspaquin and his son William deeded 58y 2 
acres of land, and both conveyed to Assowetough ("Betty") a neck 
of land at Assawampsett that today is called Betty's Neck. But 
Sassamon, because of a treacherous communication to the Eng- 
lish to the detriment of Philip, met his death at the hands of Philip's 
people. Thereupon the murderers, Tobias, Wampapaum and Mat- 
tushamama, were apprehended and shot by the English. Only fif- 
teen days after this execution, or on June 23, 1675, an Englishman 
was shot at Swansea, and his wife was scalped. The following day, 

241 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

others were killed at the same place. It was about this time, too, 
that -Edward Bobbitt, John Tisdale and others were killed at Taun- 
ton. 

It was on April 10, 1671, five years before the war, that Philip, 
attended by his warriors, came to Taunton upon request of the colon- 
ists, who had become alarmed at the warlike preparations of the 
Indian party. This council was held in the meeting house near the 
present Church Green, and after recriminations upon both sides, 
King Philip and his men signed a treaty and delivered up their 
arms, at the same time with the promise given that the tribe as a 
whole would surrender their arms at Plymouth. But the promise 
was not kept, and after a second one, made on September 26, 1671, 
the Indians were generally and forcibly disarmed, with the trouble 
that was bound to ensue. 

Most of the so-called battles of this war, from our viewpoint, 
were little more than a few skirmishes, with a handful of people on 
either side contending— that is, as the present Bristol county bounds 
have to do with the trouble. Yet the results, so comparatively few 
were the white and Indian inhabitants here at the time, were looked 
upon either as terribly calamitous or as wonderful victories. The 
dispatching of the three Indians, the slaying of the Swansea family 
— both were events of the most serious kind, and they so affected 
both parties. 

While our concern is with the greater affairs of the Indians and 
of this war, we shall refer to the main facts that featured the action 
of the war to its close, in this region. After the Swansea attack, a 
battle was fought at Punkateset, now the south part of Tiverton, by 
a small number of white men under command of Captain Benjamin 
Church, and three hundred Indians. The record has it that a Cap- 
tain Golding, who approached the land in his sloop, was the means 
of saving the colonists from their predicament. Again, Philip and 
Weetamoe and some Indians were engaged in battle, July 18, 1675, 
in the Pocasset swamp, near the present Fall Eiver. The English 
on this occasion lost sixteen of their men, and took possession of 
one hundred wigwams, while about one hundred Indians fell into 
their hands. Philip and Weetamoe and most of their party got away. 

Infantry, volunteers and mounted men stationed at Swansea, 
the contingent furnished by Massachusetts Bay for this section, 
were in charge of Captain Daniel Henchman, Samuel Moseley and 

242 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Thomas Prentice; and Captain James Cudworth commanded a com- 
pany from Plymouth Colony. He, as ranking officer, had charge 
of all, with headquarters at Barneyville. Besides skirmishes like 
that at Mj T les Bridge, where colonists were killed and wounded, 
Captain Moseley led in an open fight against the Indians, killing 
some, and on his way finding the decapitated heads of English, which 
he buried. When he arrived at Mount Hope, he found that King 
Philip and his followers had fled to Pocasset, where he was able to 
re-enforce his outfit with the help of Weetamoe and Awashunks. 
Meantime, Major Thomas Savage having arrived at Swansea from 
Boston with one hundred and twenty men, Captain Prentice led a 
skirmish at Rehoboth, June 30, with disastrous results to a number 
of Indians. 

Philip continued to lay waste the white settlements. A battle 
was fought at Pawtucket, then within this county's bounds, when 
Captain Michael Pierce and nearly all his command were slain by 
Indians under Canonchet. Rehoboth was burned March 28, nearly 
seventy buildings being destroyed, and on April 9 the fighter Can- 
onchet was captured. Swansea received its second attack June 19, 
and was burned flat. Taunton was attacked July 11, and houses 
burned; and it was about this time that the battle of Lockety Neck 
occurred, with Indian defeat. Twenty Taunton men captured "Wee- 
tamoe and the last of her followers, at Swansea, August 6, with 
the result referred to. King Philip himself was killed at Mount 
Hope, August 12, 1G76, and on August 28 his leading captain, Ana- 
wan, was captured by Captain Benjamin Church at the place known 
as Ana wan's Rock, at Rehoboth. Thereafter, peace prevailed be- 
tween the races in this county. The place and power of the aborigi- 
nal regime were superseded by those of the newcomer. Henceforth 
the colonists availed. The wigwam perished and towns and cities 
appeared and flourished. 

The piratical visitations of pre-Pilgrim times, and afterwards 
the inevitable intrusions of racial pride, preferment and greed for 
gain, as well as the cruelties practiced by individuals on both sides, 
were causes of all the trouble the later men of the Old Colony and of 
Bristol county had with the original holders of the land. The pre- 
ponderances of statements of any who have written concerning the 
Indians (particularly of those remnants of the Algonquin tribes of 
the Massachusetts shores), and the conduct of the white men to- 

243 ... 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

wards them, is, in effect, that humane treatment of them was a pre- 
determined factor of the Pilgrim methods. Had the precedent es- 
tablished by the first governors and their councillors with regard 
to popular treatment of the Indians been preserved and held sacred 
by all the townsmen of the settlements, there could have been no war. 

An ideal basis, at least for all transactions "with the Eed Race, 
was that set forth by the Plymouth General Court in 1643, when it 
was enacted that "it shall be holden unlawful and of dangerous con- 
sequence, as it hath been our constant custom from the very first 
beginning, that no person should purchase, rent or hire any lands, 
herbage, wood or timber of the Indians but by the magistrates' 
consent." And even so far along as the year 1660 it was further 
enacted that the law should be so interpreted as to prevent any from 
taking land as a gift. 

The consensus of belief, too, is that the Indians were paid all 
their lands were worth. There is a generally understood axiom con- 
tained in the history of property that the value of the latter is des- 
tined to vary according to its successive eras and possessors. Bris- 
tol county lands today, comprising the wealth of the townships, high- 
ways, railroads and bridges, have greatly amassed values over those 
of other ages. The impoverished province of 1640, for example, was 
worth to the nomad Indian, who cared but little for it, and to the 
white man, who gave all he could afford, only that wampum, those 
useful tools, and often the specie of circulation that were used as 
medium of exchange. Again and again we are told that the Wam- 
panoags and the Narragansetts were satisfied with the bargains 
made. "That he do not too much straiten the Indians," was the 
proviso of Captain Thomas Willett, who was given liberty to make 
purchase of lands in this county. The Taunton deed of the early 
purchasers was well understood by the previous owners, and its 
equitable title, made in 1637, signed by Massasoit, was confirmed by 
Philip in 1663. And moreover, reservations of land for the Indians 
were made both by the white men and the Indians themselves. 

A word genealogical, concerning recent generations of the In- 
dian race in this county. At the time the writer interviewed Zerviah 
(Mitchell) Robinson, it was of more than passing interest to note 
these facts that had been gleaned by herself and the late General E. 
W. Pierce. Zerviah was one of the children of Thomas O. and Zer- 
viah Gould Mitchell, most of whom were born in North Abington. 
though Zerviah was born in Charlestown, June 17, 1828. She re- 

244 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

ccived her education at the Abington High School, graduated at Un- 
ion Academy, and married Joseph Robinson, November 14, 1854. In 
her younger days Mrs. Robinson taught school, and later traveled 
with her husband in South America. Her sisters, Deloris B., Melin- 
da, Emma J. and Charlotte J., received academic training; and a 
brother, Thomas C, prepared himself for the ministry, but was 
drowned at Elder's pond, at Lakeville, in 1859. 

The record of the descent of Zerviah from Massasoit has been 
kept, and is as follows : Massasoit had five children, three sons and 
two daughters. Amie, one of the daughters, married Tuspaquin, 
who was known as the "Black Sachem" and was chief of the Assa- 
wampsett branch of the Wampanoags. Tuspaquin and Amie had 
sons, one of whom, Benjamin Tuspaquin, married Weecum, as she 
was known, and to them were born four children. One of their sons, 
Benjamin, married Mary Felix, in Lakeville, Mary herself being 
a direct descendant of Chief John Sassamon. It was Mary's fath- 
er, Felix, who first received from the Indian owners Chief Tuspa- 
quin 's deed of the lands at "Betty's Neck," which place was so 
called, as was shown, because, in the sixteenth century, the English 
called Assowetough, the daughter of Sassamon, who resided there, 
"Betty." There lived Charlotte, a sister of Zerviah. Benjamin 
and Mary had a daughter Lydia, who married "Wamsley," also an 
Indian. Lydia received a good education while residing with a fam- 
ily named Moore at Petersham, Massachusetts, but she spent her 
later days at "Betty's Neck," where she became the chief amanuen- 
sis for her people. 

"Wamsley" and Lydia had five children, two sons and three 
daughters. A daughter Phoebe married, for her first husband, Silas 
Rosten, an Indian soldier of the patriot army of the Revolution. She 
married (second) Brister Gould. Of the seven children by the sec- 
ond marriage (six daughters and one son), a daughter, Zerviah, 
married Thomas C. Mitchell, October 17, 1824. He died at Fall Riv- 
er, March 27, 1859. She received her education in Abington and 
Boston schools, and before her marriage she taught school. Mr. 
and Mrs. Mitchell were the parents of eleven children, of whom 
Zerviah (Mitchell) Robinson was one. This being one of the most 
unique genealogies in New England, and pertinent to the subject it- 
self, it is offered as a vital part of this chapter. 



245 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Upon gradual effacement of Indian village and encampment, 
there presently began. and throve within the present county bounds 
of Bristol the villages and the towns of a race that should soon dom- 
inate here, as their Aryan forefathers had done in the course of 
scores of other migratory eras in Asia and Europe, ages before 
America was dreamed of by Europeans. As the white race, ever- 
restless, swarmed from overseas and sought out places here and 
there for their western homes, it came about that a place should soon 
be secured for Taunton of New England. 

The immigrants to the Taunton or Cohannet neighborhood 
halted at or near the river and the ponds. Where the bordering 
lands were of proven fertility, the Indians had been used to raising 
corn, the river itself providing vast quantities of herring in their 
season, that were made use of both as food and as means of fertiliz- 
ing still further the land. The late Senator George Goff often told 
the writer that credible traditions of his family had it that the first- 
comers along the river found no trouble in securing literally tons of 
fish in the spring, which, either ploughed into the ground, or set into 
the hills with the beans and corn, was the source of the production 
of rich, crops. But as the years passed on, the too abundant use of 
such fertilizer became the cause of the deterioration of the primitive 
value of the soil. Then, besides the fish, the river was the known 
means of transportation; water power was available for mills in 
prospect ; timber grew in abundance ; and there was plenty of wood 
for the winter fires. These, taken together, are not mere hearsay 
reasons for the coming of the white man, but the practical, estab- 
lished report of the warranted traditions of three hundred years. 

We are aware of the presence here of John Winthrop Jr., in 
1636, and of his letter to Governor John Winthrop, his father, in 
regard to his exploration of the Tetiquet river and adjacent country. 
We do not know what his errand was ; bat the records of New Eng- 
land industry show that he was a leader in bog-iron working at 
Lynn and Braintree, and that he had prospected to a great extent 
that part of the country for possible iron-working. History has not 
revealed the cause of his brief sojourn along the Tetiquet, neither 
can we conjecture here ; but we do know that in about fifteen years 
from that time, Taunton's early settlers had formed a company here 
for the manufacture of iron. In his letter, Wintlirop reported "very 
fertyle and rich ground here," and within three years the settlers 

246 



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Monument of Miss Pool, Taunton Cemetery. 



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TAUNTON GREEN, 1839 



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BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

had assured themselves that that statement was true. We are 
told in the general history of the county how Edward Winslow and 
Stephen Hopkins, with the Indian Squanto, on their way to Mon- 
taup (Mount Hope), had passed through the future Taunton lands 
in 1621, and of their particular satisfaction with the appearance of 
the country. 

But at length we peruse the most vital and interesting record of 
those times, as regards the founders. It is in Governor John Win- 
throp's "History of New England," dated 1637, that he has set 
down this statement: "This year, a plantation was begun at Teti- 
quett, by a gentle woman, an ancient maid, one Miss Poole. She 
came late thither, and endured much hardships, and lost much cat- 
tle." And this statement in the Winthrop letter is confirmative, 
too, of the "Poole Family Records," still preserved at Taunton, 
England, which inform us that in 1635, "Elizabeth, ninth child, 
third daughter of Sir William Poole, and aged about 50 years, is 
now in New England. ' ' 

Such, in their original brevity and not to be gainsaid, constitute 
the announcements of the first arrival here, that of Elizabeth Poole, 
daughter of a baronet, and whose brother William was later to train 
Taunton men in the use of arms. No one can with certainty state 
what was the motive for her removing in this direction from Dor- 
chester, — whether religious or industrial. Yet there is an authenti- 
cated record that Elizabeth Poole and members of her family while 
residing in England were interesting themselves in certain salt- 
works in New England. Among the ' ' Uncalendared Proceedings of 
the Court of Charles I" is that to the effect that Miss Poole and her 
brothers, Sir John and Periam, were among the associates of Rev. 
John White of Dorchester, who had some interest in salt works at 
Cape Ann during the years 1623 to 1628. Eventually then she had 
arrived at Tetiquct, and there bought lands of the Indian owners, 
known as Josiah, Peter and David, — for a jack-knife and a peck of 
beans, as tradition has it. The lands thus purchased she designated 
as her Littleworth and Shute farms, named for English estates in 
possession of her family. Money had no currency value to the In- 
dians, though money was also paid them from time to time by the 
Europeans ; a jack-knife, to them, was a sign of riches ; beans meant 
more food for the nomad. The phrase "Taunton was bought for a 

247 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

jack-knife and a peck of beans" is often made use of today, but 
usually without conception of the originating circumstances. 

The bounds of Miss Poole's property are not exactly known, 
with the exception that the brook called Littleworth bounded the Lit- 
tleworth farm on the west, and that it was joined with the Shute 
farm on the south. Another tradition has pointed out the Cain 
house on Precinct road, near the foot of Caswell street, as the site 
of the first home of Miss Poole, and a hillock to the west as the site 
of the place where she kept her cattle that first hard winter. It is 
understood that the boundaries of Miss Poole's properties en- 
croached upon lands of an Indian reservation as set aside by the 
General Court at Plymouth; though it is also known that at the 
time of the Poole purchase there had been made no formal recogni- 
tion of the reservation on the part of the Indians. As time went 
on, portions of these lands for this reason gradually passed from 
her possession, and she was given certain allotments in Cohannet. 

It was the Hon. Francis Baylies, Old Colony historian, who first 
applied the quotation from Virgil, "Dux foemina facti," to Eliza- 
beth Poole, and the incident of her settling here. And it was James 
Edward Seaver, historian and genealogist, who stated a well-found- 
ed belief of his that, according to the Old Colony records of Decem- 
ber 4, 1638, William Poole, Mr. John Gilbert, Mr. Henry Andrews, 
John Strong, John Deane, Walter Deane and Edward Case were 
nearly contemporaneous settlers, Taunton not then being named as 
a township. 

The Littleworth farm locality retains that name today. The 
Shute farm, to the southeast of that, was confiscated by the govern- 
ment in 1781, John Borland, owner, a grand-nephew of Elizabeth 
Poole, being a Loyalist. Elizabeth Poole was an energetic and en- 
terprising woman, one of the founders of the first religious congre- 
gation in Taunton, and a member of the ironworks corporation. 
Eventually she removed to her home lot on the south side of the 
present Main street in Taunton, and there she died, being then 
in the sixty-sixth year of her age. She is buried at the Plain ceme- 
tery, but Taunton women have erected a monument to her memory 
at Mount Pleasant cemetery. The phrase "Dux foemina facti" re- 
ferred to, was adopted for the present motto of the city seal, Janu- 
ary 1, 1865, as advocated by Rev. Mortimer Blake. 

Elizabeth Poole ''led the way." Then came the Forty-six Pur- 

248 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

chasers, and the building of a permanent town. By a confirmatory 
deed of the 'First Purchase from Philip, son of Massasoit, wherein it 
is set down that the year 1638 was that in which the plantation was 
bought of Massasoit, the following-named, from most of whom hun- 
dreds of families throughout the United States claim descent, were 
the associated purchasers, each name filling a unique place in these 
first annals: Henry Andrews, John Briant, Mr. John Browne, 
Richard Burt, Edward Case, Thomas Cooke, David Corwithy, Wil- 
liam Coy, John Crosman, John Deane, Walter Deane, Francis 
Doughtye, John Drake, William Dunn, Mr. Thomas Farwell, Mr. 
John Gilbert, Thomas Gilbert, John Gilbert, John Gingell, William 
Hailstone, George Hall, William Harvey, Hezekiah Hoar, Robert 
Hobell, William Holloway, John Kingsley, John Luther, George 
Macey, William Parker, John Parker, Richard Paull, William Phil- 
lips, Mr. William Poole, the Widow Randall, John Richmond, Hugh 
Rossitor, William Scadding, Anthony Slocum, Richard Smith, John 
Smith, Francis Street, Henry Uxley, Richard Williams, Benjamin 
Wilson, Joseph Wilson. Each of these people, with the exception of 
Mr. John Browne, was owner of six to twelve shares. 

A second list of early settlers, descendants of whom dwell num- 
erously in this county and elsewhere, include Edward Bobit, James 
Burt, Thomas Coggan, Robert Crosman, Benajah Dunham, William 
Evins, John Gallop, Giles Gilbert, Joseph Gilbert, Richard Hart, 
Thomas Harvey, Nicholas Hathaway, William Hodges, Samuel Hol- 
loway, Thomas Joans, Aaron Knapp, Henry Leonard, James Leon- 
ard, Thomas Lincoln, senior, Thomas Lincoln, Jr., John Macomber, 
Clement Maxfield, Edward Rew, Oliver Purchase, Ralfe Russell, 
William Sheppard, Giles Slocum, Richard Stacy, Robert Thornton, 
Christopher Thrasher, John Tisdale, John Turner, James Walker, 
James Wiatt, Jacob Wilson. 

Taunton families had hardly become settled in their new hold- 
ings and built them their shelters, — and Taunton was still Cohannet, 
— when the settlement was called upon to share in representation at 
the court of the Pilgrims, at Plymouth. "Taunton began to be 
added to this booke" is first found in the Colonial Court Records 
under date of October 2, 1637, although the historians have shown 
that it must have been entered there after March 3, 1610, since it 
was not until then that the act was passed that "Cohannet shall be 
called Taunton." And then, December 4, 1638, appears the record 

249 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

that "John Strong- is sworne constable of Cohannett until June 
next!'; and again, on March 5, 1639, there came the General Court's 
order that "Captain Poole shall exercise the inhabitants in their 
arms" — the two officers representing the "civil and military exist- 
ence and authority of the ancient Cohannett." 

Afterwards, in due order, came the General Court decrees for 
the grants and disposal of the lands at Taunton and the fixing of 
boundaries, — the Cohannet lands being laid out by order of the 
court in May, 1G39, by Captain Myles Standish and John Browne, 
and bounded by the same men, in 1640, by order of the court. In 
June, 1639, therefore, Captain William Poole, John Gilbert and 
Henry Andrews first represented Taunton at the Plymouth General 
Court, at a time when a number of the "Mayflower" Pilgrims were 
of that membership. The last General Court of Plymouth, be it 
stated here, met in July, 1691, the date that has been accepted as 
marking the close of the Colonial Period — the Old Colony having 
been divided in 1685 into the three counties of Plymouth, Barnstable 
and Bristol. These were local epoch-making days, for on March 3, 
1640, the Indian name Cohannet, or Quahannock, was changed to 
Taunton, and the first bounds of the town were set by the Plymouth 
Court. The township then comprised a territory of sixty-four 
square miles, or more than forty thousand acres. 

The dissatisfaction with dominant religious institutions and con- 
ditions in England, that Governor William Bradford himself assert- 
ed was the cause of the emigration of the "Mayflower" Pilgrims, ex- 
tended to shipload after shipload that followed, and among whose 
passengers were Taunton's first settlers — some Independents, many 
Congregationalists, here and there a few of the Church of England ; 
some Baptists, some Quakers. Others came here for new fortunes' 
sake, having set before them the lure of broader spaces and the at- 
tractive task of sharing in building the western settlements. 

As for Taunton settlers themselves, they were mostly from 
Somerset, Dorset, Devon and Gloucester; and those like the.Deane 
leaders who hailed from Taunton, in Somersetshire, were influential 
enough to have the naming of Taunton, as thus stated in a report 
made at a town meeting: "Whereas, by the Providence of God, in 
the year 1638 and the year 1639, it pleased God to bring the most 
part of the first purchasers of Taunton over the great ocean into 
this wilderness from our dear and native land ... in honor 

250 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

and love of our dear and native country, we called this place Taun- 
ton. Signed by James Walker, John Richmond, Thomas Leonard, 
Joseph Wilbore, John Hall, Richard Williams and Walter Deane." 
And as every schoolboy in Taunton now knows, the etymology of 
Taunton is thus— Tain Ton, Gaelic and Saxon words, meaning "the 
town on the banks of the river"; and so situated are both the mother 
town and the city in New England. And here, one of a little colony 
of towns, drifted away from the Old World, strove for the peculiar 
vantages of self-determination, with results that generations have 
been proud to own. 

# =}s >S # # 

"Provided leave can be procured from Ousamequin (Massa- 
soit) ". The phrase, as contained in an order from the Plymouth 
Court of 1643, relating to a proposed purchase of lands for Taun- 
ton, voices the considerate and just spirit of the colonial executives 
themselves, in their first relationships with the Indian holders of 
lands, however the white man may have mistreated the red man 
since that time. In the case from which the quotation is made, the 
Plymouth Court were desirous of knowing what Chief Massasoit 
thought of the matter — his sanction was sought in the dealing; for 
in those times just payments were made in land transactions, and 
large reservations of land were set aside for the Indians. It is of 
continuous record that as fast as the English settlements extended, 
the colonial government extinguished by fair purchase the Indian 
titles. And it sometimes happened that double transfers occasioned 
deeds of conveyance both from the Indians and the Colonial govern- 
ment. Thus was Tetiquet bought of the Indians by Miss Poole, and 
confirmed to her by the court. These are main facts, in spite of 
isolated cases of annulment of the natives' rights. 

Whenever we think of those hardy settlers whom we have re- 
corded in New England history as First Purchasers, it is a very 
rare thing for us to give due regard to the land values at the time 
of their purchase, particularly here in Bristol county, or to the sort 
of exchanges that were made during the purchase, or to the usages 
that were soon established to secure such exchange. We have done 
but little more than set down their names as original purchasers, 
and as those of founders of towns and ancestors of many families of 
our times. We give too little heed to the transactions themselves, 
that were performed under a provision of the General Court, to the 

251 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

effect that no group of settlers could go into the wilderness and buy- 
lands indiscriminately of the natives. That was one of the funda- 
mental dealings between civilization and the people of the wilder- 
ness. The earlier historians have quoted very nearly in full from 
scores of old deeds and agreements and colonial records, so that 
the already fully published results of their minute research need not 
be reduplicated by any successor. It is now the province of histori- 
cal publishment by no means to annul any of the results of the 
comprehensive labors of the old clerks of history; but it is prefera- 
ble, with the almost miraculous developments of nearly a half cen- 
tury awaiting introduction, to offer chiefly the vital essentials of 
the Forefathers' day. 

From this viewpoint, we may discern the course of the business- 
like acquisition of properties from the first holdings of the settlers, 
through the North and South Purchases, and the precinct and town 
establishments. It was an irreparable loss to Taunton when the fire 
of 1838 destroyed town records, among which was the deed of the 
original Cohannet, signed by Chief Massasoit, though his son Philip 
(Metacomet) made a confirmatory deed of the same March 22, 1683, 
that has been preserved; the Plymouth Colonial Eecords also hav- 
ing kept intact that report of Myles Standish and John Brown who 
in 1640 established the bounds of the Eight Mile Square, Taunton's 
original territory of sixty-four square miles, or more than 40,000 
acres; likewise the report of their boundary of Miss Poole's lands 
in Tetiquet; and again, the nearly as valuable record of the Hook 
and Street lands at Berkley — their four hundred acres of upland 
and thirty of meadow that after their departure to New Haven be- 
came the property of John Hathaway, Edward Bobbitt and Timothy 
Holloway, founders of their families here. 

Then, in later years, to verify and realize to us the bounds of 
that distant period, the late James Edward Seaver in 1892 prepared 
and published a map of that long square, wherein have been definite- 
ly set down the places where the first settlers were to be found at 
the outset of civilized life. Upon that invaluable map are to be seen 
the lines of the ancient roads and paths, and the homelots of the 
pioneers, as well as the many river landings. The plantation as 
thus set down in record and map, was bought of Ousamequin, so 
state the Plymouth Court books, but for what consideration that sec- 
tion was purchased, we know not. 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY. MASSACHUSETTS 

Yet the Eight Mile Square could not encompass within its 
limits the increasing population who were discovering values for 
themselves in the wood and river lands ; for in 1642 came the request 
from Taunton for the purchase of more wood and pasture land. The 
General Court was ready to grant the request, and "that the best 
and speediest means be used to procure their further enlargement 
on that side of the main river to answer to Mr. Hooke's and Mr. 
Streete's farms on the other side; and whereas they desire the neck 
of Assonet for pasturing young beasts, it is also granted, provided 
leave can be procured from Ousamequin." 

The colony was now continuously stretching out for the unused 
near-by lands, and but four years later, June 2, 1646, the General 
Court gave the town permission to purchase a calf pasture — the 
locally celebrated "calves pasture" near Nemasket pond. It was 
this lot, a landmark, that was conveyed to Henry Andrews, April 
11, 1647, in payment for the building of the town's first meeting- 
house. The southern boundary of the town remained undefined un- 
til 1663, when it was fixed by the General Court. The settlers had 
for some years borne in mind the fact that a strip of land two miles 
in width, known to them as the "Two Mile Strip," separated the 
Eight Mile Square from Tetiquet. Therefore, as a result of their pe- 
titions, in 1665 the General Court granted this strip to William 
Brett, Thomas Haward, senior, Arthur Harris, Richard Williams, 
John Willis and John Carey, "to each of them three score acres of 
land lying betwixt the lands of Taunton and Tetiquet." The centre 
of the Taunton that was to be was now defined by the lands con- 
tained within these boundaries named. To the north and to the 
south, other Europeans were entering and making their homes — 
"purchased of the Indians" being the frequently recurring phrase 
in all records and agreements of the time. And there the final exten- 
sive purchases of territory of the mother town were to be made, 
which territory, so joined onto the nucleus, would one day peace- 
fully secede for the establishment of yet other townships. 

The northwest corner of the Plymouth Patent, still remaining 
under Indian ownership, was purchased of Alexander (Wamsutta) 
son of Massasoit, in 1661, by Captain Thomas Willett, enterprising 
settler, and later the first English mayor of New York. This pur- 
chase was made in all likelihood at the suggestion of the General 
Court, who placed it in the hands of a committee — Thomas Prence, 

253 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Major Josias Winslow, Thomas Southworth, and Mr. Constant 
Southworth, to dispose of it for the colonies' use. Part of this 
newly acquired property became what is known as the Rehoboth 
North Purchase, the remainder, fifty square miles, being still in the 
Colony's possession, and bounded by the Massachusetts Patent on 
the north, Bridgewater on the east, Taunton on the south, and 
Rehoboth North Purchase on the west, Taunton's north corner, 
known as Cobbler's Corner, projecting at the south. It again ap- 
peared to be Taunton's opportunity to come into new possessions; 
thereupon, June 6, 1668, a deed was granted to fifty-two purchasers. 
The men of early time were buying lands not as they buy them in the 
west of our day, with some large outlook for fortune-making; but 
chiefly to establish a home site, and to till lands and to live the sim- 
ple life of the pioneer, separated by an ocean from native land. 

Thus the North Purchase was joined onto Taunton — an area 
containing 32,000 acres, and £100 being the price that was paid. In 
the deed there soon were made those lesser changes, when the name 
of George Shove was inserted with the others, and the two parcels 
of John Bundy and Thomas Briggs were excepted from the sale. 
Complications presenting themselves that were soon solved, were 
contained in such cases as these : One claim of ownership was raised 
through Josias, Peter and David Hunter, Tetiquet Indians, who 
for the consideration of a little over £3 gave a quit-claim deed. In 
1689, again, Major William Bradford put in a claim for Taunton 
territory, and once more satisfaction was obtained by a quit-claim 
deed. From such sources, the Taunton North Purchase came into 
possession of both English and Indian titles. 

The South Purchase along the meadowlands of the river, south, 
was attracting settlers, also. This noteworthy purchase required 
several town votes before James Walker and John Richmond could 
be empowered to "purchase the land of the Indians in the behalf e 
of the town of Taunton, lying on the west side of Taunton river, 
from the Three Mile river down to a place called the Store House." 

Eventually, October 1, 1672, King Philip, Anawan and others 
signed the deed whereby a tract three miles long on the Great river, 
as the Tetiquet was sometimes called, and extending westerly four 
miles, beginning at the mouth of Three Mile river, came into the 
hands of Taunton colonists, the consideration being £143. On that 
day, also, King Philip, upon receipt of £47 conveyed to Constant 

2 54 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Southworth, Assistant at the General Court, another strip on the 
south of the first tract, one mile wide, on the Great river, and extend- 
ing four miles westerly from the river, Southworth immediately 
assigning this deed to the committee of the first deed. Both deeds 
were paid for to the extent of £190. 

Again, on September 27, 1672, Constant Southworth assigned 
a prior mortgage on the whole (from Philip and the colony) to Wil- 
liam Harvey and John Kichmond, in behalf of the town, for the sum 
of £83. So that the South Purchase cost £273 in all. By a declara- 
tory deed of November 26, 1672, the four-mile square tract was con- 
veyed to the parties interested, eighty-seven persons being named as 
probable owners at that time; but on March 18, 1683-4, another 
declaratory deed was made to but seventy-seven of that list, as it is 
likely entire compliance was not made with the conditions in the 
deed. 

Up to this time the natives, from whom all the Taunton pur- 
chases had been made, with or without a confirmatory deed from the 
government, had refused to part with Assonet Neck, which is two 
miles long and less than one mile wide. But this, the first seizure 
by the colony, was taken in 1675, to pay the expenses of the Indian 
wars, its value being placed at £200. This land was added to Taun- 
ton in July, 1682, but when Dighton was incorporated in 1712, it 
was included in that town, and later on added to Berkley, in 1799. 
Another indication of earliest colonial and native dealings with local 
territory is found in Governor Thomas Hinckley's confirmatory 
deed of 1685, in which it is shown that the first purchase of Taun- 
ton's Eight Miles Square was made from Massasoit. 

Finally, two more complications with regard to this territory 
were solved, when in 1689 Major "William Bradford making some 
claim to all this territory, was paid £20, giving a deed of release and 
confirmation to John Poole and one hundred and three others. The 
other instance occurred in 1672, when a controversy over the new 
territory made between Taunton and Swansea was settled by the 
addition of a corner of Swansea known as the Two Mile Purchase, 
to a part of Dighton. Now, it will be seen that the entire set of Pur- 
chases amounted to one hundred and fifty square miles, or approxi- 
mately one hundred thousand acres. 

Confirming much that has been written with regard to the earli- 
est intention to deal honestly with the natives, is that often-quoted 

255 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

letter of John Richmond, son of the first settler in Taunton of that 
name, to Lieutenant Colonel Elisha Hutchinson and others, dated 
April 30, 1G9S, to be seen at the State Archives, Vol. 113, p. 167, 
thus: "We bought it first of Woosamequin in the year 39 or 40 
(this was in my minority) the sum paid I know not; then we bought 
all again of Philip, and paid him 16 pounds for it ; then we bought 
that very spot of Josiah, he claiming some land there, as appears by 
his deed; then we bought that spot again, with other land, of Major 
Bradford, and he had 20 pounds more." 

After the division of lands, from the first possession of the 
home lot to the complete distribution of the whole territory many 
years after the first settlement, the North and South Purchases 
steadily increased as to their population, and the demand arose for 
the setting off of portions of the settlement into precincts. The 
first of such petitions was from the North Purchase and a part of 
Old Taunton township, dated November 2, 1707, and signed by forty- 
three townsmen, who asked for a minister to become settled among 
them. There were remonstrants who desired a township rather than 
a precinct, and the controversy, as it progressed, became a very 
warm one. But on June 12, 1711, the bill was passed for raising the 
new town of Norton, though but two years previously the prospect 
of a precinct was by far the more encouraging one. In the mean- 
time, similar demands for a precinct were made by settlers in the 
South Purchase "by reason of the remoteness from the meeting- 
house," and thereupon the precinct was established, September 16, 
1709, though the town Dighton soon after petitioned for was raised 
May 30, 1712. 

From that time onwards for nearly twenty years, no more ter- 
ritorial changes took place here. But then arose petitions and coun- 
ter-petitions, the new movement resulting in the creation of the 
town of Raynham, April 1, 1731. Then Berkley asked for recogni- 
tion as a town, and the act of raising the town was passed April 18, 
1735 ; and finally in 17S9, Myricks by vote was taken from Taunton 
and added to Berkley. In this way, and for reasons of "remoteness 
from the meetinghouse" and the centre — though there were local 
industrial reasons, too, the iron forges and the grist and other mills 
sharing in the later groupings of the interests of population— the 
new towns withdrew from the mother town. Economical and in- 
dustrial, and, according to the statements in the petitions, religious 

256 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

forces, had performed their distributive tasks. Territorially, the 
region was getting ready to welcome the newcomer, the new era, and 
the expanding town and city of Taunton. 

****** 

The insistence of the leading importance of present-day events 
and people in these volumes is undeniable. The story of our own 
day and its directing forces and the individuals that control them is 
the intimate narrative of our generation, verifying to us the issues 
of our remarkable times. But there was also a day of the First 
Comers, that even at this hour is a continuous portion of history, 
and cannot be annulled. No one appreciates this more than the New 
Englander and the thousands of descendants of the first New Eng- 
enders. The founders who ventured into the wilderness, — the 
sturdy, hard-working yeomen, with their faults and frailties, too, 
— let them have place in our vision. 

Though Elizabeth Poole did not buy "Taunton," as the popular 
account sometimes has it, but only a small portion of the eastern 
borders of the then unoccupied territory — it is the brief narrative 
of her coming here that shall always remain like a star in the crown 
of the beginnings of the city. We have been told of her arrival from 
England to Tetiquet by way of Dorchester, and how she actively in- 
terested herself in even' fundamental project of the busy settle- 
ment. Were she living today, every cause of civic, religious and in- 
dustrial advancement would at least have her approval. 

To all appearances, her brother, Captain William Poole, came 
here when his sister did ; but though they both went to Dorchester 
first, he is not mentioned here as of 1637, the year of Elizabeth's 
arrival. Whatever the reasons of the latter may have been for set- 
tling at Tetiquet, it is evident from all other accounts as well as 
from the wording of her will, that she was a Puritan woman of 
piety, with inbred reverence for the religious life and the means to 
religion. She was interested in establishing a church here, accord- 
ing to her teaching and light, and with William Hooke and Nicholas 
Street, Oxford University graduates, she did begin that church. It 
is plain, too, that here she was accorded equality of rights, whether 
in the purchase of lands, in the sharing of iron works holdings, or in 
the establishment of religious interests. 

Taunton military men of today may salute the memory of the 

257 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

first of their local captains — William Poole. As soon as there were 
men enough here to form a military company, and that was only 
two years after it is recorded that the town was settled, Captain 
Poole, brother of Elizabeth Poole, was appointed by the General 
Court the captain, and ordered to exercise the inhabitants in their 
arms. He may be said to have been the Myles Standish of the vil- 
lage; and both in 1646 and 1658 he was chosen a member of the 
Colony Council of War. He lived to be more than eighty years of 
age, but years before he died he Avent back to Dorchester to reside, 
and while there he was not only the town's schoolmaster, but also 
clerk of writs and registrar of the vital records of the town for 
about ten years. He was a "revered, pious man of God," remark 
the Dorchester records. He had three sons and two daughters, born 
in Taunton, namely — John, Nathaniel, and Timothy, and Mary and 
Bethesda. Timothy met his death by drowning, and John went into 
business in Boston ; and it was through him that his aunt Elizabeth's 
property came to the Borland family, from whom it was confiscated 
at the time of the Revolution. John married Elizabeth, a daughter 
of William Brenton, who lived in Taunton many years, and from 
whom the famed Haliburton family of Nova Scotia claim descent. 

Go where one may, in any of the old towns and cities of New 
England, and there will be found in vogue the "prevailing names," 
handed down for seven or eight generations, like the Lincolns of 
Hingham and the Newhalls and the Breeds of Lynn, and "their 
lines have gone out into all the world," also. Many names of origi- 
nal settlers survive in Taunton today, but none quite to the extent 
of those of Williams and Dean and Hall. Genealogists of recent 
years have produced a vast amount of information from their re- 
searches concerning the Taunton branches of the families of those 
names, and inquiries have been incessant from all over the country 
with regard to Colonial and Revolutionary lines. In the course of 
his voluminous writings, the late Judge Josiah H. Drummond, of 
Portland, Maine, registered the names of more than twelve hundred 
descendants of Richard Williams, for example. 

Richard Williams' descendants for nearly three hundred years 
have held places of trust and honor in city, county and State. He 
is generally mentioned among the first of the Taunton settlers be- 
cause of the fact that he was an energetic pioneer who took the lead 
in many important matters of town building ; he was a typical first 

258 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

settler, a man devoted to all the best interests of the new town. He 
came originally from a family of Glamorganshire in Wales, and 
married Frances Dighton, a sister of Catherine Dighton, the wife of 
Governor Thomas Dudley, of the Bay Colony. He was a descendant 
in the same family as that of Oliver Cromwell, the Protector, who 
sometimes signed himself Oliver Cromwell, alias Williams; but he 
was not related, as some have supposed, to Roger Williams, founder 
of Providence, Rhode Island. 

Richard Williams, upon his coming here, bought the house and 
lot of Henry Uxley, the latter leaving no trace of his presence other 
than that record. Richard Williams was a deputy to the General 
Court in 1643, and he served thirteen years in that capacity; he was 
selectman 1665-1677, and for many years he was deacon of the 
church. His home lot on Dean street is still pointed out, and there 
he died in 1693, at the age of 87 years, though his wife, who out- 
lived him, died in 1706, at the age of 96 years. Although he could 
neither see nor hear, he announced when he attended "meeting" in 
his last years, that it was "comforting and helpful to be with the 
people of God in their worship." 

It seems that John and Walter Deane, brothers, had more to do 
with the naming of Taunton than any other, they having originated 
at Taunton Dean, in England. Thousands of the name are descend- 
ants of these worthy brothers, in city, State and Nation; and geneal- 
ogists have compiled a number of records relating to their respec- 
tive families. Both men were of that sturdy type fitted to subdue 
the wilderness. Their home lots at the Hartshorn and Newbury es- 
tates on Dean street are still pointed out. 

John Deane was one of the first seven freemen of Cohannct ; he 
was also constable in 1640 and 1654, surveyor of highways in 1640, 
and selectman in 1657. Walter Deane was a younger brother of 
John. He was a deputy to the General Court in 1640, and a select- 
man from 1666 to 16S6. He married Elinor, a daughter of Thomas 
Coggan, and not a daughter of John Strong, as had for years been 
stated. Descendants of both John and Walter Deane are prominent 
in all the affairs of the city today. 

One of the near-by neighbors of the Deane family at the outset 
was John Strong, who was appointed the first constable of the town, 
in 1638. Caleb Strong, governor of Massachusetts from 1800 to 
1807, was one of the descendants of this Taunton first settler. 

259 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Whenever we speak of George Hall today, we invariably asso- 
ciate the name with the first live and extensive business of the 
town. He was first clerk of the iron works established by James 
Leonard and his associates, and town and city owe much to his acu- 
men and enterprise. The genealogist has traced his descendants by 
hundreds to this hour, and they are among the leaders in the pro- 
fessions in commonwealth and city. George Hall was a constable, a 
selectman, and a large landowner on Dean street. 

Burt is another of those names of well-merited perpetuation, 
that was introduced here by Richard Burt, — father and son; and 
later by James Burt, senior. Richard, junior, took the oath of fidel- 
ity in 1G57. Both he and his Uncle James lived at Weir Village, — 
"the Ware," as they called it. The genealogists have thoroughly 
canvassed the lines of this ancestry. 

John Grossman was not a notably prominent first settler; but 
his descendants through his industrious son, Robert, are very num- 
erous. The Crossman house, built by a son of Robert, and known 
to have been in use in 1700, and kept as an limiti Revolutionary 
times, still stands on Cohannet street. 

Genealogy is well-equipped, too, with the concerns of the Rich- 
mond family, — John Richmond and his son John having been first 
settlers and large owners in the section still known as Richmond- 
town. The same may be said of Henry Andrews, the family lines 
having been notably well traced. Yet Henry Andrews was foremost 
in all things— a live deputy and committee-man, and so capable a 
builder of the first little meeting-house here in 1647, that he was 
granted a large section of land known as "Calves' pasture," still 
pointed out beyond his ancient home site. The Paulls, too, are very 
many in descent from Richard Paull, who married Margery Turner 
in 163S, — the first of Cohannet marriages. 

If Y\ T illiam Harvey were living here today, he might be eligible 
for any office of trust — he was constable, surveyor, deputy and se- 
lectman, and he was often deputy and selectman the same year. He 
lived not far from the Taunton Gazette building; and it was at his 
house that the conference for the sale of Taunton North Purchase 
took place in 16GS, at a meeting of Governor Prence, Major Josias 
Winslow, Captain Thomas Southworth, and Constant Southworth — 
an eventful affair of the period. 

260 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

Many here and elsewhere are descendants from "William Phil- 
lips, a militia-man, surveyor and landowner. Hezekiah Hoar, first 
proprietor, constable and surveyor, was one of the leaders on the 
ironworks enterprise. William Holloway was a first settler; and 
though he removed to Boston, his sons remained, and preserved the 
name here. 

An exemplary pioneer, soldier and officer, was George Macey, 
lieutenant of the Taunton company through the Indian wars. Wil- 
liam Parker is recalled as the town's first "Keeper of Eecords," and 
he was authorized to take oaths and to marry. John Parker, his 
younger brother, was at one time a deputy to the General Court. 
Little is known of the first settlers who bore the names of Henry 
Uxley, Joseph W T ilson, Benjamin Wilson, William Coy, John Smith, 
Richard Smith, John Drake, Robert Hobell, David Corwithy, John 
Luther, Hugh Rossiter, John Kingsley, Thomas Farwell, John 
Briantj or William Scaddings — though the name of the latter is per- 
petuated in that of the Scaddings pond and meadows. 

"Pondsbrooke" in Berkley is still pointed out as the home of 
John Gilbert. Late in life he emigrated to England, and Thomas 
Gilbert, his eldest son, followed him. Edward Case, one of the first 
freemen here in 1637, had lands on Caswell street, that were after- 
. wards sold to Samuel Wilbore, town clerk, later to the Caswell fam- 
ily, from whom were descended President Caswell of Brown Uni- 
versity and President Angell of Yale. John Brown was prominent 
in the affairs both of colony and town; in Plymouth he was one of 
the governor's assistants, and he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies, on the part of Plymouth colony, in 
1644. He became an original settler and proprietor in Taunton as 
well as in Rehoboth; and his son-in-law was Captain Thomas Wil- 
lett, the first English mayor of New York. 

William Hailstone was the only one of his name here. William 
Dunn, sea-captain, was an original purchaser, and he brought Wil- 
liam Witherell, first settler within the bounds of Norton, and from 
whom leading business men hereabouts have descended. The "wid- 
ow Randall" was one of the first purchasers in the eastern section 
of the settlement. Thomas Cooke and his son Thomas were recorded 
as subject to military duty in 16-13. John Gingell was among the 
first to take the oath of fidelity. Francis Doughty was a first set- 
tler, and an opponent to the first church gathering here. Dis- 

261 



BEGINNINGS OF BRISTOL COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS 

gruntl-ed and mischief -making, he soon afterwards left the settle- 
ment. 

Rev. William Hooke and Rev. Nicholas Street were the first 
ministers in succession. Jointly, they were granted a tract of four 
hundred acres of upland and thirty acres of meadow in Berkley, 
which farm eventually went into the hands of John Hathaway, Ed- 
ward Bobbitt, and Timothy Hathaway, the tract still being known 
as "The Farms." 

Anthony Slocum, surveyor of highways here, later removed to 
Dartmouth, and became one of that town's first settlers, as well. 
Edward Bobbitt was first of the Bobbitt-Babbitt clan in this section, 
and he was first to lose his life in King Philip's War in 1675, in Taun- 
ton. Captain John Gallop was not only a first comer in Taunton, 
but also a professional pilot in Boston harbor, and Gallop's Island 
in that harbor was named for him. He was killed in the Narragan- 
sett Swamp fight. 

One of the most thorough and comprehensive genealogies that 
have been written is that of the Hodges family, tracing descent from 
William Hodges, who owned much land here, and whose descend- 
ants, owning property on High and Tremont streets, have been lead- 
ers in affairs of village and town. 

Of Thomas Lincoln, James Leonard, James Walker and John 
Turner, there is much to be said industrially and otherwise. John 
Macomber was a surveyor in 1670. Oliver Purchase was a first set- 
tler and town clerk. John Tisdale was founder of a large family of 
descendants. James Wyatt was constable and surveyor. Later ar- 
rived the progenitors of the Kings, the Reeds, the Harts, and many 
others who have added to the advancement of the town and city's in- 
terests. 






262 



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WASHINGTON MEMORIAL CHAPEL 




Valley Forge— -Its Park and Memorials 

By Will L. Clare, Woodbine, Iowa. 

NE CAN hardly avoid traveling over sacred ground in 
passing through Montgomery county, Pennsylvania. 
Nearly everywhere one turns, his eye falls upon some 
iSJ association with the Revolution, apart from the preemi- 
nent one of all America, that of Valley Forge. Yet it is to be re- 
gretted that these historic spots have, as a rule, not been sufficiently 
appreciated by the neighboring citizens to move them to place prop- 
er "markers" of wood, stone or bronze to inform the passer-by that 
he is traveling over historical, almost sacred, ground. 

But it is of Valley Forge that we write at this time, and which is 
a gratifying exception to what is written above. 

Cornwallis remarked at Yorktown to Washington: "Sir, your 
greatest victory was not at Yorktown, but at Valley Forge. ' ' Then 
no wonder the residents in and surrounding this spot should take 
on a just pride and delight themselves by showing to the stranger 
the sights at hand, and pointing to the everlasting hills and majes- 
tic windings of the Schuylkill, on whose charming scenes the eyes of 
Washington rested in "the times that tried men's souls"— 1777-78 
—when the destiny of a new-born nation was being determined. 

Valley Forge Park is the direct result of the untiring work of 
the Valley Forge Park Commission appointed by the General As- 
sembly of the State of Pennsylvania in June, 1S93, and providing 
"for the acquisition by the State of certain ground at Valley Forge 
for a park." What was styled the Valley Forge Monument Asso- 
ciation began its work in 1882, and men like George W. Childs be- 
came its charter members. Congress was appealed to for aid, but 
nothing was accomplished through such effort. Then appeal was 
made to Pennsylvania to throw out its protecting arm around the 
sacred spots about "Washington's Headquarters at this point. At 



Xote — This article treats on General Washington's occupancy of Valley Forge 
and its environs, in Montgomery and Chester counties, Pennsylvania, including the pres- 
ent State Park and Memorials. 

263 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

first it was asked that a befitting monument like that at Bunker 
Hill, or the Washington Monument in the National Capital, should 
be erected by the Commonwealth. Fortunately, a better judgment 
prevailed, and the idea of preserving the entire grounds containing 
fifteen hundred acres was developed, and the hill making an ap- 
propriation for such purchase was passed in 1S93. There is ever 
some courageous, far-sighted person who has to do with the begin- 
nings of all great accomplishments, of all meritorious institutions. 
Such was the case here. Just who this person might have been, it is 
certain that as early as 1842 (so said the late Governor Penny- 
packer), Dr. Isaac Anderson Penhypacker wrote in behalf of the 
preservation of this encampment, and in 1S45 suggested the erection 
of a suitable monument on Mount Joy. To this end came the great 
Daniel Webster, William H. Seward, Neal Dow, and others, to Val- 
ley Forge. But enthusiasm soon died out with the greater interests 
of a Nation that was destined soon to be baptized in the blood of her 
own people before true liberty and freedom could be vouchsafed. 

The first act passed as above stated, in 1893, provided $25,000 
for the purpose of the Conmiission, and in 1S9'5 the sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars was appropriated. Pennsylvania has now expended 
several hundred thousand dollars in purchasing the lands, and the 
building of excellent paved roads, etc. But prior to all of these ef- 
forts was the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of ;he 
evacuation of Valley Forge. To bring about this centennial ob- 
servance a society was organized, known as "The Centennial and 
Memorial Association of Valley Forge," of which Mrs. Anna M. 
Tlolstein was elected regent. Subscriptions and the sale of mem- 
bership tickets to the Association were carried on successfully, until 
the old stone headquarters house of Washington and an acre and 
one-half of land surrounding it, had been secured at an expense of 
$6 000, one-half being on credit and secured by a mortgage. Later 
the Association found it impossible to pay the interest on this mort- 
gage, and an appeal was made to the Patriotic Sons of America in its 
convention at Norristown in 1885. Six months later, this worthy 
order had paid off the interest and principal and received thirty-six 
hundred shares of stock, which gave it a voice in the management 
of affairs at Valley Forge. In 1S87 the State provided $5,000 to 
further the work of improvement, and in 1SS7 the building was re- 
stored to its original condition. Additional lands were purchased in 

264 












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VALLEY FORGE— MASSACHUSETTS MONUMENT, NATIONAL ARCH. 
FORT WASHINGTON' AND CONTINENTAL ARMY HUT 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

1889 and in 1904. A small fee had always been charged to visit 
the "Headquarters Building," that line stone structure, but in 1904 
the Park Commission suggested that the State take over the prop- 
erty, and in August, 1905, it became so possessed. The amount paid 
the Association by Pennsylvania was $18,000, which the courts held 
must be forever held in trust by the Association and not be divided 
or alienated. 

Since the State took possession of this immense natural park, 
with its numerous buildings, vast improvements have been effected. 
But so great have become the interests centering around this na- 
tional shrine, that outsiders are desirous of having a part in the mak- 
ing more beautiful and perfect this spot, visited annually by tens 
of thousands of people from both our own and foreign lands. Just 
at this time (1923) a chime of thirteen bells, one for each Colony, is 
being placed at Valley Forge. The first bell was donated by the 
Massachusetts Society of the Daughters of the Kevolution, and is 
named "Paul Severe ". The great tenor bell, weighing over one 
ton and a half, will be given by the Pennsylvania Daughters of the 
American Eevolution. The New Jersey Society will soon have the 
fund raised for their bell. The Colonial Dames of Delaware will 
furnish one bell for their State. New York will have one of the 
heaviest bells in the chime, at a cost of five thousand dollars. Each 
bell will be endowed, so that a ringer will be present every day of 
the year, and every hour will be marked by a patriotic air. The na- 
tional anthem will be played each day at sunset. 

The Valley Forge Park Commission recently endorsed and ap- 
proved the plan of building an historic shrine at Valley Forge, in 
honor of the heroes who fell in the late World War, and the project 
is being forwarded by the American Legion, TV"ar Mothers, and oth- 
er patriotic societies. It is to be a memorial of rare size and exqui- 
site beauty. Such buildings are much more practical and truly use- 
ful than the old-fashioned monuments of marble and granite. With 
the completion of the above chime of bells and this Victory Hall, 
the improvements around a spot almost neglected and forgotten by 
the average American up to thirty years ago, will indeed be a credit 
to Pennsylvania, Montgomery county, and the location so long 
known as Valley Forge. 

Upon the occasion of the services held on Evacuation Day in 
1904, at Valley Forge, President Eoosevelt said : "If the men of '61 

265 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

had failed in the great struggle for national unity, it would have 
meant that the work done by Washington and his associates might 
almost or quite as well had been left undone. There would have 
been no point in commemorating what was done at Valley Forge if 
Gettysburg had not given us the national right to commemorate it." 

As one visits Valley Forge, his eye will be greeted, as he passes 
over the thousand of acres within the State Park and its surround- 
ing lands, by many an interesting and truly historical object, nearly 
all of which have been provided within this present generation. 
Among these may be named: Washington's Headquarters, the fine 
old stone residence given over to the "Father of His Country," by 
the pioneer settler Potts during that long memorable winter of 
1777-78; the Earthworks; the Washington Memorial Chapel, an 
Episcopal church of rare and costly design, which is open daily 
from eight in the morning to six in the evening, and which has been 
made possible only through the untiring zeal and natural ability of 
the present rector, Eev. W. Herbert Burk, D. D., who is also presi- 
dent of the Valley Forge Historical Society ; the Cloister of the Col- 
onies; the Valley Forge Museum of American History; the Soldiers' 
Hut; the Old Camp School; the Waterman Monument; the Wayne 
Monument; the Muhlenberg Monument; the Delaware Marker; the 
Maine Marker; the Massachusetts Monument; the Xew Jersey Mon- 
ument; the Pennsylvania Columns; the Monument to the Unknown 
Dead; the Brigade Hospital; (reproduction) ; the Headquarters of 
Commanding Officers (no admission) ; the view from the Observa- 
tory on Mount Joy; the Defenders' Gate, near the Chapel and Mu- 
seum. 

But the most interesting object of interest to the thoughtful vis- 
itor is the original field tent General Washington used as his head- 
quarters the first week he spent upon the exposed hillsides at this 
point, before Mr. Potts took pity upon him and gave him quarters 
in the now historic stone house, the first building one sees after 
alighting from the railway train when entering the little hamlet of 
Valley Forge. To look upon the real canvas tent which the Great 
Commander used as his sleeping place and general headquarters, 
rivets the attention upon its every thread and fold, as it is seen in 
the Museum, in the last place where one would think to find so valu- 
able a relic. It was secured by Dr. Burt from its owner, Miss Mary 
Custis Lee, the daughter of Mrs. Robert E. Lee, wife of the great 

266 




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VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

Confederate commander, first on an option for its purchase at five 
thousand dollars, and on August 19, 1909, the first payment was 
made, amounting to five hundred dollars. The remaining forty-five 
hundred dollars was to be paid with money procured from exhibition 
of the tent, and the money to go to the support of the Old Confeder- 
ate Women's Home at Richmond, Virginia, of which Miss Lee was 
president. This tent is in fine condition, about eight by fifteen feet in 
size, and high enough to walk under easily. The "Washington Me- 
morial Library now contains about fourteen thousand volumes, 
awaiting a proper home for safekeeping and use. 

The Valley Forge Historical Society was organized by the Rev. 
W. Herbert Burk, D. D., June 19, 1918, to collect and preserve docu- 
ments and relics relating to Valley Forge and the history of the 
United States of America, and other objects. But, as has been well 
said by another, "the exhibition of the character of Washington is 
the crowning glory of Valley Forge." 

The latest achievement of Mrs. Griffith of Philadelphia, a noted 
artist and sculptor, is a remarkable portrait in bronze of Rev. W. 
Herbert Burk, D. D., founder of the Washington Memorial Chapel. 
Dr. Burk is shown wearing his academic gown and doctor of divinity 
hood. The artist has given her creation a touch of real life. The 
Daughters of the Empire (an English society of Philadelphia), 
made up of women of British origin, presented this portrait to the 
Valley Forge Historical Society, in appreciation of Dr. Burk's re- 
markable work for the American people. 

The village of Valley Forge is situated on the south bank of the 
beautiful Schuylkill river, at the mouth of East Valley creek, which 
for nearly a mile forms the boundary line between the counties of 
Montgomery and Chester. It is six miles above Norristown, and 
twenty-three miles from Philadelphia. That portion of the village 
"within Montgomery county and Upper Merion township, forty years 
ago was credited with having a general store, a grist mill, a paper- 
mill, and ten houses, including the old Potts two-story stone house, 
known as "Washington's Headquarters" to travelers of today, now 
has no commercial interests whatever, save for the dimes to be 
picked up by sellers of pictures of the historic objects throughout 
the extensive park now under State control, or providing meals and 
lodgings in the summer months only, to the "stranger within the 
gates." What is known as the Washington Inn is a large hotel 

267 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

building which at some seasons of the year does a good business. 
The attractive stone "Headquarters" building which pioneer Isaac 
Potts, the iron founder of Revolutionary days, invited Washington 
to occupy so long as his army was stationed thereabouts, will never 
cease to be of interest to student and traveler from whatever clime 
they may come. This house is under the daily watch-care of a man 
regularly engaged to look after the premises and guide visitors 
around and through the historic building, now containing numerous 
Washington real relics. The Philadelphia & Reading Railway 
Company a few years ago erected one of the neatest stations at this 
point along its line. Its double tracked storm-sheds are supported 
by more than one hundred fluted colonial colums, which are all the 
more attractive for the reason that the road at this point is around a 
sharp curve, thus giving the platform and columns a semi-circular 
appearance. 

The real business transacted at what is called Valley Forge, is 
on the opposite side of the creek that divides the two counties, hence 
is within Chester county, and not Montgomery. Where once stood 
the old "Valley Forge" (the iron works) is now seen a simple iron 
post with a metalic sign-board telling the passer-by that the post is 
to indicate where the iron-works once stood. This refers to the re- 
built iron-works, for the British soldiers destroyed the first iron- 
works of the locality. 

Bean's "History of Montgomery County," has the following on 
Valley Forge and its name : 

"The name of this place was derived from a forge erected here 
by Isaac Potts, a son of John Potts, the founder of Pottstown. How 
early this forge was erected, we cannot say; but it must have been 
before 1759, for it is noted on Nicholas Scull's map of the Province, 
published in the same year, as being on the Upper Merion side of 
the stream, which is confirmed on William Scull's map of 1770. On 
September 19, 1777, a detachment of the British army encamped 
here, and burned the mansion house of Colonel Dewees and the iron 
works, leaving the grist mill uninjured. From all that history and 
tradition can show in this matter of where the 'forge' actually did 
stand, it is now generally believed that it was on the Montgomery 
side, and not on the west side of East Valley creek, as some have 
hitherto asserted. Another proof is that Isaac Potts was in Upper 
Merion, as well as the iron ore obtained near by, that necessarily, 
for convenience, the forge would also be on the same side." 

268 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

Valley Forge being - within Upper Merion civil township, of 
Montgomery county, naturally much Revolutionary war history is 
attached thereto. On December 11, 1778, Washington with his 
army left Whitemarsh township, and on the afternoon of the 13th 
crossed at Swede's Ford and proceeded towards the Gulf and the 
vicinity of King of Prussia, and remained there until the 19th, when 
Valley Forge was reached, where the troops were destined to re- 
main until the following June 18th, exactly six months. Owing to 
the lateness of the season, the men at once set about building huts 
to shelter them from the rigors of winter. General Porter, who had 
been stationed at the Gulf in November, now marched towards 
Swede's Ford and joined AVashington's army, when a court martial 
was held to try such men as threw away their arms and equipment 
for the purpose of facilitating their escape in the late attack made 
at the Gulf by the British from the city. A number were sentenced 
to be publicly whipped, which was carried into effect, and produced 
not a little excitement in the camp. Although at some distance from 
Philadelphia, the citizens suffered considerably from the marauding 
expeditions of the British army. 

Historian William J. Buck states that Norristown came in for 
its share of Revolutionary war history, and among other things has 
the following: 

"Only two days after the defeat of Washington at Brandywine, 
he dispatched General Armstrong, with a portion of the militia, 
along the Schuylkill to throw up redoubts at the different fords 
which were to be occupied that in case the enemy should attempt to 
cross they might be opposed. At that time the principal place for 
crossing was at Swede's Ford, and on this account it was expected 
that they might pass there, and for this reason, under the direction 
of Chevalier Du Portail, an engineer formerly in the French army, 
Armstrong's men threw up entrenchmeiits and breastworks oppo- 
site that place, and now in the borough, and it is said that they were 
scarcely completed before the British made their appearance on the 
other side, but in consequence changed their line of march toward 
Valley Forge. Remains of these works were still visible in 1813. 

While Washington was near Pottsgrove, the enemy crossed the 
Schuylkill at Fatland Ford, five and a half miles above Norristown, 
on the night of September 22, 1777, and proceeded leisurely on their 
march to the city. On the 23rd a portion of their army was over 
night in or near the present borough of Norristown, on which occa- 
sion they set fire to and burned down nearly all the buildings in the 

269 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

place. So great was the damage done that on a valuation being 
made, the State allowed to Colonel Bull for his loss 2,080 pounds ; to 
the University 1,000 pounds ; to Hannah Thompson, 870 pounds, and 
to William Dewees 329 pounds, — the whole equivalent to $11,240 of 
our present money." 

Upper Dublin township, Montgomery county, contains some 
landmarks of the great Revolutionary struggle, in way of the large 
stone building used by General Washington as his headquarters 
from October to well into December, when he removed his army to 
Valley Forge. This stone farm-house stands on the south side of 
Camp Hill, only a few yards from the Spring-field township line. In 
the early part of the nineteenth century it belonged to Caleb Emlin, 
but in 1810 it passed into other hands, the farm being subdivided in- 
to smaller tracts. The last known of its ownership to the author, 
was when it was in the hands of Charles T. Aimen, who was then 
still preserving it perfectly as a landmark of those long ago days. 
It is a stone structure thirty-five by seventy-five feet, and two sto- 
ries high. The steps at the front are of the finest quality of soap- 
stone, neatly wrought. The general appearance of the entire build- 
ing shows it to have been a well planned and finely executed edifice 
for the day in which it was erected. While Washington was here, 
the army was camped on the hill to the north of the mansion, which 
was certainly a strong military position. On the night of Decem- 
ber 5, 1777, General Howe came hither from Philadelphia, by way of 
Chestnut Hill, with a view of surprising the camp ; but on seeing the 
position, and unable to draw out the American army, he returned 
by way of Abington and Jenkintown, counting his attempt a dismal 
failure. 

Washington had numerous headquarters within this county, as 
well as that at Valley Forge. There is still standing today a fine old 
style, well preserved, solid stone, two-story farm house, known as 
"Washington's Headquarters," October, 1777. It stands between 
the Skippack and Morris roads, six miles from Norristown, and 
about one mile out of the present borough of Ambler Station., It 
has been well preserved in every detail, and now looks as though 
built but a decade or so ago. For many years it was the property 
of Saunders Lewis. 

Pottstown also comes in for her share of Revolutionary events. 
At the time of that great struggle, Pottstown was only a village 

270 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

containing one public house, one or two mills, at least one house of 
worship, and probably twenty dwellings. The battle of Brandy- 
wine was fought September 11, 1777, and resulted disastrously to 
the Americans. The next day Washington and his army proceeded 
to Germantown, and after resting and refreshing the men one day, 
returned over the Schuylkill with the intention of giving battle to 
General Howe. Near the Warren Tavern they met, but owing to a 
severe storm and heavy fall of rain a general engagement was pre- 
vented. The British then moved to Swede's Ford, but beholding 
the entrenchments thrown up there on the opposite side to dispute 
the passage, proceeded up the Schuylkill to the vicinity of Valley 
Forge, which led Washington to believe that their object was to 
capture the military stores that had been collected at Reading. This 
now induced him to cross to the other side of the river on the 19th, 
at Parker's Ford, five miles below Pottstown. There the American 
army went into camp and remained until the 26th, for Washington's 
report states "Here we lay until the 26th, on which day we marched 
downwards as far as Pennypacker 's Mills. While we lay near Potts- 
grove the enemy crossed the river." 

From General Muhlenberg's orderly-book it is learned that the 
army did not arrive near Pottsgrove until the evening of Septem- 
ber 22d. On this day orders were given to the "the clothier-general 
immediately to distribute all the clothing and shoes in his posses- 
sion." The result of this was that Washington, in a letter to Con- 
gress, dated "Camp near Pottsgrove, September 23d," states that 
he had "early in the morning received intelligence that they had 
crossed the fords below. Why I did not follow immediately, I have 
mentioned in the former part of my letter; but the strongest rea- 
son against not being able to make a forced march is the want of 
shoes. Messrs. Carroll, Chase and Penn, who were some days with 
the army, can inform Congress in how deplorable a situation the 
troops are for want of that necessary article. At least one thou- 
sand men are barefooted, and have performed the marches in that 
condition." On this day general orders were issued that "each 
regiment is to proceed in making cartridges for its own use, that 
may be held in store. General Knox will furnish them with mate- 
rials. It is expected as the weather is growing cool, that the troops 
will never have less than two days provisions by them." On the 
25th a general court-martial was held for the immediate trial "of all 

271 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

persons who may be brought before them." The orders were on 
the morning of the 26th to march at nine o'clock, and that afternoon 
found them encamped on the hills of the Perkiomen, near the pres- 
ent village of Schwenksville. 

From what has now been stated, it will be observed that Wash- 
ington and his army was encamped in this vicinity from the even- 
ing of September 22d until the morning of the 26th, making all of 
three days and four nights. From Jesse Ives' relation in 1850, it 
was learned some of the soldiers while here had been quartered in 
the Friends' meeting-house. Rev. II. M. Muhlenberg, who resided 
at the Trappe, states in his journal, under date of September 23d, 
that "the main body of the American army is up in Xew Hanover, 
thirty-six miles distant from the city, as it was supposed the Brit- 
ish troops would go up the Schuylkill to Eeading. " The inference 
of this is that the main body of "Washington's army while here was 
encamped below Pottsgrove, very probably where Sprogell's run 
crosses the Philadelphia road, which would be about the distance 
mentioned from the city, and then in the township. 

Among the early fords of the Schuykill river is Swede's Ford, 
in the neighborhood of Norristown and Bridgeport. At twelve 
o'clock at night, after the battle of Brandywine (September 11, 
1777), Washington wrote a dispatch to Congress from Chester, in 
which he says, "this day's engagement resulted in our defeat." On 
the 13th he formed his headquarters at Germantown, with the de- 
termination of having another engagement before the fate of Phila- 
delphia should be decided. General Armstrong, with a portion of 
the militia, was posted along the river Schuylkill to throw up re- 
doubts at the different fords where the enemy would be the most 
likely to cross, and which were to be occasionally occupied while 
Washington moved with the main army to the other side to make 
another attack. Apprehending that it would be very likely that the 
British would attempt to cross at Swede's Ford, Chevalier DuPor- 
tail, a French engineer, constructed a number of redoubts on the 
east side of the river, upwards of half a mile in length, with the as- 
sistance of Armstrong's command. It is said that they had scarce- 
ly completed these works before the British made their a ^pearance 
on the opposite side of the river, and on beholding the defenses, 
changed their purpose and crossed at Fatland Ford. 

When Washington broke up his encampi.^xiL at Whitemarsh, 

272 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

with the intention of going into winter quarters at Valley Forge, it 
was Ms intention to cross the Schuylkill at Matson's Ford, now Con- 
shohocken, for which purpose a temporary bridge was formed; but 
on reaching there they found Lord Cornwallis was in possession of 
the Gulf Hills, when the troops were recalled, and he proceeded up 
the east side of the river. It was ascertained afterwards that the 
British troops on this occasion had only been out here on a foraging 
expedition. At Swede's Ford the army crossed December loth, 
which was witnessed by Major Iiolstein, then a boy, accompanying 
his father, who related that it was effected by making a bridge of 
wagons all backed to each other. The aforesaid date is confirmed 
by an eye witness in a letter of Colonel John Laurens, Washington's 
private secretary, to his father, from which we take an extract : 

"The army was ordered to march to Swede's Ford and encamp 
with the right to the Schuylkill. The next morning the want of pro- 
visions—I could weep tears of blood when I say it— rendered it im- 
possible to march— we did not march till the evening of that day. 
Ou^ ancient bridge, an infamous construction which in many parts 
obliged the men to march in Indian file, was restored, and a bridge 
of wagons made over Swede's Ford, but fence rails from necessity 
being substituted for plank, and furnishing a very unstable footing, 
the last served to cross a trifling number of troops. On the 19th 
instant we marched from the Gulf to this camp." 

The aforesaid is interesting, showing conclusively that Wash- 
ington crossed here at the aforesaid date, and that his army re- 
mained encamped in the vicinity until the 19th, when they reached 
Vally Forge. 

It may be of no little interest to know how Washington came to 
decide on making his ' ' winter quarters ' ' at Valley Forge. From the 
much said by historians on this subject, the writer believes the facts 
to be along the following line: Both Washington and his officers 
were satisfied that Whitemarsh, where he was located in the au- 
tumn of 1777, would not be a suitable place to remain the ensuing 
winter. The General consequently requested his general officers to 
communicate to him, in writing, their sentiments respecting the 
most eligible site for that purpose. A council of war was held on the 
30th of November, at which a wide difference of opinion prevailed 
as to the locality and the best manner of cantoning the troops. So 
various and contradictory were the opinions and councils that unan- 

273 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

imity could not be hoped for, and it was necessary for "Washington 
to act according to his own judgment and upon his own responsibil- 
ity. He decided to form an encampment at Valley Forge, where he 
might be near enough the British army to watch its movements, 
keeping its foraging parties in check, and protect the country from 
the depredations of the enemy. For this purpose the patriot army 
left Whitemarsh, Montgomery county, December 11, 1777, but did 
not arrive at Valley Forge until the 19th. Two days before, Wash- 
ington issued a proclamation to the army, in which he gave his rea- 
sons for the course he was about to pursue. It was an interesting 
document, and breathes throughout the language of devotion and 
patriotism, while at the same time it evinces the cool determination 
to conduct the war to a happy close. Owing to the great length of 
this document, only the subjoined paragraph will here be given: 

"The General ardently wishes it were now in his power to con- 
duct the troops into the best winter quarters ; but where are they to 
be found % Should we retire to the interior of the State, we should 
find them crowded with virtuous citizens, who sacrificing their all, 
have left Philadelphia and fled hither for protection ; to their dis- 
tresses humanity forbids us to add. This is not all. W r e should 
leave a vast extent of fertile country to be despoiled and ravaged by 
the enemy, from which they would draw vast supplies, and where 
many of our firm friends would be exposed to all the miseries of an 
insulting and wanton depredation. A train of evils might be enum- 
erated, but these will suffice. These considerations make it indis- 
pensably necessary for the army to take such a position as will en- 
able it to most effectually to prevent distress and give the most ex- 
tensive security; and in that position we must make ourselves the 
best shelter in our power. With alacrity and diligence, huts may be 
erected that will be warm and dry. In these the troops will be com- 
pact, more secure against surprises than if in a divided state, and at 
hand to rjrotect the country. These cogent reasons have determined 
the general to take post in the neighborhood of this camp, and, in- 
fluenced by them, he persuades himself that the officers and soldiers, 
with one heart and one mind, will resolve to surmount every diffi- 
culty with a fortitude and patience becoming their profession and 
the sacred cause in which they are engaged. He himself will share 
the hardships and partake of every inconvenience." 

It is not the intention here to enter into the details of the im- 
portant events that transpired at Valley Forge during the six 
months encampment, for that belongs rather to the Eevolutionary 

274 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

history of the county, but merely mention a few local facts outside 
of that subject. "Washington, in the latter part of the summer of 
1796, when his second term as President of the United States had 
nearly expired and he was about to return to private life, concluded 
once more to visit this place, the scene of so many toils and strug- 
gles. This information was received through Mr. Henry Woodman, 
a native of the vicinity in 1S5S, then aged sixty -three years, as ob- 
tained from his father, who at the time was engaged in plowing on 
his farm near the place of the encampment. In the afternoon he 
had observed an elderly man, of dignified appearance, on horseback, 
dressed in a plain suit of black, accompanied by a colored servant, 
ride to a place in the road nearly opposite, where he alighted from 
his horse and came into the field. He stated that he had called to 
make some enquiry concerning the owners and occupants of the 
different places about there, and also in regard to the system of 
farming practiced in that part of the country, and numerous other 
questions relating to agriculture. He also made enquiry after cer- 
tain families in the neighborhood. As answers were given, he no- 
ted them down in a book. Mr. Woodman informed him he could not 
give as correct answers as he wished, as he had only moved to the 
neighborhood since the war, though lie had been in the army while 
encamped here. This gave a new turn to the conversation. The 
stranger informed him that he had also been in the army and at the 
camp, and as he expected to leave the city in a few months, with the 
prospect of never returning, he had taken this journey to visit the 
place which had been the scene of so much suffering and distress, and 
to see how far the inhabitants had recovered from its effects. On 
learning that it was Washington, he told him that his appearance 
had so altered that he did not recognize him, or else he would have 
paid more respect to his late commander, now the chief magistrate 
of the nation. He replied, that to see the people happy and the deso- 
late fields recovering from the disasters they had experienced, and 
to meet with any of his old companions, now peaceably engaged in 
the most useful of all employments, afforded him more satisfaction 
than all the homage that could be paid to his person or station. He 
then said that pressing engagements rendered it necessary for him 
to be in the city that night, and taking him by the hand, bade him 
an affectionate farewell. 

In a journal kept by one of the prisoners taken by General 

2/5 

■ 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

Burgoyne, Captain Thomas Anbury, appears among other graphic 
descriptions of the winter at Valley Forge, the following: 

"A Loyalist at whose house I was quartered, at Valley Forge, 
and who resided here at the time "Washington's army was encamped, 
told me that when General Washington chose that spot for his win- 
ter quarters his men were obliged to build their huts with round 
logs and suffered exceedingly from the inclemency of the season. 
The greater part of them were in a manner naked at that severe 
season of the year, many without shoes and stockings, and very few 
except the Virginia troops with the necessary clothing. His army 
was wasting away with sickness, that raged with extreme mortality 
in all his different hospitals, which were no less than eleven. His 
army was likewise so diminished by constant desertions in com- 
panies, from ten to fifteen at a time, that at one period it was re- 
duced to four thousand, and those with propriety could not be called 
effective. 

' ' The horses, from being constantly exposed to showers of rain 
and falls of snow, both day and night, were in such a condition that 
many of them died, and the rest were so emaciated as to be unfit 
for labor; had he been attacked and repulsed he must have left be- 
hind all his artillery for want of horses to convey it. In addition to 
all those distresses, "Washington had not in camp at any one time, 
not a week's provisions and sometimes he was totally destitute. 
The Loyalists greatly censured General Howe in suffering Washing- 
ton to continue in this weak and dangerous state from December to 
May, and equally astonished what could be the motive he did not 
attack, surround or take by siege the whole army when the severity 
of the weather was gone. They expected that in the month of March, 
April and May they should hear of the camp being stormed or be- 
sieged, but it seems that General Howe was in exactly the same sit- 
uation as General Burgoyne respecting intelligence, obtaining none 
he could place a perfect reliance on." 

The house occupied by Washington as his headquarters is still 
standing, and was visited in the month of January, 1923, by the wri- 
ter. It was owned in time of the Revolution by Isaac Potts, proprie- 
tor of the iron forge. It is a two-story stone building, situated near 
the Reading railroad. The main portion of it has a front of about 
twenty-four feet and is thirty-three in depth. The outside is of 
dressed stone, pointed. The interior woodwork is in a good state of 
preservation, and with care this building may be made to last for 
centuries, as its walls appear as durable as when first built. Xo one 
familiar with our Revolutionarv history can enter the room that 

276 






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WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS 



VALLEY FORGE— ITS PARK AND MEMORIALS 

served the great chief for nearly half a year, both as reception and 
bed-chamber, and where he wrote many important dispatches, with- 
out feeling's of the deepest emotion. In the sill of the east window 
of this room, and out of which can be seen much of the camping 
ground, is still pointed out a small, rough box, as having contained 
his papers and writing material. We gazed at this depository and 
other objects around with much interest. Adjoining is a wing one 
and a half stories high and about twenty-four feet in length, which 
has been built since the war, but it occupies the site of a smaller 
structure that was erected for the accommodation of Mrs. Washing- 
ton. In a letter to a friend this lady remarks: "The General's 
apartment is very small; he has had a log cabin built to dine in, 
which has made our quarters much more tolerable than they were 
at first." 

This property was long owned and carefully preserved by Mrs. 
Hannah Ogden, of whom in 1878 it was purchased by the Centennial 
and Memorial Association of Valley Forge, which was especially or- 
ganized for this purpose, and it can therefore no longer be regarded 
as private property, and is now looked upon as a sacred shrine of 
the American republic. At its front stands a very tall flagpole, from 
which between sunrise and sunset beautiful "Old Glory" floats to 
the breeze every day in the year, being run up and down by the 
faithful caretaker of the premises. 

Kind American reader, don't "go abroad" until first you have 
visited Valley Forge. It is safe to state that not ten per cent, of 
our native born population have any knowledge concerning this 
sacred shrine ; many do not even know where it is situated, what it 
now consists of, or what it meant to the Eevolutionary soldiers. On 
your next outing, take in Valley Forge. 



m—^^m 



277 







Hackensack, County Seat of Bergen 
County, New Jersey 

By Frances A. "Westervelt, Curator of Bergen County His- 
torical Society. 

|p||^||HEN the Legislature, during the month of November, 
1921, passed the bill which designated Hackensack as a 
city with a commission form of government, it gave to 
the place for the first time the official name of Hacken- 
sack. Previous to this the legal name was New Barbadoes township, 
which it had borne for two hundred twenty-eight years, despite the 
fact that the community had been designated by the name of Hack- 
ensack, which was in common use. 

The whole tract of land from the Passaic river to the Hacken- 
sack river was known as "New Barbadoes," Essex county. The 
patent for these lands was granted March 26, 1668, to Nathaniel 
Kingsland, of the Island of Barbadoes. This island was discovered 
in the Sixteenth Century, and on account of its tropical forests in 
which the trees were hung with long pendants resembling a beard, it 
was given the name of Barbadoes, or the Bearded Isle. It was, how- 
ever, sometimes called Little England. 

The county of Bergen was established in 1682, and included all 
of the land between the Hudson and Hackensack rivers on the east 
and west, and the New York Province line on the north, and Newark 
bay on the south. The northern part of this strip of land on the east 
side of the Hackensack river was known by the Indian name with its 
various spellings; then "Old Hackensack," by inference to the old 
Indian site, where Oratam, the Sachem of the Achkincheshacky 
tribe of Indians, had his village. In 1693, when the township divi- 
sions were made, it was designated as the Township of Hackensack, 
the unofficial name of the locality used with the prefix Township, as 
occurred in the case of the Township of Bergen and the Township of 
New Barbadoes, the name of the homeland of the three gentlemen 
who held the first patent from the Indians for the locality— Messrs. 

278 






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THE GREEX IN 1780, AND HACKENSACK ABOUT 1820 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

Kingsland, Sanford and Berry. In 169'3 it became the legal name. 
In 1686,' when thirty-three of the inhabitants of Old Hackensack 
formed a religions organization, it was the logical procedure to give 
in the title the name of the location. In the records we find "Minutes 
of the Consistory of Ackensack. " First were written in this book 
the memoirs of Do. Petrus Tassemaker. In the year 1686 the follow- 
ing persons were elected and installed as elders and deacons of the 
congregation of Hackensack (having no church building). 

John Berry, of New Barbadoes township, county of Essex, 
learning of this condition and their anxiety to build a church build- 
ing, gave in 1696 two and three-quarter acres of land in New Bar- 
badoes township (on the Green) for a church site for the inhabitants 
of Hackensack, New Barbadoes and Acquiggenouck.* They built 
the church on the Green in the same year, and the official name was 
the Dutch Reformed Church of Ackensack, thus unknowingly be- 
stowing on the location an unofficial name that it carried two hundred 
twenty-five years before- it was righted by the vote of the people in 
November, 1921, and became the City of Hackensack. The land be- 
tween the Hackensack and Passaic rivers in 1682, from Newark bay 
to New York Province line, was titled the County of Essex, and in 
1693 the whole section was called the Township of New Barbadoes, 
and Acquiggenounk. The former township in 1709 was detached 
from Essex county and became a part of the county of Bergen, and 
also its county seat. The first court house was evidently, according 
to records, built about 1715, south of the creek, near present Hud- 
son street. The second was on the G-reen, and was enlarged several 
times and in 1780 was burned by the British. As this act had been 
feared by the authorities, their good judgment called for an act be- 
ing passed authorizing the building of a temporary gaol and court 
house at Yaupaw, and the county records to be taken by xVbraham 
Westervelt, the county clerk, to New York for safe keeping, all this 
being done before the attack was made. After the war was over, 
there was a new court house built on Bridge street, near Main. Mr. 
Westervelt went to New York and brought back the county records. 
In 1819 another court house was built on Court street, near the 
church on the Green. About 1905 the great need of a larger court 
house and jail was very evident. The following record puts some 



*In this and similar instances, the author follows the variations of orthography, as 
they appear in old documents. 

2/9 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

light on the situation: "1909, Nov. 12. Having succeeded in sur- 
mounting various obstacles in the three years' preparation for the 
building of a new court house, the Bergen County Building Com- 
mittee, composed of James M. Gulnac, chairman, Collector "Walter 
Christie and Sheriff George M. Brewster, last Saturday morning 
announced the awarding of the contract for erecting the new build- 
ing to J. T. Brady Company, of New York, at a figure of $827,672.25, 
to be built on Court street and Main." These figures could not have 
covered the full expense, according to other records as follows : 
"1910, July 8. The cornerstone of the 'New Million Dollar' Court 
House in Hackensack was laid with appropriate services on Wed- 
nesday. 1912, May 1. Prosecutor Wendal Wright moved from the 
Van Valen building to the second floor of the new court house. Many 
of the other officers were located in their new quarters also." 

There has been taken at various times from the limits of this 
original township, territory to construct other townships, and in 
1879 it was reduced to its present area, which is now included in the 
city of Hackensack, a strip of land on the west bank of the Hacken- 
sack river of about five miles in length with an average width of two 
miles, having for its northern and southern boundaries on the Hack- 
ensack river, New Bridge on the north and Little Ferry on the south, 
hence the Township of New Barbadoes became obsolete as a civil 
organization. Thus it can be readily seen that the present city of 
Hackensack can be confused with that of old Hackensack and the 
township of Hackensack, wTiick in the past have been the cause of 
many historical problems. 

The name of the location on the east side of the river in the 
colonial records has been spelled in various ways, the present ortho- 
graphy being adopted in 1685, credit being given for it to the Dutch. 
Previous to this date it was spelled Achkinckeshacky, Hackinkesh- 
haecky, Hackinghsackin, Ackinsack, and sometimes Hackquinsach 
and Hockgumdachque. The primary application of the name w T as 
to the Indian tribe and settlement or village, river and adjacent dis- 
tricts ; and, as Van Tienhoven wrote, to a certain savage chief named 
Hackquinsacy. The Rev. Thomas Campanus (Holm), who was chap- 
lain to the Swedish settlements on the Delaware, 1612-19, and who 
collected a vocabulary, wrote the name Hochung, also Hockueng, 
signifying "hook." This sound of the word may have led the Dutch 
to adopt Hackingh as an orthography, the modern Haking, i. e., 

280 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

"hooking" incurved as a hook, like the letter S. The most satisfac- 
tory interpretation of the name is suggested by the late Dr. Trum- 
bull, from Huckqua or Hocquann, a hook, and sauk, mouth of a river, 
literally hook-shaped mouth, descriptive of the course of the stream 
around Bergen Point by the Kill von Kull to the New York bay. 
The Lenapes called the place Hocquoan. 

The fertility of the land was an attraction, and the section soon 
became a great producer of vegetables for New York City. Clay was 
also to be found in abundance in the vicinity, and great brickyards 
soon dotted the land along the Hackensack river. Among the early 
residents was Abraham Ackerman, who lived in 1704 in what is now 
Esses street. In this house was found a painting of the old pioneer 
representing him ploughing in a field, on the back of which was an 
invocation in the Dutch language, the translation of which was as 
follows : 

Abraham Ackerman Born May 15, Anno Domini 1659 

O Lord, teach me to count my days and to keep death before my eyes; 
How could an Ackerman thrive if there was no sunlight, or without the stars or 
the moon ? 

The law of our forefathers is just as necessary; 

Keep the Lord before your eyes. 

Live piously, and think on the Angel of Death. 

The Demarests three years later were located on the corner of 
the Polefly road and Essex street. The records show a deed in 1708 
from Jan Berdan and his wife Eva to Paulus Van derbecker, and a 
house on this plot of land bearing the date 1717, was razed in 1921. 
On the site of the present Anderson Hall (now Van Stone building) 
in 1710 stood the house of W. A. Waldron. John Wright and his 
wife Anna's homestead, in 1723, was on the present Main street in 
front of the west side of the court house. Prior to the Revolution, in 
1751, Peter Zabriskie resided on the site of present Mansion House. 
He deeded land to the county in 1785, beginning at the public road 
leading through the town of New Barbadoes. In the latter half of 
the eighteenth century and the first part of the nineteenth century, 
Peter AYilson and his wife Catherine lived, in 1787, on Main street, 
on the present site of the building now owned by E. H. Gilbert. In 
1800 Teunis Banta resided at the corner of the present Main and 
Passaic streets. Albert Doremus lived on Main street, near Bergen 
street, and on the present site of the library the Berdans resided. On 
the corner of the present Ward and Main streets there is an old type 

281 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

of a residence that has stood for many years. In the year 1S18 the 
Van Giesons lived north of Warren street, on Main street; John J. 
Anderson resided on the corner of Main and East Passaic streets; 
John Anderson, his grandfather, had a homestead which is now a 
part of the Oratani Club House; Adam Boyd's house was on Main, 
west of Bridge street; Archibald Campbell's pre-Revolutionary site 
was where the Union League Club is now located, and the "Washing- 
ton Institute (1768) was corner of Main and Warren streets. Dr. 
Peter Wilson was the first instructor. 

At a meeting held in Hackensack in 1767, a long discussion was 
had whether Queen's (now Rutgers) College should be located in 
Hackensack or New Brunswick, and the matter going to the Legisla- 
ture, the contest was decided in favor of New Brunswick, as the 
modesty of Dr. Peter Wilson, who was a member of Assembly, would 
not permit him to cast the deciding vote for his own town. That is 
why Hackensack is not a college town. 

The only notable event that occurred during the Revolutionary 
War in what is now the city of Hackensack, was the British and 
Hessian raid on March 23, 1780. The raiding party consisted of 
about four hundred British, Hessians and refugees, commanded by 
Lieut.-Col. McPherson, of the 42nd Regiment. They passed on their 
way through Hackensack to attack some Pennsylvania troops sta- 
tioned at Paramus. They entered the lower part of the town about 
three o'clock in the morning. The town was garrisoned by a small 
company of militia, numbering twenty or thirty, who had retired 
for the night. The first half of the enemy inarched quietly through 
town, the remainder, consisting mostly of Hessians, broke open 
doors and windows, robbed and plundered, and took a few prisoners, 
among whom was Archibald Campbell, who in the confusion escaped 
and hid in the cellar of a house. The Hessians destroyed two dwell- 
ings, Adam Boyd's and John Chappie's, also the court house sit- 
uated on the Green, the tavern of Archibald Campbell being saved 
by the family throwing water over the roof. By this time the militia 
was aroused and alarmed the troops at Paramus, and when the 
enemy arrived at Red Mills (now Areola), four miles from Hack- 
ensack, the Americans w r ere on their way to meet them. Disap- 
pointed in not surprising the Americans, the enemy retraced their 
steps, and on nearing Hackensack turned to the north on the road 
leading to a bridge to the left of which there was an elevation about 

282 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

a half ruile distant from the road, the intervening ground being level. 
The Continentals and militia were kept at a distance by flanking 
movements of the enemy, who were detained about two hours in re- 
placing the plank of the bridge, which had been torn up by the 
Americans. Having crossed over the river, the enemy marched 
down the east bank of the Hackensack through the English Neigh- 
borhood and were pursued by the Americans twelve miles to Bergen 
Woods. The British lost many killed and wounded; the casualties 
of the Americans numbered only two — a young man was wounded 
by a spent ball, which cut his upper lip, knocked out four teeth and 
lodged in his mouth; and Captain Outwater, who commanded the 
militia, received a ball below the knee, that was never extracted. The 
county records were removed to New York City before the time of 
the burning of the court house, which is evidenced by an entry in the 
minutes of Justices and Freeholders, dated May 12, 1784, when an 
account was rendered by Abraham Westervelt for expenses amount- 
ing to £2 for obtaining the records in that city. 

It is interesting in these days with the complaint of the high 
cost of living, to review the prices that were established by the court 
for the supplies for the Continental army located in Bergen county 
in 1779-80. For the first year mentioned, wood was $S a cord; hay, 
$4 a hundred weight ; rye and corn by the bushel was $14 ; buckwheat 
and oats $8 a bushel. For transportation for firewood and provi- 
sions to the army, $12 a day was allowed. The following years these 
prices were considerably increased: Hay of the first quality was 
$200 a ton, second quality $1S0 a ton, a third quality $160 a ton. 
Corn and rye was $18 a bushel, buckwheat and oats $12 a bushel, a 
cord of wood was worth $12. The price of carting was $32 a day, 
and a viewer of damages received $20 a day. Of course these large 
prices are in the depreciated Continental currency. 

The following is taken from the recollections of the late George 
J. Ackerman, a prominent citizen of Hackensack, which was first 
published in ]902. The recollections are from fifty to sixty years, 
antedating the publication, when there were no names to any of the 
streets in the village : 

The first acquisition of land in city of Hackensack (New Barba- 
does township), was a grant to John Berry, which included all of 
what is now the city of Hackensack. Berry's grant was subsequent- 
ly subdivided. Isaac VanGieson purchased the tract from what is 

283 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

now Warren street north to the south side of the store formerly 
occupied by Julius Ellis, and which at the present day is occupied 
by the Woolworth site and C. A. Bogert candy kitchen. Kynier Van- 
Gieson, who was a son of Isaac VanGieson, donated in 1762 the plot 
of ground on which now stands the Washington Institute. Another 
early purchaser was Jan Berdan, who on the ninth day of June, 
1708, being the seventh year of the reign of Queen Anne, purchased 
"all that tract lying between Isaac VanGieson 's north line and the 
Kings road (now Passaic street) from the Hackensack river to the 
Saddle river. ' ' He and his wife Eva executed in 1717 a deed for one- 
half of this tract to Paulos Vanderbeek, the money consideration 
being £87 of the current money of the Province of New York. The 
said Vanderbeek and his heirs and assigns also agreed to pay yearly 
on the twentieth day of March as a cheife or quit-rent to John Berry, 
his heirs and assigns forever, the sum of seven shillings and one 
penny, current money of the Province of New York. These early 
landowners had their residences on the main thoroughfare, to which 
they opened lanes for the purpose of going to and from their farms T 
which extended beyond the Red Hill, and it is probable there was a 
back lane or street farther west; these lanes did not run beyond the 
eastern line of this lane, therefore we find that all of the three 
original lanes were but a block long; what is now Camden street led 
to the Berdan property, Salem street to Vanderbeek and Warren 
street to the VanGieson. The last of the Berdan homestead was 
destroyed in 1921; its cornerstone bore the date of 1717, and it w T as 
the original residence of the first settler, Jan Berdan, and was lo- 
cated near what is now Salem street. On this property in 1822, after 
enlarging the original house, was established by Isaac Vanderbeek, 
the noted Hackensack Tavern. The beautiful Dutch colonial house 
of Paulos Vanderbeek, built in 1717, has been used for several years 
by the New York Telephone Company as a store house, but is to be 
demolished (in 1922) to make room for enlarged improvements. On 
the w T est side of the back lane (State street) were farm and pasture 
lands and many orchards of trees laden with luscious apples, and 
immense fields of corn and waving grain were not an uncommon 
sight during the early autumn months. 

The Washington Mansion House, still standing (though now 
much enlarged), was kept by David D. Demarest. It had always 
been a noted place of resort for travelers and people having busi- 
ness at the county seat. Historical records tell us it was the private 
residence of Peter Zabriskie (at the time of the Revolutionary War), 
who was a friend of General Washington, who made the home his 
headquarters, his meals being sent to him from Archibald Camp- 
bell's tavern. In 1831 the Weehawk Bank had its headquarters in 
this building, John DeGroot president, and George Y. Alliare 
cashier. The bank was subsequently removed to the house built for 

284 



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Homespun Blanket from Burdett Home, Fort Lee 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

it, standing east from the Mansion House. The bank failed and the 
house is still standing, occupied as law offices. The old church stand- 
ing east of the Green is a time-honored monument which was held 
in respect by our ancient Dutch progenitors. The pews were sold 
to the members, who received a deed for the same, in which owner- 
ship lasted forever, with the provision "that it should not be de- 
stroyed or defaced." The church was heated by two wood-burning 
stoves placed on either side of the main entrance, each of which had 
a pipe extending the full length of the building. In cold weather the 
women folks generally carried little foot stoves in which was a metal 
pan filled with live coals to keep the feet warm during the services, 
which were of rather long duration, generally three hours. The 
pulpit was quite small, being semi-circular in front and elevated 
about five or six feet above the floor. It was reached by a circular 
stairway placed on each side of it. Directly underneath and in front 
of the pulpit was a desk and chair occupied by the precentor, who 
would sing the hymn, to be followed by the congregation. He used 
a tuning fork to get the pitch. There was no choir, and there was 
not even an organ or any other musical instrument in any of the 
churches. In fact, it was considered by some profane and irreverent 
to have any instrument of music in their houses of worship, and was 
deprecated in the most caustic terms by the old dominies. 

Across the Green was another tavern, afterwards called the 
Hackensack House, kept by Edward VanBeuren. Next door to it, 
looking east, was the county court house and jail, built 1819. At 
that time the building was much smaller than at present. The jail 
was in the building and the cells, four in number, two on each side 
of the main entrance, were reached by a narrow passageway running 
in front of them, and secured by two doors, one of iron and one of 
wood, with massive lock and key. It was in one of these cells the 
ill-fated murderer, Billie Keating, was confined in 1850. At the 
execution, the sheriff, John V. H. Terhune, attired in full military 
regalia, with sword, cocked hat and feathers, officiated, and Sam 
Dawson, who was the jailor, cut the rope. The scaffold was erected 
in the triangle enclosure on the west end of the court house, in full 
view of everybody who wanted to see enacted the last drama in the 
life of that unfortunate murderer. The Green was crowded with 
people from all parts of the county, and rich and poor jostled each 
other to get a view of the tragedy. He was clothed in a white suit 
and cap made by a tailor named Royce. At that time there was a 
flagpole about one hundred feet high standing in the centre of the 
Green, surmounted by a Cap of Liberty. An American flag was 
generally displayed from the top of the pole on every Fourth of 
Jul}', and the old Revolutionary cannon, "The Bergen" (bereft of 
the carriage and lying now in the cellar of Johnston's Public Li- 

285 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

brary, the property of the Bergen County Historical Society), boom- 
ed forth its voice of terror. 

The Zabriskie mansion, with its corinthian columns, stood on 
the present site of the Bergen County Children's Home. On the 
other side of the street just beyond the New Jersey & New York 
railroad crossing, still standing, is the Mabon residence, one of the 
famous landmarks of Hackensack, which, if it could only speak, 
could tell a remarkable history. It was here that the first progenitor 
of the Ackerman family in Bergen county settled and built a house in 
1704, .which was evidently the old end that was demolished lately, 
and the large and beautiful house was built later. On stones in the 
east end wall is the following inscription: 

A. A. M. G. A. M. 
D. A. M. 

Anno 1704 

It was accompanied with the symbols of husbandry, viz. : A 
plough and spinning wheel and three hieroglyphics. The letters 
stand for Abraham AckerMan, his wife Gietje AckerMan, and his 
oldest son, David AckerMan. It is still in the possession of the de- 
scendants of the original owner. The parsonage of the church on 
the Green stood by the creek. It was moved about 1858 to property 
owned by the church on Sussex street, sold and still stands in fine 
condition. Bert Campbell owned and lived in the house on the west- 
erly corner of State and Essex streets. Old Hannah Simonson, as 
she was familiarly called, owned and occupied a little low one-story 
house between State street and the creek, on the site of the house 
of Schuyler Boyd. 

One of the ancient landmarks of Hackensack is the Green, its 
history dating back to 1696, the date of John Berry's gift of two and 
three-quarters acres of land to the inhabitants of Hackensack and 
New Barbadoes townships. Here stood the whipping post and 
stocks, public notices were posted, and training bands met for drill 
and parades. The ground on the Green was trod by the feet of 
Washington and Lafayette and the patriotic soldiers in the great 
struggle for freedom. After the American troops had taken their 
departure from the town about November 20, 1776, a different pic- 
ture was presented the next day, when at about noon time the Brit- 
ish took possession of Hackensack, and in the afternoon the Green 
was covered with Hessians, a horrid, frightful sight to the inhabi- 
tants. There were between 3,000 and 1,000 Hessians, with their 
whiskers, brass caps, and kettle drums. A part of these troops were 

286 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

taken prisoners two months later at Trenton. Here, too, the fore- 
fathers of the hamlet of Revolutionary days saw their court house, 
which stood on the Green, facing Main street, burned to ashes, and 
the town sacked and plundered by British invaders in 1780. The 
Hessians threatened also to destroy the old church on the Green, 
but it escaped their sacrilegious hands. 

The Green as pictured in 182.0 was a bare plot of ground, with a 
tall flag-pole in the center, and willow trees on the side, with the old 
church and court house to the east, while the Mansion House was on 
the north and the Hackensack House on the south of the park. In 
1858 the Green was the subject of acrimonious contention between 
the church people and common citizens of the town. The citizens 
wanted the spot enclosed with an iron railing ; the consistory object- 
ed and combatted, but the people scored a victory and contributed 
$200 for the posts and iron railing. Editor Kimball, who published 
the "Bergen County Journal" in Hackensack at that time, manifest- 
ed his satisfaction over the matter with this glowing comment: "It 
is our duty as Christians, as citizens of Hackensack, as lovers of the 
beautiful, to insist upon the improvement of this spot. It is to 
Hackensack what the Common is to Boston, what the Central Park 
will be to New York." That spelled finis for the gnarled and knotty 
old willows that had stood for a century or more, and they were re- 
moved and new trees planted, some being elms, which are standing 
to-day. Old willows which were familiar landmarks in other parts 
of the town have nearly all disappeared within the recent past. The 
Green has been made use of for various purposes ever since its for- 
mation. Both the Democrats and Republicans have held mass meet- 
ings on the Green, and liberty poles have been erected, and the late 
Judge Josejm D. Bedle spoke there in his campaign for Governor in 
1874. An Assembly District caucus was held by the Democrats on 
the Green one autumn afternoon in 1S6S, and Eben Winton received 
the nomination. That is somewhat different from the primary pro- 
cedure to-day. More recently ornaments began to be placed on the 
Green. First came a fountain, then a band stand, the gift of Frank 
Poor, one of the greatest promoters of Hackensack, which served its 
purpose for a time and was then removed. Just east of the fountain 
is a cannon which was presented by the War Department at Wash- 
ington to Hackensack about ten years ago. On the following Dec- 
oration Day appropriate exercises were held around the big gun, on 

287 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

which occasion Col. Alfred T. Plolloy, of Hackensack, delivered a 
most- eloquent oration. This was followed by a military parade 
through town. 

The Green is not fenced in to-day, being all open, with concrete 
walks running across it. There is also a flagstaff near the center of 
the park, placed there by the Hackensack Commission, and "Old 
Glory" is hoisted every morning by one of the town employees, pro- 
vided the weather is fair. After the World War a large honor roll 
board was placed on the west side of the Green, along Main street, 
containing the names of the Hackensack young men who were called 
to the service. The board was removed in 1921. 

Hackensack from the time of its organization in the dim distant 
past was an important place and the center of considerable business 
activity, becoming more so as the years rolled along, and the popu- 
lation in the outlying districts increased. For more than one hun- 
dred years it was the business center for all the surrounding coun- 
try, and to the northwest it commanded the trade for a distance that 
extended to the extreme limit of the county and beyond. At that 
time there was considerable navigation on the Hackensack river, 
especially in the fall and spring, of farm and industrial products 
seeking transportation to Newark and New York, but now navigat- 
ing the Hackensack river would be entirely too slow in these days of 
rapid transit by rail and motor truck. Better roads and more rapid 
communication with the cities and large towns in more recent years 
have reduced the limits of the trade and business of Hackensack by 
affording other commodious outlets to the surrounding country. The 
New Jersey & New Y 7 ork railroad and the New York, Susquehanna 
& Western, which pass through the town, bring it within about half 
an hour of the great metropolis, besides which there is the Hudson 
river trolley line to 130th street, New York, also a short run. Many 
business men reside in Hackensack, while their place of business is 
in New York and elsewhere. It is largely a place of pleasant homes 
and beautiful abodes, although there are several industrial plants. 
Some forty years ago the finest residences in town were located on 
Essex, Main and Passaic streets, but the scene has since shifted and 
now the most pretentious homes arc found in the hill section on 
Summit and Prospect avenues, etc. 

Hackensack has a form of government different from that in 
operation in any other municipality in New Jersey, and is styled 

288* 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

the Haekensack Improvement Commission. This commission was 
created by act of the State Legislature in 1S68, and has been in ex- 
istence fifty-four years. In the early days of the commission, only 
property owners could vote for commissioners or be elected com- 
missioner, and a $100 lot constituted a property owner. By secur- 
ing title to that much real estate on a certain occasion, one citizen 
was enabled to be a candidate for commissioner. That restriction, 
however, has long since been removed, and commissioners are elect- 
ed the same as candidates to any other public office. 

The commission act was supplemented in April, 1871, by a pro- 
vision empowering the commission to organize a fire department. 
On June 1 following, two fire companies were organized, and sub- 
sequently four or five more companies were formed, but the volun- 
teer companies have all gone out of existence and a dozen years ago 
a paid fire department was organized under the control of the com- 
mission. Five commissioners constituted the full membership of the 
commission until about 1911, when the act was again amended, in- 
creasing the number to seven, the law providing that there should 
be one commissioner elected from each of the five wards, a conimis- 
sioner-at-large, and a president of the commission. The term of the 
president and commissioner-at-large is two years, and that of the 
commissioners three years. There is no salary attached to the of- 
fice. 

Two or three efforts have been made to change the form of gov- 
ernment to something different, a city seeming to be the most fav- 
ored, but nothing was accomplished, the last time the question was 
agitated being about ten years ago. Then the matter was discussed 
and a city plan proposed, but no conclusion was reached, and there 
the matter dropped. After slumbering until the summer of 1921, 
the proposition was again revived. This time it was something en- 
tirely different from what had formerly been proposed. It was not 
to change the form of government, but simply to change the name 
of the municipality. The question that was submitted to the voters 
at the general election on November 8, 1921, was this: "Shall the 
name of the municipality be changed from "Township of New Bar- 
badoes, County of Bergen, to City of Haekensack?" The voters de- 
cided in favor of the change by a good majority. So Haekensack is a 
city in name. 

Contemporaneous with the organization of civil government in 

289 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

the Province of New Jersey, the Assembly of November, 166S, in 
consideration of the inconveniences that do arise for the want of an 
ordinary in every town, ordered that Bergen and other counties 
provide each an inn for the relief and entertainment of strangers. 
Later the town authorities had the power given them to appoint 
innkeepers, and he was considered a town officer. The appointment 
was one of honor, and authorities were very particular to whom 
licenses were granted, requiring the innkeeper to provide meat, 
drink and lodging, and to those holding a license the sole privilege 
was given to retail liquors under the quantity of two gallons. 

The Legislature in May, 16GS, endeavored to correct the vice of 
drunkenness by imposing a fine. Innkeepers were assessed from 
forty shillings to three pounds for the use of the poor. They were 
required to provide two good spare feather beds more than was 
necessary for family use, and to have good house room, stabling and 
pasture for drovers. Near the early churches there was always a 
tavern, as many of those attending church drove many miles, they 
were made welcome by the proprietors, then men refreshing them- 
selves with one of the popular drinks of the day. and it is said the 
ladies, too, took mild refreshments and had their little foot stove 
pans refilled with hot coals before they entered the church for the 
three-hour service. The noon hour called for another visit with 
stoves, as another three hours' service was ahead of them, and then 
before leaving for the long, cold ride home, the stoves were refilled 
and placed in the sleighs or wagons, the seats therein being chairs 
brought by the women for use in the chairless, tireless churches. Inn- 
keepers were prohibited from allowing tippling or drinking in their 
houses on the Lord's Day, especially "during time of Divine Wor- 
ship," to which was added, "excepting for necessary refreshments." 
The following official rates are from the original copies : 

A rate for Tavern Keepers, 1763 — A warm dinner, three shill- 
ings; cold dinner, one shilling; supper, one shilling; breakfast, nine 
pence; bottle meadeary wine, five shillings; common wine, three 
shillings ; quart lime punch, one shilling six pence, without limes, 
one shilling ; gill of rum, five pence ; quart of beer, five pence ; quart 
of cider, five pence, quart of oats, three pence; night feed of English 
hay, two shillings; salt hay for a horse, nine pence; gill of brandy 
or gellwine, eight pence; a lodging one night for a person, eight 
pence; pasturing one horse, one shilling. 

The following rates are established by the court of quarter 

290 













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INN SIGN 
Signboard of John A. Hopper's Tavern, Hopperstown (now Hohoku?) 












HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

sessions for tavernkecpers, March 29, 1781 — Dinner, extraordinary, 
two shillings, six pence; common dinner or breakfast, two shillings; 
supper extraordinary, two shillings, six pence; common supper, one 
shilling, six pence ; gill of West India rum, nine pence ; quart of 
cider, six pence; quart of beer, six pence; night's lodging, six pence; 
feed hay for a horse, one shilling, six pence ; common or salt hay, one 
shilling; good pasture for a horse, nine pence, quart of oats, two 
pence. 

The importance of the inn and the activities therein is taken 
from Lee's "New Jersey as a Colony and a State." "During the 
colonial period of New Jersey the Inn became a social and political 
center. Not only were these houses designed for entertainment 
of man and baiting of beast, but they served as meeting places for 
council and assembly, as the temporary executive mansions for the 
governors, as county court houses, polling places, tax collectors, 
school houses, regimental headquarters on training days, terminus 
for post and passenger stages, post offices, banks, and traveling 
ministers of various denominations, while the county freeholders 
frequently had no other building in which business could be trans- 
acted. ' ' 

The arrival of the itinerant tax assessor at the local tavern was 
a public event in the early part of the nineteenth century, the town 
folks gathering to receive him, to indulge in a holiday. The rounds 
in the First District of New Jersey were made in June, 1816, by 
John Dodd, and every householder, landholder and slaveholder was 
duly notified to be present and give an exact accounting of his prop- 
erty, both real and personal, in compliance with the law. Dodd was 
due at Vanllouten's Tavern, Saddle River, June 20; Hopper's 
Tavern, Hopper Town, June 21 ; Demarest Tavern, Harrington, 
June 22 ; at Hackensack the following day, where a well-earned rest 
was taken till Monday morning, when he was to be at Yanderbeek 
Tavern. At each of these places the assessor made a speech some- 
thins; in this manner: 



-o 



Fellow citizens, I am here for the purpose of securing informa- 
tion that may be furnished as to the changes which may have taken 
place in the assessable property of individuals since the last assess- 
ment, made under the act of June 9, IS] 5, and previous to the first 
of June, 1816, which information must be given in writing under 
the signature of the person whose tax may be affected thereby. First, 
assessable property omitted to be assessed. Second, transfer of real 

291 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

estate and slaves. Third, change of residence. Fourth, burning or 
destruction of houses or other fixed improvement. Fifth, slaves that 
have been born or have died or have run away or have otherwise 
become useless since the preceding assessment. Any person becom- 
ing the owner of a slave by transfer to him from collection district 
other than that in which he resides is required under penalty of $10 
to render a statement specifying the age and sex of such slave, who 
is to be valued according to his or her existing value. Ahem ! The 
assessor waits for the citizen to walk up to his desk and make his 
statement. 

John Dodd was, at the end of his trip, the best informed man 
on about every subject in the district. He knew of every public 
house or tavern, every home, and much of the gossip. Saddle bags 
were required for filing books and papers. 

The first tavern of any prominence in Hackensack was kept by 
Archibald Campbell, on the site of the present Union League Club 
house, corner of Main and Morris streets. Mr. Campbell was the first 
postmaster of the town, and was succeeded as innkeeper by his son in 
about 1801. The last proprietor was evidently James Vanderpool, 
who was also interested in a line of stages running to the lioboken 
ferry. Among other early taverns mention is made in the minutes 
of the Justices and Freeholders of a meeting held in 1766 at Mrs. 
"Watson's, near the Hackensack river. This was evidently a tavern 
in ]Dursuant to an act of the Governor's Council and General As- 
sembly provided for that purpose. Adam Boyd was also another 
early tavern keeper, his home being where Scivanies' fruit store is 
now located. The Morris Earle tavern was on the corner of Main 
and Bridge streets ; the freeholders met there in 1793 ; the build- 
ing is still standing. Dr. John Campbell's tavern is referred to in 
1802 as being located at the end of the Hackensack and Hoboken 
turnpike in Hackensack. The Flackensack House stood on the 
south side of the Green, and amongst its different proprietors were 
Abe Van Saun, Mr. Conkrite, Mr. Van Buren and others. This was 
known to be an old tavern site on which there was an enlarged build- 
ing, and it may be possible that it was the pre-Bevolutionary "Abra- 
ham Ackerman's Tavern, near the Court House." Isaac Vander- 
beek purchased the original homestead of Jan Berdan, built 1717, 
on Main street, near Salem street, which he enlarged and opened a 
tavern called the Hackensack Tavern, in 1833, which was a popular 
resort for forty years. Later it became a private classical and 

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RATE OF TOLL 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

mathematical school, but in 1921 was demolished to make way for 
more modern buildings. There is no doubt that there were other tav- 
erns located in Hackensack, but there is no record establishing their 
existence. 

The residence of Peter Zabriskie, built in 1751, was where 
Gen. Washington had his headquarters in 1776, having entered 
Hackensack with about 3,000 troops. The supplies for the Gen- 
eral's table while at the Zabriskie home were furnished by Archi- 
bald Campbell, the tavern keeper on the opposite corner. Before 
leaving town the General rode to the dock to take observations of 
the enemy's encampment, and then returned to Mr. Campbell's door 
and called for some wine and water. A bronze tablet placed by the 
Bergen County Historical Society on the outer stone wall of the 
Mansion House, on the Main street side, to commemorate the place 
as Washington's headquarters, bears the following inscription: 
"Placed by the Bergen County Historical Society to mark the site 
of the Mansion House occupied as headquarters by Gen. George 
Washington during the retreat from Fort Lee, 1776." Two rooms 
of especial interest to visitors to the Mansion House are the main 
parlor and Booni 19, on the second floor, one with brown, the other 
blue tiling, in the fireplaces. These tiles, brought from Holland, pic- 
ture well known Bible scenes. In this respect the Mansion House 
supplies material found in no other local building of the olden days. 
The next record tells that in 1834 David D. Demarest was pro- 
prietor of a tavern in the Zabriskie house. The same year he was 
chosen postmaster, and in the bar room of the tavern the mail was 
kept for distribution in a handy box. Mr. Demarest became sheriff 
in 1811 and was reappointed postmaster 1843-45. About this time 
the tavern was known as the Albany Stage Boute Tavern. It was 
probably so named when Albert G. Doremus, the noted stage coach 
owner, was running for the government his route to Albany to carry 
the mail. When passing through Hackensack his passengers patron- 
ized the tavern while Mr. Doremus changed horses at his own sta- 
bles. Mr. Doremus died in 1854, when the stage business was at its 
height. His son, Bichard A., succeeded him until the stage coaches 
passed out of service. About 1858 must have been the time the 
name of Washington Mansion House was given to the Albany Stage 
Boute Tavern, which has still been retained. Mr. Albert Doremus' 
home was the beautiful stone house that stood on Main near Bergen 

293 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

street (on which were his stage barns and stables, later turned into 
dwellings), later owned by Dr. A. Frank, who has altered the front 
into stores. 

Elections have been held in the "ball room" of the Mansion 
House, and the Democrats made it their headquarters for many 
years, holding county conveiitions and mass meetings there. Some 
noted speakers were heard there in the old days. Old Company C, 
National Guard, when first organized in 1872, held its drills in the 
Mansion House. Entertainments were also held there. In Civil 
War days the proprietor of the Mansion House was John Lovett, 
who continued for some time after the war period. More recent 
proprietors of the ancient hostelry were : Abraham Brownson, John 
Ryan and Erwin Shivler, the latter now owning the property. The 
Mansion House was the scene of a great jollification on June 25, 
1863, when the conrpanies of the Twenty-second Regiment who 
served in the "War of the Rebellion returned to Hackensack. Hav- 
ing been mustered out of service at Trenton and given a magnificent 
reception by ladies and citizens at the State Capital, upon their ar- 
rival in Hackensack the men were welcomed with warm congratu- 
lations and a collation was served at the Mansion House. 

There were several stage routes having their headquarters in 
Hackensack, leading to Boiling Spring (Rutherford), Paramus, Fort 
Lee, Old Bergen, etc. Then came the railroads and steam coaches, 
and the doom of the stage coach was at hand. Line after line of 
stage coaches was discontinued, and tavern after tavern fell into 
disuse, until before many years had gone by, stage coach and tavern 
were found only in isolated regions. But in the present period has 
been restored something of the early methods by the auto-bus in 
operating from town to town, but lacking in its picturesqueness, be- 
cause of the passing of the taverns, besides other attractions. 

Francis Bazley Lee, in "New Jersey as a Colony and as a 
State," says from the opening of the nineteenth century until the in- 
troduction of railway legislation in the early thirties, marks the era 
of the turnpike, when New Jersey, following the example set by 
other States, as well as by the national government, made efforts 
to unite by a better system of public roads the small towns, not only 
one with another, but with the great centers of Philadelphia and 
New York. These instruments of association, crude as they may 
have been, formed the connecting link between the colonial avenues 

294 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

of transportation, out of which they grew, and the days of steam. 
Thomas F. Gordon, in his "Gazetteer," published in 1834, in ex- 
amining the causes leading to the construction of turnpikes in New 
Jersey, states that "the objects of their incorporation were three- 
fold. First, it was the desire of facilitating communication between 
Philadelphia and New York ; the need of an outlet for the products 
of the fields and mines in the northern interior; and the creation of 
a market in New York City, to which end metropolitan capital was 
largely invested in New Jersey turnpike enterprises." The am- 
bitious enterprise of the proprietors and associates of the Paulus 
Hook scheme led to the chartering of a turnpike company in 1S04, 
connecting Jersey City (Old Bergen) with Hackensack, to which 
plan the State subscribed $12,500. Two years previously a charter 
for a turnpike from Hackensack to Hoboken had also been secured. 

Lamps were to be placed and lighted every evening hereafter, 
so long as the said bridges or either of them shall stand, before it 
grows dark, and continue lighted until daylight in the ensuing morn- 
ing, and for each and every night's neglect, the said corporation, or 
the person or persons operating the said bridge or bridges, his or 
their agent or manager, shall forfeit and pay the sum of $12. There 
were also penalties for injuring the bridges, and attendance was 
to be given to raise the draw. The Turnpike Company had the right 
to enter lands and convert them to their use, damages to be settled 
later, also stone or gravel could be taken from any land. 

It was further enacted that the said corporation shall cause 
milestones to be erected, one for each and every mile on said road; 
and on each stone shall be fairly and legibly marked the distance the 
said stone is from Hoboken, and also shall cause to be affixed and 
always kept up at each gate, and in some conspicuous place, a print- 
ed list of rates of toll, which from time to time may lawfully be de- 
manded, under a penalty of $10 for each omission of placing and 
keeping up a milestone or printed rates, to be recovered before any 
justice of the peace of the County of Bergen, with cost of suit. The 
penalty for injuring the milestones, etc., was that if any person 
shall wilfully break, throw down or deface any of the milestones so 
erected on the said road for the information of the people traveling, 
the same shall forfeit and pay a fine of $20. All wagoners and driv- 
ers of carriages of all kind, whether of burthen or pleasure, using 
the said road shall, except when passing by a carriage of slower 

295 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

draft, keep their horses and carriages on the left hand of the said 
road in the passing direction, leaving the other side of the road 
free and clear for other carriages to pass and repass, etc. The toll 
gates of Bergen county were abolished in 1915, after a service of 
one hundred and thirteen years. 

THE TOLL GATE HOUSE. 

By John Drinkwater. 

"The toll gate's gone, but still stands lone. 
In the dip of the hill, the house of stone, 
And over the roof in the branching pine 
The great owl sits in the white moonshine. 
An old man lives, and lonely there, 
His windows yet on the crossroads stare, 
And on Michaelmas night in all the years 
A galloping far and faint he hears. 
His casement open wide, he flings 
With "Who goes there !" and a lantern swings, 
But never more in the dim moon beam 
Than a cloak in the night can he see, 
Of passing spurs in the night can he see, 
For the toll gate's gone and the road is free." 

Following the close of the war, a number of roads were project- 
ed and built in Passaic and Bergen counties. In 1815 came the Hack- 
ensack and Hoboken and the Paterson and Hackensack in 1816, a 
pike from Hudson to the Hackensack and Hoboken road. Broadly 
it may be said that from 1800 to 1828 there were fifty-four original 
charters secured for turnpike companies in New Jersey, of which 
only one-half conformed to the terms of the act of incorporation. 
During this period about 550 miles of gravel and dirt were laid, but 
little or no continuous telford or macadamized road. Among the 
people who frequented the highways there was much of the colonial 
manner and spirit. There could be found old men who, unmindful 
of the statute in the case made and provided, drove to the left in 
passing another vehicle. Men of quality still went about on horse- 
back. In the mid-summer, clouds of dust betrayed the presence of 
sheep or cattle on the hoof being driven to market, urged by the 
barking of dogs and the "gads" of the drovers. Stage coaches rum- 
bled along the highways, the great steeds tugging in their harness. 
Then came winter and early spring, the wagons hub-deep in mud or 
caught unprotected in the drifting snow. But there was no dearth 
of taverns with their courtyards alive with arriving and departing 
stages, with spacious bars and heavy dinners, with their light and 
life and joy, now but memories and traditions. But few of the sleep- 

296 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

ing rooms of the taverns were warmed. The sojourner was sent to a 
cold room and put into bed with a copper warming pan and an apple- 
brandy toddy, "with" or "without," as taste and the extent of the 
pantry might dictate. Stages invariably started at unseemly hours, 
seldom later than sunrise, no matter whether the journey was five 
or fifty miles in length. Romance was passing away, leaving a few 
courtly old men, much rare mahogany which was later to give place 
to crude painted pine. 

The name of Bergen Pike was changed in January, 1920, to 
State Route No. 10, which was a saving to Bergen county taxpayers 
of about one and a half millions of dollars. The checkered career of 
the old pike from plank road to toll road, to county, to State high- 
way, marks steadily in its progress the growth of the county and in- 
dicates the epochs in American history from stage coach to trolley, 
to motor cars. The Bergen pike, known in its early days as the Old 
Plank Road, was the only outlet for this part of the country to New 
York City. Later the Bergen Turnpike Company operated it as a 
toll road. Then with the coming of the Public Service Corporation 
it became a part of that great system used mainly for trolley pur- 
poses. The Board of Freeholders purchased the road from the 
Public Service and abolished forever the old antiquated toll road 
system. There were many criticisms of this official deed, as the cor- 
poration had passed on to the county by this transfer all the heavy 
financial obligations to maintain the road, but it was, nevertheless, a 
f orward movement, a natural evolution toward the proper place for 
this old artery of travel. 

When the State highway system was being worked out, the pos- 
sibilities of having the State take over the Bergen pike was agitated. 
This proposal appealed to the State authorities, and on examination 
of the route by General George Goethals, at that time head of the 
Highway Department of the State, it was finally accepted and be- 
came known as Route 10 of the State highways, thus relieving the 
taxpayers of Bergen county of all maintenance cost, to say nothing 
of three bridges which were antiquated and which it would be neces- 
sary to rebuild in the near future. 

The early colonies were indebted about 1691 to Colonel John 
Hamilton, a son of Governor Andrew Hamilton, twice acting gover- 
nor as president of the Council, for devising a scheme by which the 
post office was established. Hamilton received a patent and after- 

297 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

wards sold his right to the crown. By an act of the Legislature in 
1785 the stage coach was allowed to carry the mail. 

The rate of postage established by an act of Congress, February 
1, 1816, was for a single letter not exceeding forty miles, six cents ; 
over forty miles and not exceeding ninety miles, ten cents; over 
ninety miles and not exceeding one hundred and fifty miles, twelve 
and half cents; over one hundred and fifty and not exceeding three 
hundred miles, seventeen cents ; over three hundred and not ex- 
ceeding five hundred miles, twenty cents, and over five hundred 
miles, twenty-five cents. If the letter contained two pieces of paper 
the charge was double ; if three, triple ; and if four, quadruple. Over 
four sheets, if the conveyance was by land routes and weighing one 
ounce or more, single postage for each quarter of an ounce was 
charged; by a water route the charge was not to be more than a 
quadruple postage. Newspapers carried over one hundred miles 
were a cent each, if over one hundred miles one and a half cents each, 
but anywhere within the State the postage was one cent. Magazines 
and pamphlets were rated for fifty miles one cent per sheet; over 
fifty miles and not exceeding one hundred miles, one and a half cents ; 
and at greater distance, two cents. By order of the postmaster- 
general railroads were utilized in 1838 to carry the mail. 

It took one hundred and nineteen years with twenty-five post- 
masters for Hackensack to cover the period from its first post office, 
which was in a bar room of a tavern, to the present government 
building completed in 1917. The present office is a distributing cen- 
ter for nineteen square miles of territory, requiring the employ- 
ment of a postmaster, assistant postmaster, superintendent of 
mails, twenty-one clerks, twenty-six regular carriers, four special 
delivery carriers, twenty-two rural delivery carriers and one clerk 
and one laborer in each sub-station. There are three branch post 
offices — Leonia, Hasbrouck Heights, and Lodi; seven sub-stations, 
five in Hackensack, one in Bogota and Leonia, and a rural sub-sta- 
tion in Teaneck. Each rural carrier covers twenty-two miles a day. 

The Bergen County Historical Society was organized in 1902 
with sixty-seven members, was incorporated in 1907, and the mem- 
bership now numbers six hundred. The headqnarters of the socie- 
ty's assembly room, depository of records, and the museum, are lo- 
cated in Johnson Public Library building in Hackensack. The offi- 

29S 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

cers for 1922 are: Reid Howell, president; James W. Mercer, treas- 
urer; Theodore Romaine, secretary, and Mrs. F. A. Westervelt, 
curator. 

The museum is not only the resort of authors, newspaper writ- 
ers, educators and the general public, but has won recognition as a 
necessary cooperative adjunct to what is known as the visual and 
tactile method of teaching, and is visited by large classes of pupils 
from the schools to whom the curator delivers instructive lectures 
on the various topics illustrated in the collections relating to local 
history. These lectures, or "Dutch Kitchen Talks," as they are 
called, are practically unlimited in their range of subjects. A "talk," 
for example, was on a well preserved Indian dug-out canoe, un- 
earthed near the banks of the Hackensack in 1868. In it were some 
stone implements and an halberd. The life of Oratam, the great 
sachem of the xYckinkeshacky tribe of this region of whom an ideal 
memorial bronze bust has been presented by the sculptor, John Ettl, 
now adorns the assembly room. The bust is thirty-one inches high, 
the width of the shoulders being twenty-four inches. On the panel 
in the base is printed "A Memorial to the Life of Oratam, Sachem 
of the Ackinkeshacky Indians, 1577-1677." Underneath this in- 
scription is his mark, also the following: "Prudent and sagacious 
in council, prompt, energetic and decisive in war." On each side 
of the panel are eagle claws ; on the left side is an Indian reaping 
grain, and on the opposite side an Indian using a bow and arrow. In 
a space fifteen by eight inches on the back is a home scene represent- 
ing a teepee, child, squaw, and warrior using a bow and arrow. 
The turtle reproduced on the breast of the sachem is the totem of 
the Delaware tribe of Indians. The sculptor, John Ettl, a resident 
of Leonia, New Jersey, with an office in New York City, after ob- 
taining an early education became interested in the study of art, 
primarily giving his attention to sculpture. He studied in the ate- 
liers of France, Hungary, Switzerland, Italy and Germany. Among 
some of his sculptural productions are the Memorial Tomb of E stoves 
Island, Peru; the bust of Professor Orton, of Vassar College; the 
Michael Conway memorial portrait at the Elks' Club, Ithaca, New 
York; the Abraham Lincoln bust in the Leonia High School; the 
sculpture on the Palace of Justice, Berne, Switzerland, also on the 
main entrance gate of the Paris Exposition of 1900; the Soldiers' 
Monument at Haverstraw, New York, and the War Memorial at 

299 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

East, Rutherford, New Jersey. The pedestal of the bust of Oratam 
is to be made of the native sandstone from the Indian sachem's 
village site. 

Among other native curios and relics of the museum are sam- 
ples of wampum, and pictures of the interior of the building in which 
the white man carried on the wampum industry; old Dutch Bibles; 
slave papers ; early pottery of local manufacturers ; tavern sign 
from Hopper town, 1802, bearing Thomas Jefferson's picture; the 
last of the toll gate period, 1802-1915, shown by boards bearing the 
rates of toll; a reproduction of a Dutch kitchen, including the brick 
oven, built up and furnished by the curator from parts and contents 
of the old Bergen Dutch houses ; hundreds of pictures illustrating 
the unique domestic architecture of our Jersey Dutch ancestors, 
their manners and customs, their religion, their system of education, 
their faults and their virtues. All these and many other subjects of 
talks and lectures are a delight to both children and adults. 

The first attempt to establish a public library in Hackensack 
was in 1833, when on July 2 the Hackensack Library Association 
was formed, the following acting as trustees: Abram "vvestervelt, 
Abram Hopper, Samuel H. Berry, Rowland Hill, Richard W. Steven- 
son, Henry H. Banta and Richard Danah. This association was not 
of a long duration, but another organization adopting the same 
name was formed January 3, 1859, and certificates of stock were 
issued. Seven persons were elected trustees, but the association 
did not have a successful existence. Later, about 1871, another as- 
sociation was formed, who inherited the assets of the defunct or- 
ganization. The trustees for this new endeavor were: R. W. 
Farr, W. L. Comes, David Terhune, Dr. Henry Banta, (x. I. Blau- 
velt, E. E. Poor, Frederick Jacobson, James Quackenbush, W. S. 
Banta and J. N. G-amewell. The library was located on the second 
floor of the Wilson building, where it remained until removed to its 
present location. Later the work was taken up by an association of 
young women, who employed Mrs. Arthur Friend as librarian. About 
1878 the Hackensack Lyceum, a literary society composed of young 
men, took charge, and through subscriptions and entertainments 
were enabled to increase the volumes on the shelves of the library. 
The society was in charge of the library until it was dissolved in 
1884, part of the time the members acting as librarian, and the 
balance of the period Mrs. Arthur Friend was employed. The library 

300 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

was then placed in charge of an association of young ladies who 
called themselves "The Library Girls," composed of Misses Carrie 
Acton, Kittie Chrystal, Lillie and Annie Gumming, Mary Gamewell, 
Eftie Gardner, Nina Price, Kittie Rennie, Jennie Sage, Anna Stagg, 
Fannie Conklin, Anna Williams, Louise Claredon, Emily and Susan 
Taplin, Helen Voorhis, Amelia Williams, Jennie Hatfield, Mrs. H. 
M. Bogert, Eva Hasbrouck (Skinner) and Mrs. James A. Eomeyn. 
They took the name of the former association, and with the assist- 
ance of a few citizens went to work mending the old books, covering 
new books, canvassing the town for subscribers, and, as there were 
no funds for a librarian, these ladies performed the work. In this 
way the library was kept going, and finally in 1898 the Hackensack 
Improvement Commission made an annual appropriation of $500 
towards its support. Thus through careful management new books 
were added, a large list of periodicals placed on file, and the read- 
ing room was free and well patronized. Through the energy of these 
ladies there was a creditable and marked success, and Miss Jennie 
II. Labagh was installed as permanent librarian. 

It was in the year 1901 that William M. Johnson announced his 
intention to present to Hackensack an adequate library building. 
He purchased a plot of land on the corner of Main and Camden 
streets, running through to Moore street, measuring about 100 by 
200 feet. On this site was erected a two-story building of attractive 
design, of rock-faced Belleville stone, with a frontage of seventy-five 
feet and a depth of fifty-sbc feet. The first story contained stock, 
reference and reading rooms, and smaller apartments for the use 
of the library force. A room on the second floor was set apart for 
the children's apartment, and in another room was housed the in- 
teresting collection belonging to the Bergen County Historical So- 
city. The ladies of the Library Association donated the 3,618 vol- 
umes on their shelves and contributed to the new building the furni- 
ture for the children's room, and a bronze tablet inscribed to the 
donor of the building. Under the provisions of the State Library 
act, the Hackensack Improvement Commission on April 1, 1901, ap- 
pointed the following trustees: Miss Fannie DeW. Conklin, Mrs. 
David St. John, the Rev. William Welles Holley, William M. John- 
son, and William A. Linn. The president of the Hackensack Im- 
provement Commission and the president of the Board of Educa- 
tion were trustees ex-officio. The trustees organized April 1, 1901, 

301 



HACKENSACK, COUNTY SEAT OF BERGEN COUNTY, N. J. 

under the corporate name of The Johnson Free Public Library of 
Hackensack, with Eev. Dr. Holley as president, Mr. Linn as secre- 
tary, and Miss Conklin as treasurer. Miss Mary Fair was engaged 
as organizer, but she gave place, May 1, 1902, to Miss Mary Boggan, 
the present librarian. 

With the gift of the building, Senator Johnson contributed a 
fund of $5,000 for new books. The Library was openecf "October 5, 
1901, with appropriate exercises. The annual appropriation was 
one-third of a mill on each dollar of valuation, which was increased 
in 1905 to one-half of a mill. Senator Johnson's contribution exceed- 
ed $15,000, and it becoming evident in 1915 that larger quarters were 
necessary, the special purpose being a much larger stock room and 
an adequate reference room in 1916, he made a further contribution 
of $30,000. The Library was closed for ten weeks while this sub- 
stantial addition was built, and was reopened July 10, 1916. The 
citizens of Hackensack, in recognition of Senator Johnson's liberal- 
ity, tendered to him a dinner at the Hackensack Golf Club on the 
evening of June 13, 1916, at which ex-Governcr John W. Griggs 
made the principal address. 

The Library is indebted to many persons for valuable gifts of 
books, but special reference is made to the contributions of the late 
F. B. Van Vorst, numbering 1,676 volumes covering science, Eng- 
lish history and philosophy, and a collection of works on Italy, many 
of them in the language of that country. The Library in 1921 cir- 
culated 104,288 volumes, the registration of borrowers was 5,562, 
and number of books on the shelves was 25,881. 




302 



Ames Family 

By Mrs. Herold B. Fixley, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Arms — Argent, on a bend cotised between two annulets sable, a quatrefoil between 
two roses of the field. 

Crest — A rose argent slipped and leaved proper, in front thereof an annulet or. 
Motto — Fama Candida rosa dulcior. 



H|y[ HE family of Ames is said to have been originally of 
il%fj Bruton, in Somersetshire, England.* Here a certain 
m\ John Ames, or Amyas, the first progenitor of whom 
^& ^^.^ there seems to be positive knowledge, was buried in the 
year 1560. Some of his descendants eventually came to America in 
1638 and 1640, and settled in Duxbury and Braintree, Massachusetts, 
and later removed to Bridgewater. 

With this Duxbury and Bridgewater family, the Providence 
Ames have no known connection. Whether the Providence line 
actually traces back to John Ames, of Bruton in Somersetshire, yet 
remains to be proved. Judge Samuel Ames, of Providence, Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Rhode Island, was fifth in descent 
from Robert (1) Ames, of Andover and Boxford, Massachusetts. 

I. Robert Ames probably came from Boxford, England. He 
settled in Boxford, Massachusetts, and undoubtedly resided near the 
Andover line, as several of the births of his oldest children are re- 
corded on the Andover town records. His home estate was in the 
West Parish. He was one of the committee chosen by the town of 
Rowley and the village of Rowley (afterwards Boxford), to estab- 
lish the dividing line between the two towns, July, 1685. In Decem- 
ber, 1689, he was one of those chosen to meet with the Topsfield com- 
mittee to settle the line between that town and Boxford. This com- 
mittee evidently did not accomplish its object, as another commit- 
tee was appointed for the same purpose in March, 1695. In 1692 
Robert Ames, Sen., was selectman for Boxford. 

Robert Ames married, in 1661, Rebecca Blake, eldest daughter 



*The early spelling of the name was Eames. Also found Emes, Emms, Emmes, 
Eamms, and Amaes. 

303 



AMES FAMILY 

of George Blake, of Gloucester, Massachusetts, who afterwards set- 
tled in Boxford. In 1692 she was arrested as a witch and con- 
demned, but after seven months' imprisonment she was included in 
the general reprieve of July 22, 1693, a strong reaction and protest 
against the amazing and incredible superstition of those days hav- 
ing set in. A full account of her trial is given in the "History of 
Boxford, Mass." (1880), by Sidney Perley, pp. 120-123. Eobert and 
Eebecca (Blake) Ames had eight children, of whom the third was 
Eobert, mentioned below. 

77. Robert (2) Ames, son of Eobert (1) and Eebecca (Blake) 
Ames, was born February 28, 1667-68, in Andover, Massachusetts. 
He married, April 20, 1694, in Boxford, Bethiah Gatchell, of "Sec- 
onke," of whose parentage nothing is known. Eobert Amies was a 
husbandman and lived in Boxford, where two children were born. 
He resided in Boston between 1695 and 1700, where the births of 
three children are recorded. The first child on the Boston records 
was Samuel, through whom the line descends. The actual date of 
death of Eobert Ames has not been found. 

T II. Samuel Ames, son of Eobert (2) and Bethiah (Gatchell) 
Ames, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, February 21, 1695. He 
was a resident of Andover by 1719, where a child by his first wife, 
Abigail (Spofford) Ames, of Eowley, was born. She died June 25, 
1719, and he married (second), January 13, 1720-21, Hannah Stev- 
ens, of Andover. 

Samuel Ames was in Lexington in 1722, when he bought land; 
at Natick by 1729, where a child was born; at Andover again by 
1734; and at Groton by 1756. He was a housewright, also called 
"yeoman" in some of the deeds. He died between the date of his 
will, February 13, 1782, and April 20, 1784, when it was probated. 
His wife was living in 1782, but the date of her death has not been 
ascertained. 

IV. Nathan Ames, son of Samuel and Hannah (Stevens) 
Ames, was born in Natick, Massachusetts, April 27, 1729. He was 
a resident of Andover and of Groton, Massachusetts. He was 
called "of TVestford" in 1791, but he probably lived in the extreme 
eastern part of Groton, next to the Westford line. 

Nathan Ames married (first) in Groton, April 19, 1763, Deborah 

304 



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* We whole names are underwritten, the. loyal fubjects of our J 

| dread fovereigne Lord, King jam**, by ye grace of God, of Great i. 

$ Britaine, France and Ireland, King, defender of ye faith, etc., have- • 

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f, tian faith, and honour of our King znd countrie, a voyage to plant 5? 

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venient for ye general! good of ye CoJonie, unto which we promife 
ail due fubmiff ion and obedience. In witnes whereof we have 

4 hereunder fubferibed our names at Cape-Codd ye 11 of November, € 

;l in ye year of ye raigne of our fovereigne Lord, King James of En- * 

i gland, France and Ireland, ye eighteenth, and of Scotland ye fiftie- 

•:• fourth. Ano Dom. 1620. £ 

»;• 1. Johu Carver, 15. Eitw.ini Till*)', 2'<- Utgory J'rUsi, 

© a. William Bradfora, 10'. John 1 i i I *• > , 30. Thomas \V illlama, 

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O 5. Iwcuse Allerton, !!.•». Thomas linker 33. i't-rcr Brown, 

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# ? 13. John How'Iand, -"• Moses. Fletrlirr, 41. Etlv»ari! Lister, 

t 1-i. Mevhcjj Hopkins, ► -■ John '.loiul r!i;<u. 

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AMES FAMILY 

Bowers, daughter of Samuel and Deborah (Famsworth) Bowers, of 
Groton. She was born in Groton, September 2, 1746, and died there, 
April 8, 1782, and he afterwards married again. He died March 7, 
1791, aged sixty-one years, in Groton. By his first wife he had 
nine children, of whom the second was Samuel, mentioned below. 

V. Samuel (2) Ames, son of Nathan and Deborah (Bowers) 
Ames, was born in Groton, Massachusetts, February 7, 1766. He 
married, in Boston, Massachusetts, September 8, 1801, Anne Check- 
ley, born August 13, 1785, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, daughter 
of John "Webb and Anne (Bicker*) Checkley, of Philadelphia. John 
"Webb Checkley was on Governor Mifflin's staff (Pennsylvania) dur- 
ing the Revolution. He belonged to one of the old Puritan families, 
whose members took a prominent part in the early Colonial history 
of Massachusetts. The original form of the name is asserted to be 
Chichele, which passed through many modifications until the present 
form of Checkley, as used by the emigrant ancestor, Colonel Samuel 
Checkley, of Boston, and was finally established in America. Col- 
onel Samuel Checkley was born at Preston Capes, England, Octo- 
ber 11, 1653. He came to America, arriving in Boston, August 3, 
1670. Here he married, in 1680, Mary Scottow, daughter of Ensign 
Joshua Scottow, and became the progenitor of the American family 
of his name. 

Samuel Ames removed to Providence with his brother, Asa, 
where they were shopkeepers. On March 11, 1795, a petition is re- 
corded in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, probate files, wherein 
Samuel and xVsa Ames, of Providence, shopkeepers, acknowledge a 
receipt of money from the estate of their grandfather, Samuel Bow- 
ers. (See ante under Nathan Ames). 

The children of Samuel and Anne (Checkley) Arnes were: 1. 
Samuel, mentioned below. 2. John Checkley. 3. John Checkley. 
4. Frank. 5. William. 6. Ann Checkley. 7. Sophia Bichler (or 
Biehler). 8. Elizabeth Lothrop. 

VI. Hon. Samuel (3) Ames, of Providence, son of Samuel (2) 
and Anne (Checkley) Ames, was born there, September 6, 1806. He 
received his early education in Providence, after which he was pre- 
pared for college at Phillips (Andover) Academy, Massachusetts. 



*Name also found "Bichler" and "Biehler.' 

305 



AMES FAMILY 

Entering Brown University, he pursued his studies "with distinction, 
and was graduated in the class of 1823, at the age of seventeen years. 
Among the classmates of Judge Ames at Brown were Judge Edward 
,Mellen, of Massachusetts; William R. Watson; George Prentice, of 
the "Louisville Journal;" and Dr. Henry Seymour Fearing, of 
Providence. 

After his graduation, Samuel Ames immediately entered upon 
the study of law in the office of the Hon. S. W. Bridgham, also at- 
tending for a year the lectures delivered by Judge Gould at the law 
school in Litchfield, Connecticut. In 1826 he was admitted to the 
Rhode Island bar, and opened an office in Providence, Rhode Island, 
where he at once began the practice of his profession. He soon be- 
came well known as an able advocate, and his fluency and earnestness 
of style gained for him a wide reputation as a popular orator. In po- 
litical campaigns he was a most effective speaker, and in the exciting 
times of 1S42 and 1843, when political affairs in Rhode Island were 
undergoing a tremendous upheaval, his voice was conspicuous and 
frequently heard. He became quartermaster-general of the State in 
1S42, and served also in the City Council. He was a member of the 
General Assembly for many years. His influence throughout the 
entire period of disturbance was most marked and beneficial to his 
native State, being always staunch and firm- on the side of law and 
order. In 1844 and 1845 he was elected speaker of the Assembly, 
and became prominent as a leader in all debates. His practice, 
which was a most successful one, was wide and far-reaching, ex- 
tending into the Federal courts and winning for him distinguished 
honors and emolument. ' ' ' 

In 1853 he was appointed by the Legislature as State represen- 
tative to adjust the boundary between Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts; and in 1855 he was one of the commissioners for revising 
the statutes of Rhode Island, the work being conducted chiefly under 
his supervision and finished in 1857. In 1855 he received also his 
degree of LL. D., and in May, 1856, the year following, he was elected 
by the General Assembly to the office of Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, being appointed at the same time reporter of the court. 
His "Reports" contained in the four volumes, IV to VII, inclusive, 
are "remarkable for their clearness, their learning, and their con- 
formity to the settled principles of jurisprudence," and remain as 
a monument to the ability and industry of their author. 

306 



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AMES FAMILY 

Judge Ames was also the author, in collaboration with Joseph 
K. Angell, of an elaborate treatise entitled "Angell and Ames on 
Corporations," which has ever since been regarded as a standard 
work on corporations and has passed through many editions. In 
1861 Judge Ames was one of the delegates from Rhode Island to 
the Peace Convention held in Washington, before the outbreak of 
the Civil War, the other members of the delegation being William 
II. Hoppin, Samuel G. Arnold, George II. Browne, and Alexander 
Duncan. It was, however, by his labors on the bench and his rare 
qualities as an accomplished lawyer and erudite judge that his name 
will be preserved to posterity. 

Judge Ames held the office of Chief Justice of the State of 
Rhode Island, to which he had been appointed in 1856, for a period 
of nine years, covering the troublous times of the Civil Y\ T ar, and on 
November 15, 1S65, owing to failing health, he was constrained to 
tender his resignation. He died a few months afterward, very sud- 
denly, in Providence, the city of his birth and center of his life's 
activities, December 20, 1865, having but recently entered upon his 
sixtieth year. He was a man no less distinguished for his social 
qualities than for his legal and political services, and for his excel- 
lence as a man of learning and letters. He was a contributor to the 
New England Historic-Genealogical Society, of which he was elected 
a corresponding member in 1815, and in whose cause he manifested 
keen interest. 

Judge Ames married, June 27, 1839, Mary Throop Dorr, a 
daughter of Sullivan and Lydia (Allen) Dorr, of Providence, and 
sister of Thomas Wilson Dorr, leader of the famous Rebellion of 
1812, during which Judge Ames, notwithstanding the con- 
nection, distinguished himself by his patriotism and wisdom of 
conduct, standing always on the side of the Constitution. It may be 
said of his wife's brother, however, who, though subversive of law 
and order, was a brilliant and accomplished man even before his 
leadership of the suffragist party, that, "but for the menace of civil 
war the suffrage would never have been extended," and made uni- 
versal as it was in 1813. at the close of the brief and easily sup- 
pressed Rebellion. Thomas Wilson Dorr, convicted of high treason, 
was pardoned within three years, and finally restored to his civil 
rights in 1852; time dealt leniently Tvith him after all. 

Judge Ames, who was survived by his widow, left four sons and 

307 



AMES FAMILY 

one daughter. Two other children died in infancy. Two of these 
sons became prominent figures in public affairs, and distinguished 
themselves in both military and civil life. Their children were : 

.1 

1. Sullivan Dorr, mentioned below. 

2. Colonel "William Ames, born in Providence, the old home of 
the family, was a short time before his father's death in command of 
the heavy artillery, and served with much honor in the campaigns of 
Virginia and South Carolina during the Civil War, attaining the 
rank of colonel. He was a graduate of Brown University in the class 
of 1863, and received the degree of A. M. by special vote in 1891. He 
was a leading manufacturer in Providence, having been connected 
with Allen's Print Works for the four years subsequent to the Civil 
War ; he was also interested in many large enterprises, and was an 
officer and director in several. He was a member of the Ehode Isl- 
and House of Representatives, and was a leading Republican, and 
belonged to a number of clubs both in Providence and New York. 
Colonel Ames married (first) Harriette Fletcher Ormsbee, of Provi- 
dence; (second) Anne Ives Carrington, widow of Gamaliel Lyman 
Dwight, of Providence. 

3. Edward C, a well known lawyer of Providence, now de- 
ceased. 

4. Mary Bernon, wife of William Gordon Reed, of Cowesett. 

5. Samuel, Jr., prominent Providence lawyer, now deceased. 

VII. Commander Sullivan Dorr Ames, son of Judge Samuel 
(3) and Mary Throop (Dorr) Ames, was born in Providence, Rhode 
Island, July 16, 1810. He served with distinction with the Rhode 
Island troops during the Civil War, rising to the rank of lieutenant. 
In 1S65 he was commissioned as an executive officer of the "Colo- 
rado," attached in that year to the Mediterranean squadron. From 
this time until shortly before his death, November 22, 18S0, he was 
active and prominent in United States naval affairs. 

Commander Sullivan Dorr Ames married, February 21, 1870, 
Mary Townsend Bullock, daughter of William Peckham Bullock, of 
Providence, and Phila Feke (Townsend) Bullock, of Newport, his 
wife. Their children were : 1. Mary Dorr, born January 16, 1871, 
who became the wife of the late Frank A. Sayles, of Pawtucket. (See 
Sayles VIII, in "Americana," Vol. XVII, p. 201). 2, Sullivan 
Dorr, born January 5, 1878, died February 22, 1903. 

The Ames line thus runs back from Mrs. Frank A. Sayles as 
follows : 

308 



Bullock Arms— Gules, a chevron ermine between three bulls' 
heads cabossed argent, armed or. 

Crest — Five Lochaber axes sable, encircled by a ribbon or. 
Motto— Nil conscire sibi. 

Townsend A rms— Azure, a chevron ermine between three escal- 
lops or. 

Crest — A stag trippant proper. 

Richmond Arms— Argent, a cross patonce azure between four 
mullets gules. 

Crest— A. tilting spear headed or, broken in three parts, one 
piece erect, the other two in saltire entiled with a ducal coronet of the 
last. 

Motto— Resolve well and persevere. 

Winthrop Arms— Argent, three chevrons crenelle gules, over 
all a lion rampant sable, armed and langued azure. 
Crest— A hare proper running on a mount vert. 

Gorton Arms— Gules, ten billets or, a chief indented of the last. 
Crest— A goat's head erased argent, ducally gorged or. 

Harris Arms— Or, three hedgehogs azure. 
Crest— A hedgehog or. 






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AMES FAMILY 

(VIII) Mary Dorr (Ames) Sayles, of Providence and Paw- 
tucket. 

(VII) Sullivan Dorr Ames, of Providence. 

(VI) Hon. Samuel Ames, of Providence. 

(V) Samuel Ames, of Groton, Massachusetts, and Providence, 
Rhode Island. 

(IV) Nathan Ames, of Andover and Groton, Massachusetts. 

(Ill) Samuel Ames, of Boston, Andover, Lexington, Natick, 
and Groton, Massachusetts. 

(II) Robert Ames, of Andover, Boxford and Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. 

(I) Robert Ames, of Andover and Boxford, Massachusetts. 

Turning from the direct Ames descent, many interesting Co- 
lonial lines are found in the ancestry of Mrs. Frank A. Sayles. 

In common with her husband, she traces descent from many 
prominent Rhode Island families, touching Mr. Sayles' ancestry on 
a number of lines, as the Whipple, Smith, Barker, Holmes, Angell 
and Field families. 

A line replete with historical associations is that of Dorr. There 
is no other name in Rhode Island history which has more dramatic 
interest. The family is not one of the founder families of Rhode 
Island, although closely allied by marriage with several of the most 
influential and notable in the State, but the name is written indelibly 
for all time, not only in the history of the State but of the Nation, 
through the immortal deeds of Thomas Wilson Dorr, the apostle of 
civil equality and universal manhood suffrage. (See ante). 



Editor's Note — The related Dorr Family will appear in the October number of 
"Americana." 



OP^ 




309 



John Champe 

The Story of a Patriot Spy 

f|plpp|IjN interesting incident connected with Revolutionary 
ii^vV^'\4i>4 times, occurring within the confines of old Bergen vil- 
'^rvi/j l a S e > was the pursuit of John Champe, who voluntarily 
^-"■> : :s^t subjected himself to all the disgrace and obloquy of a 
renegade and deserter in order to carry out the wishes of his com- 
manding officer. 

The revelation of the treason of Arnold and the capture of An- 
dre, with the intelligence received by "Washington through his con- 
fidential agents in New York of a widespread conspiracy involving 
an officer high in command, created in the mind of the commanding 
general an uncertainty as to the trustworthiness of some in whom 
he had placed implicit confidence. As soon as he reached the army 
headquarters in the vicinity of Tappan, he sent for Major Lee, who 
had always been his close friend and adviser, who with his light 
horse was encamped near by, and gave him a full statement of the 
information he had received, with the papers connected therewith. 
After their perusal the major was inclined to attribute the state- 
ments to an English plot to undermine that confidence between the 
commander and his officers, without which no military operations 
could be conducted with any show of success. But the general sadly 
replied, "that the same suggestion might have been made with just 
as much force, in the case of Arnold," and continuing said, "I have 
sent for you in the expectation that you have in your corps indi- 
viduals capable and willing to undertake an indispensable, delicate, 
and hazardous project. AVhoever comes forward upon this occasion, 
will lay me under great obligations personally, and in behalf of the 
United States I will reward him amply. . . . My object is to 
probe to the bottom the afflicting intelligence contained in the papers 
you have just read, to seize Arnold and, by getting him, to save 



Note — This interesting narrative is by Mr. Daniel Van Winkle, President of the 
Hudson County (New Jersey) Historical Society, as it will appear in a work now in 
press, "History of the Municipalities of Hudson County, New Jersey." (Lewis His- 
torical Publishing Company, Inc., New York and Chicago). 

3IO 



JOHN CHAMPE 

ndre." Major Lee suggested Sergeant-Major Champe for the 
lission, and on receiving the concurrence of the commander, sent for 
im and explained the nature of the service wanted. . 

The sergeant-major, while appreciating the honor of his selcc- 
on and the importance of the undertaking, disliked the plan pro- 
osed because of the ignominy attached thereto. The plan was for 
im to desert and join the enemy's forces, seek an opportunity to 
uze Arnold and bear him within the American lines. He offered, 
owever, that if any mode could be contrived, free from disgrace, he 
ould cordially embark in the enterprise. Finally, by persuasive 
Basoning his scruples were overcome and the details determined 
pon. 

The sergeant returned to camp and taking his cloak, valise and 
rderly book, he drew his horse from the picket and, mounting him, 
isappeared in the darkness. His absence was soon discovered, and 
le officer of the day reported to Major Lee that one of the patrol 
ad fallen in with a dragoon, who on being challenged put spur to 
is horse and escaped. Desiring to delay the pursuit as long as 
ossible, Lee, pretending to be fatigued by his ride to and from 
eadquarters, answered as if he did not understand what had been 
aid, and compelled the repetition of the message, thereby gaining 
ome delay. Finally he was obliged to order a pursuit, and directed 
jornet Middleton to take command of the pursuing party. His 
rders were, "pursue as far as you can with safety Sergeant 
lhampe, who is suspected of deserting to the enemy and has taken 
lie road leading to Paulus Hook. Bring him alive, that he may 
uffer in the presence of the army, but kill him if he resists or es- 
apes after he is taken." Major Lee's knowledge of Middleton's 
isposition convinced him that the orders would be carried out only 
nder the most extreme conditions. A shower of rain falling soon 
fter Champe 's departure enabled the pursuing dragoons to take 
he trail, as the shoes of the horses belonging to the camp were of a 
•cculiar pattern. When Middleton started in pursuit, Champe had 
bout an hour's lead, and because of the shortness of time Lee was 
earful of his capture. 

The pursuing party during the night was on their part delayed 
>y the necessary halts to occasionally examine the road. When day 
•roke, Middleton was no longer obliged to halt, and he pressed on 
Qore rapidly. Ascending an eminence just before reaching the 

3ii 



JOHN CHAMPE 

"Three Pigeons," a tavern situated some miles north of the village 
of Bergen, Champe was seen but little more than half a mile in ad- 
vance. At the same moment the sergeant discovered his pursuers 
and, giving spur to his horse, determined to outstrip them. Middle- 
ton responded at once, and, being well acquainted with the country, 
he recalled a short route through the woods to the bridge over the 
Mill creek, located near the present West Shore railroad depot at the 
foot of the hill on Newark avenue, below the Dickinson High School. 
This road diverged from the main road just beyond the "Three 
Pigeons." Beaching the point of separation, he divided his party, 
directing a sergeant with a few dragoons to take the near cut and 
occupy the bridge, while he with the remainder of his force followed 
Champe, feeling sure that with this disposition of his force he must 
certainly capture the fugitive. 

Champe did not forget the short cut and would have taken it 
himself, but he knew it was the usual route of travel for raiding 
parties and decided upon the other road, being persuaded that his 
pursuers would avail themselves of the shorter route. He likewise 
determined to abandon his first design of reaching Paulus Hook, and 
seek refuge from two British vessels lying in Newark bay west of 
Bergen. This was a well-known place of rendezvous for the vessels 
of the British fleet, and he felt confident of escape through their aid. 
Entering the village of Bergen, Champe turned to the right and fol- 
lowed the beaten streets (present Summit and Bergen avenues), 
and, turning as they turned, he passed through the village and took 
the road toward Elizabethtown Point. Middleton's sergeant gained 
the bridge at the Mill creek, whore he concealed himself in readiness 
to seize Champe upon his arrival, while Middleton with his force 
pursuing his course through Bergen, soon reached the bridge also. 
After a short delay he found to his great mortification that the 
sergeant had slipped through his fingers. Beturning up the road, he 
enquired of the villagers of Bergen whether a dragoon had been seen 
that morning ahead of his party. He was answered affirmatively, 
but could learn nothing satisfactory as to the route he took. While 
engaged in making inquiries himself, he spread his party through 
the village to search for the trail of Champe 's horse. Some of his 
dragoons spied it just as Champe turned in the road to the point. 
Pursuit was renewed with vigor and again he was discovered. Fear- 
ing such event, he had prepared himself for it by lashing his be- 

312 



JOHN CHAMPE . 

longings on his shoulders and holding his drawn sword in his hand. 
He thus made ready for swimming in ease Middleton, when disap- 
pointed in intercepting him at the bridge, should discover the route 
he had taken. Champe's delay caused by his preparations enabled 
his pursuers to draw near, and the pursuit was rapid and close, and, 
dismounting, he ran through the marsh to the river bank, plunging in 
and calling upon the vessels for help. A boat was sent out to meet 
Champe, while his pursuers were fired upon. He was taken on board 
the vessel and carried to New York, bearing a letter from the cap- 
tain of the vessel detailing the circumstances as he had witnessed 
them. 

The sergeant's horse, cloak and scabbard were recovered, and 
the crestfallen pursuers returned with these as their only capture. 
On the return of the detachment with the well known horse led by 
one of Middleton 's dragoons, his old companions made the air re- 
sound with acclamations that the scoundrel was killed. Major Lee 
was compelled to hide the agony he experienced at the thought of 
his participation in the death of his brave and faithful follower, but 
his relief was great when he discovered that the sergeant had made 
his escape, with the loss of his accoutrements. Ten days elapsed 
before Champe was able to formulate his plans, at which time Lee 
received from him a detailed statement of his contemplated move- 
ments. The third subsequent night Champe had arranged to deliv- 
er Arnold to a detachment of Lee's forces at Hoboken. Champe on 
his arrival in New York enlisted in the American Legion, as Arn- 
old's command was called, it being composed almost entirely of de- 
serters from the American army, and hence had every opportunity 
to become acquainted with the habits of the general. He discovered 
it was his habit to return home about twelve o'clock every night, and 
that previous to retiring he always visited the garden. During this 
visit the conspirators were to seize him and, being prepared with a 
gag, would apply it immediately. 

Adjoining the house in which Arnold resided, being next to that 
in which it was designed to lodge him after seizure, several palings 
had been taken off the fence between, and replaced skilfully so that 
with care and without noise the way into the adjoining alley could 
be readily opened. Into this alleyway Champe was to have conveyed 
his prisoner, aided by his companion, while his other associate was 
to be with the boat lying at one of the wharves on the Hudson to re- 

3i3 



JOHN CHAMPE 

ceive the party, who would then be conveyed to the Jersey shore. 
The appointed time arrived, and Lee, never doubting the success of 
the enterprise, with a party of dragoons left camp late in the even- 
ing with three led horses— one for xVrnold, one for the sergeant, and 
one for his associate. The party reached Hoboken about midnight, 
where they concealed themselves in an adjoining wood. Lee, with 
three dragoons, stationed himself near the river shore, but hour 
after hour passed without any indication of success. At length, the 
increasing light indicating the approach of day, the major and his 
party was obliged to return to camp. 

A few days after, he received an anonymous letter from 
Champe's patron and friend, informing him that on the day pre- 
vious to the night fixed for the execution of the plot, Arnold had re- 
moved his quarters to another part of the town to superintend the 
embarkation of troops preparing, as was rumored, for an expedition 
commanded by himself, and that the American Legion had been 
transferred from their barracks to one of the transports. Thus it 
happened that John Champe, instead of crossing the Hudson that 
night, was safely deposited on board of one of the fleet of transports 
and enrolled among the enemies of his country, from whom he was 
unable to escape until the troops under Arnold landed in Virginia. 
When he finally escaped and returned to his old corps, he was wel- 
comed most cordially by Lee, and his whole story made public. Thus 
the stigma heretofore attached to his name was completely dissipa- 
ted, and his daring and arduous attempt received universal admira- 
tion. He was sent to General "Washington, who magnificently re- 
warded him and granted him an honorable discharge from the army, 
lest he might fall into the enemy's hand, when the gibbet would be 
his fate. 




314 



Highland Scottish Clans, Suf)=Clans and Families 
Represented in America, with Origin o! Names 

By Joel N. Exo, A. M. 




^^IIE Roman orator Eumenius is the first in whose writ- 
ings appears, in 297 A. D., the name "Picti," that is, 
' ' painted, ' ' for the people of the Highlands of Scotland, 
^H^Miy or that portion north and northeast of the mouth of the 
Clyde. In the annals of Tigliernac (1034 A. D.) and of Inisf alien in 
the thirteenth century, the oldest and most authentic which Ireland 
possesses, they mention under the years 236 and 565 the "Kings of 
the Cruithne" in the present eastern Ulster, and so St. Adamnan 
(living about 624-704) of the event at the latter date, which was the 
killing of Diarmat of Ulster by "Aidus nigrus Cruithnicum gente," 
i. e. Black Hugh of the race of Cruithne, a name which describes the 
same people in Scotland which the Romans called the Picti, and sup- 
posed to be the corresponding Irish word. According to the "Con- 
fessio" of St/ Patrick (living about 389-461) the great body of the 
people of Ireland were Hibernians invaded in the north and in his 
time dominated by a tribe called in Latin, in which he wrote, but not 
by themselves nor by the Hibernians, Scoti; the native name being 
Gaedhel, whence the English, Gael. 

In an invasion of the Strathclyde Britons they took St. Patrick 
to the north of Ireland, where he was kept as a slave. Ossian cor- 
roborates St. Patrick except that he calls the Hibernians of southern 
Ireland Firbolgs, who in the second century crowded the Gaels of 
the north until Conor, brother of the King of Scotland (whence came 
the Gaels), came to their aid, founding a race of kings who ruled at 
Tara in Meath; but in the third century the Firbolgs again got the 
upper hand ; hence probably Gael incursions into Alban and Strath- 
clyde, as it is only about fourteen miles from Antrim, Ireland, across 
the North Channel to Kintyre, Scotland. About 503 A. D. a general 
migration took place from Ireland into southwestern Scotland, 
where they settled the territory which was afterwards called Airer 

V5 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Gaedhel, the laud of the Gaels ; Englished as Argyll, the name Scotia 
disappeared from Ireland's history. 

The Picts, who occupied the rest of the Highland region, were, 
according to the best authorities, related more nearly to the Britons 
than to the Scots, with whom they made alliance, but had absorbed 
an aboriginal people similar to those along the north coast of the 
Mediterranean sea and hence called the Mediterranean race ; they 
were short, dark, and long-skulled. From 795 A. D. the Norse sea- 
rovers harried both the west coast of Scotland and the east coast of 
Ireland, and at length Norwegians settled on the islands west of - 
Scotland, and Danes at Waterford, Wexford, and Dublin, Ireland. 
During this period up to about 1000 A. D., communication between 
the Gaels of these countries was difficult and dangerous ; and from 
795 the development of the Gaels of Scotland and of their clans has 
been almost entirely independent of Ireland. (See William F. 
Skene, "Celtic Scotland".) 

The Picts meanwhile adopted the Gaelic language. As to the 
professed genealogies of the chiefs of the clans up to 1000 A. D., the 
Highlands have none contemporarily written, and have adopted 
those set down by the Irish sennachies who, from lack of facts, in 
Professor Skene 's judgment can produce only vague and late tradi- 
tion and mythical personages. In this connection note that the pre- 
fix "Mac," meaning son, is the distinctive characteristic of the clan 
names of Scotland; and "Va," grandson, the characteristic of Irish 
clan names ; evidently neither became iDermanent fixtures until after 
the separation of Scottish Gaels from Irish in which Mac, with a few 
exceptions, is a separate word, a common noun, until modern times. 
Clan names by the use of these prefixes have developed from per- 
sonal names into patronymics, the father's name naturally falling 
into the genitive case which involves phonetic change in all Celtic 
languages ; as to which it particularly needs to be noticed here that 
Scottish Gaelic (like its nearly related languages, Manx, Irish, Gae- 
lic and Welsh), is subject to aspiration, represented in Scottish Gae- 
lic by the addition of "h" to a consonant, a tendency especially pro- 
nounced at the beginning of the father's name in the genitive, fol- 
lowing the "e" in Mac, whose strength dominates or softens the 
first consonant following it. When such consonant is b, c, d, f, g, p, 
s or t, bh and mh, then sound as v ; dh and gh as y ; c becomes ch, 
sounding like the German ch; fh is silent; ph sounds as f ; sh and th 

316 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

as h. Examples of each, Englished: MacVcagh, for MacBheatha; 
MacVurrich for MacMhuirich ; MacConnachie for MacDlionnchaidh ; 
Macihvraith for MacGhillebhraith ; MacChoiter, son of Colter; Mac 
Kinlay for Mac Fhionnlaigh ; MacFall for MacPhail (son of Paul) ; 
MacKimmie for MacShimi; MacComas for MacThomas. (See Alex 
MacBain, "Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language"; also 
Dwelly, "Gaelic Dictionary".) 

Johnson's map of the Clans and Highland proprietors of Scot- 
land according to Acts of Parliament 1587 to 1594, draws the line 
of separation between Highlands and Lowlands from Dumbarton 
northeast to Drummond Castle; thence to Blairgowrie, to Airlie 
Castle, then north; thence northwest through Ballater and Aber- 
geldie to the Spey ; then westward, excluding County Elgin and most 
of County Aberdeen from the Highlands; also Caithness, the He- 
brides, Orkneys and Shetland Islands, which are mainly Norse. 
There is Xorse mixture in the blood of the northwestern clans, and 
Norse influence in the language. (See Henderson's "Norse Influ- 
ence on Celtic Scotland," 1910.) For example, the northern Clan 
Gunn has more names with the Norse suffix, "son," than with the 
Gaelic "Mac." 

Mistaken attempts have been made to compare the clan system 
with the village community system of India, Russia, etc., the sim- 
plest form of civil and civilized organization; but the village com- 
munity is a farming community, necessarily and permanently at- 
tached to a definite tract of land from which it draws its subsistence. 
Some of the effects of the feudal system are similar or identical 
with those of the clan system ; but the feudal system is based upon 
land tenure, since its community draws its chief subsistence from 
tillage of the land; while the property of the clan is mainly in flocks 
and herds, from which it obtains most of its subsistence. The feudal 
lord, being the hereditary proprietor of a tract of land, is entitled to 
service and obedience of all who dwell on the land. The fundamen- 
tal principle which held together the clan is kinship to the hereditary 
successors to the founder of the clan, a patriarchal system; the 
land being grazed as commons, though under the jurisdiction of the 
chief. 

The pasturage of the Highlands being separated into limited 
sections by mountains, resulted in much division of clans, so that the 
sub-clan, with its chief the head of a branch of the high chief's fam- 

3i7 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

ily, became at length of an importance which was almost wanting 
under the less urgent conditions of Ireland. Succession to chief- 
tainship of the clan was the highest honor, and derived from lineal 
descent from the founder, not from the last chief; brothers, as near- 
er in degree of kinship, invariably succeeded before sons of the last 
chief, the succession, by the laws of tanistry, being strictly in the 
male line. If the son of the deceased chief was under fourteen years 
of age (the Highland age of majority), the nearest of blood to the 
chief was chosen; but after his death the son succeeded. The law of 
gavel divided the property of the deceased among all the male 
branches of his family, females being excluded from succession to 
either chieftainship or property, the chieftain's aim being to attach 
to himself as many war men as possible. 

Feudalism aimed not only to furnish men, but also their sup- 
port. The clan in war aimed to live off the enemy. The written his- 
tory of Scotland up to the sixteenth century is that of conflict be- 
tween elans, the minor ; and between clan and feudal authority, the 
major struggle. The supreme virtue of the clansmen was loyalty 
and unhesitating obedience to their chief, whose deadly feuds they 
warmly espoused; and there was rarely perfect cordiality between 
clans. The clans were distinguished from each other by the colors 
of their tartan, a woolen cloth, checkered or cross-barred with nar- 
row bands of various colors; the plaid about two yards wide and 
four yards long, worn outside, being the most important, the kilt or 
skirt; and the truis (or long trousers reaching from waist to toe, 
worn in full dress) were of tartan and the stockings usually of the 
same material. A plant-badge was worn on the bonnet (cap). A 
clan war-cry was used (James Logan, "The Clans of the Scottish 
Highlands;" plates in colors, by M'lan). 

The power of the Highland clans was reduced by the Kings of 
Scotland and broken by the Act of 174S, abolishing heritable juris- 
diction of the chiefs on account of their rebellion in 1745 in favor of 
Prince Charles Edward Stuart ; and the clan and sub-clan names be- 
came family names. Under the clan system the only genealogy was 
that of the ruling family and its branches, the heads of the sub- 
clans. Chiefs who accepted feudal offices used the feudal laws of 
inheritance. William Pitt, when chancellor had the wit to utilize and 
at the same time to honor the bravery and fighting ability of the 
clans by organizing them into the Highland regiments of the British 

3i8 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

array. (See Frank Adam, "The Clans, Septs, and Regiments of the 
Scottish -Highlands, ' ' 1909. ) 

There was a large immigration of people of Scottish blood into 
the American colonies during the half century preceding the Revolu- 
tion, especially from those settled in Ulster province, Ireland, dur- 
ing the century preceding the immigration; and in the Revolution 
they formed the major element in Pennsylvania vest of the Blue 
Ridge Mountains, Western Virginia. North and South Carolina, 
which later became the States of West Virginia, Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, besides smaller settlements elsewhere. Hanna, in "The 
Scotch-Irish," estimates the element called by that name as 410,000 
at the Revolutionary period. MacLean in his "Historical Account 
of the Settlement of Scotch Highlanders in America" estimates that 
20,000 went directly from the Highlands to America between 1763 
and 1775. The number of Scottish origin now within the boundaries 
of the nation is in the millions. 

THE CLAInS 

Brodie — The name originally was "DeBrothie" and its first 
record was in 1311 in an Elginshire charter. Shaw in his "History 
of Moray," says the name is manifestly local, taken from the 
lands of Brodie, and probably they were originally of the ancient 
Moravienses and were one of those loyal tribes to whom Malcolm 
IV gave land about the year 1160 when he transplanted the Moray 
rebels. At the time of the burning of Brodie House by Lord Lewis 
Gordon in 1645, the old writings of the family were destroyed. 

From Malcolm, Thane of Brodie, living in the reign of Alexan- 
der III, descended Alexander Brodie, styled Lord Brodie, born July 
25, 1617. He was a senator of the College of Justice; his son, James 
Brodie, of Brodie, born September 15, 1637, was his successor. The 
latter married in 1659, Lady Mary Ker, daughter of William, third 
Earl of Lothian. The issue of this union was nine daughters but no 
son, and he was succeeded by his cousin, George Brodie, son of Jo- 
seph Brodie of Aslisk, and grandson of David Brodie of Brodie, 
brother of Lord Brodie. He married in 1692 his cousin Emily, fifth 
daughter of his predecessor, and died in 1716. leaving three sons and 
two daughters. The eldest son and heir of George Brodie was James 
Brodie, who died young, in 1720, and was succeeded by his brother 
Alexander, born August 17, 1697. He was appointed Lord Lyon of 

3i9 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

array. (Sec Frank Adam, "The Clans, Septs, and Regiments of the 
Scottish Highlands, ' ' 1909. ) 

There was a large immigration of people of Scottish blood into 
the American colonies during the half century preceding the Revolu- 
tion, especially from those settled in L T lster province, Ireland, dur- 
ing the century preceding the immigration; and in the Revolution 
they formed the major element in Pennsylvania vest of the Blue 
Ridge Mountains, Western Virginia, North and South Carolina, 
which later became the States of West Virginia, Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, besides smaller settlements elsewhere. Hanna, in "The 
Scotch-Irish," estimates the element called by that name as 410,000 
at the Revolutionary period. MacLean in his "Historical Account 
of the Settlement of Scotch Highlanders in America" estimates that 
20,000 went directly from the Highlands to America between 1763 
and 1775. The number of Scottish origin now within the boundaries 
of the nation is in the millions. 

THE CLAN'S 

Brodie — The name originally was "DeBrothie" and its first 
record was in 1311 in an Elginshire charter. Shaw in his "History 
of Moray," says the name is manifestly local, taken from the 
lands of Brodie, and probably they were originally of the ancient 
Moravienses and were one of those loyal tribes to whom Malcolm 
IV gave land about the year 1160 when he transplanted the Moray 
rebels. At the time of the burning of Brodie House by Lord Lewis 
Gordon in 1645, the old writings of the family were destroyed. 

From Malcolm, Thane of Brodie, living in the reign of Alexan- 
der III, descended Alexander Brodie, styled Lord Brodie, born July 
25, 1617. He was a senator of the College of Justice ; his son, James 
Brodie, of Brodie, born September 15, 1637, was his successor. The 
latter married in 1659, Lady Mary Ker, daughter of William, third 
Earl of Lothian. The issue of this union was nine daughters but no 
son, and he was succeeded by his cousin, George Brodie, son of Jo- 
seph Brodie of Aslisk, and grandson of David Brodie of Brodie, 
brother of Lord Brodie. He married in 1692 his cousin Emily, fifth 
daughter of his predecessor, and died in 1716. leaving three sons and 
two daughters. The eldest son and heir of George Brodie was James 
Brodie, who died young, in 1720, and was succeeded by his brother 
Alexander, born August 17, 1697. He was appointed Lord Lyon of 

3i9 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Scotland in 1727, and died 1754. By his wife, Mary Sleigh, ho had a 
son Alexander, and one daughter Emilia. The son and heir, born 
May 29, 1741, died at an early age and was succeeded by his second 
cousin, James Brodie, son of James Brodie of Spynie. This gentle- 
man, Lord Lieutenant of the County of Nairn, was born August 31, 
1744, and married Lady Margaret, the youngest daughter of Wil- 
liam, first Earl of Fife; this lady was burned to death at Brodie 
Hall, April 24, 1786. The death of the head of the family occurred 
January 17, 1824, leaving two sons and three daughters. The eld- 
est son, James, was drowned in his father's lifetime, leaving by Ann 
his wife, daughter of Colonel Story of Ascot, two sons and five 
daughters. The eldest son, William Brodie, Esq., of Brodie, in 
Morayshire, Lord Lieutenant of Nairnshire, born July 2, 1799, suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, January, 1824, married, November 27, 1838, 
Elizabeth, third daughter of Colonel Hugh Baillie, M. P., of Bed 
Castle. Their son, Hugh Fife xVshley, R. A., born September 8, 
1840, died 1889, leaving Ian Ashley as his successor. 

There were no sub-clans ; the other branches of family are, Bro- 
die of Lethen, and Brodie of Eastbourne, Sussex. 

Buchanan— The clan was founded by Auselan, and some his- 
torians claim it is of ecclesiastical origin. It was designated by the 
name of the ancient Celtic race of MacAuslan. In Gaelic the name is 
usually Mac-a-Channonaich (the son of the Canon), therefore it 
would seem to be of Celtic ecclesiastical origin. The second genera- 
tion of the clan of Auselan was John MacAuselan, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Auselan (2nd), and his son Walter was the fourth chief- 
tain of the clan. His successor was his son Bernard, who in turn 
gave way to his son MacBeath. Tradition gives the foregoing six 
lairds as possessors of an estate in the parish of Buchanan in Stirl- 
ingshire. 

The seventh chieftain, Auselan (3d), son of MacBeath, received 
in 1225 a charter of the island of Clar in Loch Lomond: this is the 
earliest record. It was towards the middle of the thirteenth century 
that Gilbert, the son of Auselan (3d), a seneschal of the Earl of 
Lennox, obtained from him a part of the lands of Buchanan in Stirl- 
ingshire and adopted the name de Buchanan. Donald, sixth earl of 
Lennox renewed to Sir Maurice (or Muredach) the son of Gilbert, 
the grant the former Earl had conferred upon his ancestor. The 
King granted to his successor, Sir Maurice (2nd), a son of Sir 

320 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Maurice, a charter of confirmation of the lands called Bouchannane, 
together with Sallaehy, these lands to he held by the delivery of a 
cheese out of each house in which a cheese is made on said lands. 

Through the marriage with a daughter of Menteith of Rusky, 
Sir Walter, the son of Sir Maurice (2nd), became connected with the 
Royal house. John, the only son of Sir "Walter, married the sole 
heiress of the ancient family of Lennie or Leny. He died before his 
father and left three sons — Six Alexander. who was slain at the battle 
of Verneuil; Walter, who succeeded to Buchanan; and John, 
who came into possession of Lennie. Walter married Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Murdoch, Duke of Albany. Their son Patrick married the 
heiress of Killearn and Auchrech. Their youngest son, Thomas, 
founded the House of Drumihill. The line of succession became 
extinct in 1682, and the estate was acquired by the Duke of Montrose 
of the Graham clan. This estate extended along the north and east 
of Loch Lomond, eighteen miles, it is said, at its fullest extent. The 
headship of the clan then went to the Buchanans of Lennie, who with 
Auchmar, Carbeth and Drumihill branches still survive. The Bu- 
chanans, being at the southern border of the Highlands, had the duty 
of starting the "Fiery Cross," a small wooden one with the ends on 
fire or charred, which was the signal of warning sent from one clan 
or sub-clan to the next, and so on by swift messengers. One branch 
of MacMillan is from Methlen, the son of Auselan (2d). The clan 
badge is a sprig of birch; its war-cry, "Clar Innis, " for an island 
in Loch Lomond. 

Sub-Clans and derivation of their names : 

Column, from Colman (3d), son of Auselan (2d), who was 
named from St. Columbanus; in Norman, Colman. 

Donleavy, from the Gaelic Duinn-shleibhe, man of the mountain. 

Dove or Dowe, the English translation of Colman, which is 
from columba, dove. 

Gibb, Gibson, Gilbert, Gilbertson, from Gilbert, the eighth 
Laird. 

Harper, Harperson, from a Buchanan who was an official har- 
per. 

Lennie, from the Lennie estate. 

MacAldonich, from the Gaelic MacMhuldonich, from Muldon- 
ich, a man of the Lennie branch. 

MacAndeoir, son of the stranger (deoradh). 

MacAslan or McAuslan; MacCalman (MacCalmont, MacCam- 
mond) MacColman. 

321 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

MacChruiter, i. e., a son of a harper, from the Gaelic word cruit, 
harp. 

MacCormack, from the Gaelio MacCormaig; from cormac, a 
brewer. 

MacDonleavy; MacGibbon, MacGilbert, MacGreusich from the 
Gaelic word greusaich, a shoemaker. 

Macinally, (for MacKinlay). 

Maclndeor, MacIndoc,-r, Maclndie, MacKindeor, Mackinder, 
for MacAndeoir. 

MacKinlay, Gaelic MacFhionnlaigh, from fiionn, white, and 
laocli, hero; MacMaurice. 

MacMaster, from the Gaelic MacMaigliister, and from Latin 
maglster, a master. 

MacMurchie, from the G-aelic MacM urchaidh. 

MacNuyer, MacNuir. 

MacWattie, son of Watt, i. e. Walter, a name among the Bu- 
chanans of Lennie, derived from Sir Walter, the eleventh Laird of 
Buchanan. 

MacWhirter. 

Masterson. 

Murchie, Murchison. 

Risk, Ruskin, from Gaelic narusgain of the bark, i. e. a tanner; 
a branch of MacColman. 

Spittal, from Spitalfield, in Perthshire. 

Watson, Watt. 

Yuill or Yule, born upon Yule, or Christmas. 

Cameron — This name is from the Gaelic camshron, meaning 
wry-nose, or crooked nose. The first Cameron of whom there is 
any record is Angus, who married Marion, daughter of Kenneth of 
Lochaber, and sister of Bancho, governor of Lochaber. The Camer- 
ons held their possessions east of the Lochy river, from the Lord 
of the Isles, as superior. Lochiel and Loch-Arkaig lands west of 
Lochy river and Loch were granted to and long held by MacDonald, 
of the clan Ranald, before it came into + he hands of the Camerons. 
Gillespie or Archibald, the oldest son of Angus, succeeded him; and 
John, his son, was the third laird. The latter 's son Robert was a 
witness on record before 1200 in the reign of William the Lion. The 
next laird, John, the son of Robert, had two sons ; Robert and Hugo 
are mentioned in 1219. The next in succession was Robert, men- 
tioned above, who was succeeded by his son John, who was a prom- 
inent figure in the time of Robert Bruce. The next laird in regular 
succession was John, the son of John, who was succeeded by Allan, 

322 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

in whose time began the feud between the Canierons and the Mac- 
intoshes which was not settled until late in the seventeenth century, 
the Canierons having occupied lands formerly held by the Mac- 
intoshes. The Camerons were a part of Clan Chattan of Moray, 
and followed its chief. A battle was fought between them in 1380 ; 
and in 1396, on account of the success of the Macintoshes at the 
battle of North Inch in Perth, which gave them the leadership of 
the clan, the Camerons withdrew and became a separate clan. 

It was under Ewan, the tenth laird and oldest son of Allan, was 
fought the famous combat between thirty picked warriors of Cam- 
eron and a like number of Macintosh. His brother, Donald Du, 
in 1411 was the first assured chief of the clan, and at the battle of 
Harlaw in that year lost many of his followers. lie married the 
heiress of MacMartin of Letterfmlay and succeeded to her prop- 
erty, thus uniting the Camerons and the MacMartins under one 
chief, the followers of the latter adopting the name of Cameron. 
There were at this time, four branches of the Camerons, namely, 
Gillonic, Sorley, MacMartin and the Camerons of Lochiel. When 
the royal forces in 1192 attacked Alexander, Lord of the Isles, 
Lochiel adhered to him, and the other three, with Clan Chattan, went 
over to the King's forces. Donald Du left two sons — Allan, who 
succeeded him; and Ewen, the progenitor of the latter MacGillonie, 
Camerons of Strone. Allan left two sons — -Ewen, his heir; and John, 
from whom descended the Camerons of Callart. 

The line of the Camerons of Lochiel is as follows : Ewen, the 
son of Allan, outlived his heir Donald, who died between 1536-1539 ; 
his son Ewen was the progenitor of the family of Errach, and an- 
other son of the Camerons of Kin-Lochiel. The successor of Ewen 
was his grandson Ewen, known also as '•Eoghan Beag," who was 
the father of the famous warrior Taillear dubh na Tuaighe, the 
Black Tailor of the Axe. His successor was Donald, recorded in a 
grant of land in 156-1; his nephew Allan succeeded to chieftainship 
at the age of fifteen years, and died about 16-17. When an act of 
Parliament was passed commanding all chiefs and proprietors of 
estates to appear in the Court of Exchequer before May 15, 1597, and 
to exhibit charters and find bail or security to pay crown revenues 
and to live peaceably in all coming time, the clans were brought into 
line with the rest of the kingdom. 

The next hereditary chieftain was Sir Ewen, a grandson of 

3?3 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Allan by his oldest son John. He was born in 1629, in the castle of 
Kilehnrn, the residence of his mother's family, the Campbells of 
Glenorchy. Sir Ewen died in 1719 at advanced age, having com- 
pleted his ninetieth year. He was succeeded by his son, John, who 
died in exile at Newport, Flanders, in 1717 or 1718, at a very ad- 
vanced age. His eldest son Donald, known as "The Gentle Lochiel," 
was his successor. Like his father, he joined in the uprisings of 
1715 and 1715 in favor of Charles Stuart; he was present at the 
battle of Falkirk, also at Culloden, where he was severely wounded; 
he escaped to France, where he died October 26, 1718, having been 
chief of the clan less than a year. He was succeeded by his son 
John, who died unmarried in 1762, and was succeeded by his brother 
Charles. The latter died in 1776, and was succeeded by his son 
Donald, who was only seven years of age. He had the family 
estates restored, subject to a fine of £3192 under the Indemnity Act 
of 1781. He died in 1832, and was succeeded by his oldest surviving 
son, Donald, a captain in the Grenadier Guards who was present at 
the battle of Waterloo. His death occurred in 1859, and his eldest 
son Donald, born in 1835, became the head of the family. His death 
took place November 30, 1905, and he was succeeded by his son 
Donald Walter. The badge of the clan is crowberry, and its war cry 
"Sons of the hounds, come here and get flesh !" 

Sub-Clans : 

Chalmers. 

Clark, Clarkson, Clerk, MacChlerich, MacChlery, all five from 
clericus, a learned man. 

Kennedy, from Gaelic Ceanaideach. 

MacGillonie, from Gaelic Gill-an-fhaigh (for fhaidh), servant 
of the prophet. 

Macildowie from the Gaelic patronymic of the lltli chief Mac 
Dhomh'uill duibh, 

MacKail, for MacVail. 

Maclerie, usually MacChlerich. 

MacMartin, same as called in manuscript of 1167, Gilla Martain, 
servant of St. Martin; later, Gaelic MacMhartain. 

MacOnie, for MacGillonie. 

MacOurlic, for MacUlric. 

MacPhail, a son of Paul, head of a branch of Cameron. 

MacSorley, from Gaelic Somliairle, a name borrowed from the 
Lords of the Isles, descendants of Somerled, Norse, Sumarlidhi. 

MacUlric, son of Ualrig Kennedy. 

3 2 4 



UGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Mae Vail, for MacPliail. 

MacWalrick, variation of MacUlric; Martin. 
Paul; Sorlev. 
Taylor. 

The main branches are MacGillonie, MacMartin and MacSorley. 
3ee Alexander Mackenzie, "History of Cameron"). 

Campbell of Argyll — The Campbells take their surname from a 
tcial deformity, from the Gaelic words cam, wry, and bruel, mouth 
-cam-bruel, wry mouth. The earliest record of the clan is in 1266, 
hen Gillespie, or Gillespie Cambell was a witness on the charter 
' Newburgh in Fife. His name however appeared on the Exchequer 
oil in 1216, when he returned as holding lands of Menstrie and 
auchie in Stirling. He married the heiress of Lochaw. The war 
y of the Campbells is Crnachan, for a mountain near Loch Awe; 
ie clan pipe music for salute, Failte Mharcuis, the "Marquis Sa- 
le;" for march, Bail-Ionaraora, the Campbells are coming; for 
ment, Cumha Mharcuis, "the Marquis Lament." The badge is 
oid, wild myrtle, or Garbhag an t-sleiblie, Fir Club Moss. 

The successor of Sir Gillespie Cambell was his son Colin 
Oalean), who was reckoned as seventh from the founder. At this 
ime period Dugald Cambell was connected with Dumbarton Castle 
bout the year 1289. Arthur and Thomas Cambell in 1296 are men- 
oued as King's tenants in Perthshire, and Duncan Cambell "of the 
sles" in the same year swears fealty to Edward I. About the same 
me Neil Cambell was made King Edward's bailie over the lands 
corn Lochfyne to Kilmartin in Argyll. 

From Calean Mor, the prefix signifying great, mentioned above, 
ie house of Argyll gets its patronymic MacCalean Mor. He was 
nighted by King Alexander III in 12S0, and supported the claim 
f Bruce to the throne of Scotland in 1292, and is entered on a docu- 
ment as connected with Argyll. Sir Colin had a quarrel with the 
lacDougalls of Lorn, and in 1294, at a battle called "Ath Dearg" 
Red Ford), sometimes called string of Lorn, he was slain. These 
3uds continued for a series of years between the houses of Locliin 
nd Lorn, but at last terminated by the marriage of the first Earl of 
hijgyll with the heiress of Lorn. Sir Gillespie, the grandson of the 
pit Sir Gilespic, was a witness to a charter in 1266, and his eldest 
pn, Sir Nigel or Neil, married Mary, the sister of Robert Bruce; 
is name appears on the Ragman Roll of 1299. The second son of 
ir Gillespie, Sir Duncan, founded the house of the Campbell of 

325 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS. SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Loudoun. The next chieftain of the clan, Sir Colin, was a son of Sir 
Nigel ; he captured the Castle of Duncan in 1334, and was appointed 
its keeper. His successor was Sir Archibald, who died in 1372 and 
was succeeded by his son, Sir Colin Campbell (Cailean Iongantach), 
who was in great favor with King Robert II and was employed by 
his royal master to restrain the Highlanders, for which he received 
grants of lands. He died in 1413 and was succeeded by his son, 
Sir Duncan, "Donnachadh an Aidh" (Duncan the Fortunate). He 
was noted for his valor and wisdom, and was a man of great ability. 
He was created Lord Campbell by James II in 14-15, and was the 
first of the family that took the title of Argyll. He was accounted 
one of the wealthiest barons in Scotland. His wife was Marjory, 
daughter of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, a brother of King 
Robert III. He died in 1453, and was buried in the church of 
Kilmun, where there is a monument erected over him with a lifesize 
statue of himself; round the verge of the tomb is the inscription, 
"Hie jacet Dominus Duncanus Dominus le Campbell, Miles de 
Lochow, 1453." 

Sir Archibald Roy Campbell succeeded his father, and mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Somerville, by Avhom he had one 
son, Colin, who succeeded him. The new laird was granted Argyll; 
he was created Earl of Argyll in 1457 by James II, and was ap- 
pointed to the chieftainship of the county. He was Lord High 
Chancellor of Scotland in 1483. By a marriage with Isabel, second 
daughter of John Stewart, Lord of Lorn, he was created Baron of 
Lorn, and in 1481 received a grant of lands in Knapdale. He died 
in 1493, and was succeeded by his son Archibald, the second Earl of 
Argyll, who had the honor to command the van of the Royal army 
at the battle of Flodden and there fell with his Royal master, King 
James IV, September 9, 1513. By his wife, Lady Elizabeth Stewart, 
the eldest daughter of John, first Earl of Lennox, he had four sons 
and five daughters. His eldest son, Colin, third Earl of Argyll, 
added to the estate and power. He was succeeded in 1530 by his son 
Archibald, the fourth Earl of Argyll. He changed his religious 
views in 1547, and was one of the first of the nobility to embrace 
the Protestant religion. He died in 1558 and was succeeded by his 
son Archibald, the fifth Earl of Argyll, who was present at the 
coronation of James VI, where he carried the Sword of State. He 
espoused the cause of Queen Mary and commanded her Majesty's 

326 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

force at the battle of Langside. He died without issue in 1575, and 
was succeeded by his half-brother Colin, sixth Earl of Argyll. He 
died in October, 15S4, and his eldest son, Archibald, became the 
seventh Earl of Argyll. He was present at the battle of Glenlivet in 
1594, reduced the MacGregors in 1603, and suppressed a favorable 
insurrection of the MacDonalds in the Western Isle in 1614. He 
afterwards entered the service of Philip III of Spain, and obtained 
renown in the wars of that monarch against the States of Holland. 
His eldest son, Archibald, born in 1598, succeeded his father in 1638 
as the eighth Earl of Argyll, and was created Marquess of Argyll 
in 1638. After the Restoration he was beheaded, May 27, 1661. His 
estates and titles were forfeited, but Charles II restored to his son 
Archibald the estates and title of Earl of Argyll. He took part in 
Monmouth's rebellion, and was beheaded June 30, 16S5. He was 
succeeded by his son Archibald, the tenth Earl of Argyll, who re- 
turned from Holland with the Prince of Orange in 1688, who created 
him Duke of Argyll in 1701. He died two years later and John, his 
son, became the second Duke of Argyll and Earl of Greenwich. He 
was a noted warrior and died in 1743, leaving no male issue. His 
English titles became extinct; his brother Archibald succeeded to 
the estate and the Scottish honors, Duke of Argyll, etc. His death 
occurring without issue in 1761, the title devolved on his cousin, 
General John Campbell, of Mamore, second son of Archibald, the 
ninth Earl. John, the fourth Duke, died in 1700 and was succeeded 
by his son John, the fifth Duke, who died in 1790 and left two sons, 
George William, the sixth Duke, who died in 1839, and was succeeded 
by his brother, John Douglas, the seventh Duke, known chiefly as the 
father of George John Douglas Campbell, the author of ' ' The Reign 
of Law," etc. He was known as Marquess of Lorn before the death 
of his father in 1847, whom he succeeded as eighth Duke of Argyll. 
His death occurred in 1900, when John Douglas Sutherland, born 
August 6, 1845, became ninth Duke of Argyll. He had married 
in 1871, when he was known as Marquess of Lorn, Princess Louisa, 
daughter of Queen Victoria. He died in 1914, when he was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, Niall Diarmid Campbell, the tenth and pres- 
ent Duke. 

Sub-Clans : 

Bannatyns, from John de Bennachtyne, Edinburghshire, 1361. 
(Ballantyne, Bellenden). 

327 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Burnes, one living - at a burn or brook. 

Connechie, MacChonnechey, MacConochie, Gaelic. 

MacDhonnahaidh, son of Donnchaidh or Duncan. 

Denoon; Denue from estates MacDermid or MacDiamid, from 
Diarmid alleged progenitor of the clan. 

MacGibbon, from Gilbert, among early Campbells. 

MacGlasrich, from Campbell of Glassary parish. 

Maclsaac (MacKesock, MacKissock), from Isaac Campbell. 
Maclver, Maclevor, Gaelic Maclamhar, from Norse Ivarr. 

MacKellar, Gaelic MacCallare in Argyll records, 1470. 

MacNichol, as from Nicholas Campbell. 

MacOran. 

MacOwen. 

MacTause or MacTavish, from Gaelic MacTamhais, son of 
Tamhus, i. e. Thomas, also MacThomas, Taweson, Thomas, Thom- 
ason, Thompson. 

MaclTre and Ur, for Maclver. 

Campbell of Breadalbane— The founder of this branch of the 
Campbell clan was Black Colin of Rome ("Calean dubh na 
Roimbe"), second son of Sir Duncan Campbell by his wife, Lady 
Marjory Stewart. Sir Colin in 1492 received as patrimony from his 
father the lands of Glenorchy, from which the MacGregors had been 
driven, and from these lands they took their title. Sir Colin was 
married four times, his first wife being Mariot, daughter of Sir 
Walter Stewart ; his second wife, Lady Margaret, daughter of John 
Stewart, Lord of Lorn, and with whom he received the third of the 
lands of Lorn. During his absence, Lady Margaret built the castle 
of Kilchurn (Caolchuirm) Loch Awe. His third wife was Margaret 
Robertson, of Strowan ; his fourth, Margaret, daughter of Luke 
Stirling of Keir. Sir Colin during his eventful career added greatly 
to his possessions by extending his borders eastward and north- 
ward. He died in 1198 and was buried at the chapel of Finlarig 
Killin. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Duncan, and the frequent 
insurrections of the MacGregors gave the family occasion to sup- 
press them, thereby increasing his own power and obtaining grants 
of that clan's land from the Crown. He was killed at the battle of 
Flodden in 1513. He was succeeded by his three sons— Duncan, 
John and Colin. The latter died in 1583 and was succeeded by his 
son Duncan (VII), who was created Baronet of Glenorchy. He was 
known as Black Duncan, or Duncan with the cowl. He added greatly 
to the lands and church possessions of the family, was the first of 

328 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

the Highland lairds to turn their attention to rural improvements, 
planted trees, and enforced the planting of them by his tenants. Sir 
Duncan died in 1631 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Colin, 
who died without issue. His brother Eobert became the third baro- 
net, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, who died in 1686, and 
his eldest son John became his successor. 

Sir John (XI), known as "Iain Grlas," was born in 1635 and 
was created Earl of Caithness in 1677 by Charles II of England, and 
he immediately began to invade the lands thus granted, which his- 
torical event is commemorated in the well known song "The Camp- 
bells are Coming." His Majesty, realizing he was in error, com- 
pelled Sir John Campbell to drop the Caithness title, and he created 
him, in 1681, Earl of Breadalbane and Holland. He was succeeded 
by John (XII), the second Earl, who died in 1752 and was succeeded 
by his son John (XIII), who died in 1782, leaving no issue. John 
(XIV) succeeded to the title, being a lineal descendant of Colin of 
Mochaster, second son of Eobert (LX). He was created a Baron of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1806 by the title of Mar- 
quess Breadalbane of Tayrnouth Castle, County of Perth. John, 
the second Marquess and fifth Earl, succeeded his father in 1834; he 
represented Perthshire in Parliament in 1832. He died without is- 
sue in November, 1862, when the Marquisate of Breadalbane and 
Earldom of Ormelie in the Scottish Peerage became extinct, and the 
succession was disputed. He was succeeded in the Scotch titles by 
Sir John Alexander Gavin Campbell, sixth Earl of Breadalbane; 
his succession to the titles were based on his being a lineal descend- 
ant of William, the fifth son of Sir Robert Campbell (IX). Sir John 
was born in March, 1821, and succeeded his cousin in 1862. He mar- 
ried in 1871 Mary Theresa, only daughter of John Francis Ed- 
wards of Dublin, Ireland. He died in 1871 and was succeeded by his 
son Gavin Campbell, created Marquess of Breadalbane in 1885. He 
married in 1872, Alma, daughter of the fourth Duke of Montrose. 

Campbell of C a w dor— The first record we have of this branch 
of the Campbell clan is John, the seventh Thane of Calder, or Caw- 
dor. He married Isabel Rose, daughter of Kilravock in 1492, and 
died two years later, leaving a posthumous daughter, Muriel or Mar- 
ion. Her grandfather, Kilravock, intended that the heiress should 
wed his grandson, her first cousin. Kilravock with the Mackintosh 
attempted to possess themselves of the lands of Urquhart of Cro- 

329 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

inarty. Argyll, the chief justice general, indicted him by a criminal 
process for robbery, and secured a wardship in 1495 of Muriel's 
marriage from the King, and later she was removed to Inveraray. 
In the autumn of 1499, Campbell of Inverliver received the child on 
the pretence of sending her south for her education. His force of six- 
ty men was pursued by her uncles Alexander and Hugh Calder with 
a superior party. The child was sent forward under an escort of six 
men, and, to deceive his antagonists, Inverliver dressed a sheaf of 
corn with the child's clothes, which was kept in view in the rear by 
one of his party. Inverliver being unable to overcome the attack- 
ing party, retreated, leaving the fictitious child to the Calders. Tra- 
dition says, in the midst of the congratulations of Lady Muriel's 
safe arrival at Inveraray, Campbell of Auchinbreck was asked what, 
was to be done if the child should die before she was marriageable. 
''She never can die," said he, "so long as a red haired lassie can 
be found on either side of Loch Awe !" Therefore it would appear 
that the heiress of the Calders or Cawdors was redheaded. 

Lady Muriel in 1510 married Sir John Campbell, third son of 
Argyll. "The Book of the Thanes of Cawdor" says Sir John was a 
Campbell of the old stamp, incessantly increasing his possessions, 
extending his influence and his treaties with his cousins, also with 
the MacLeans, MacDonalds and MacNeills, thus showing policy and 
knowledge power. From 1524 until 1546, the year of his death, Sir 
John Campbell resided permanently at Cawdor. Lady Muriel sur- 
vived him for many years, also their son Archibald. Lady Muriel 
died about 1575, resigning her thanedom to her grandson, John 
(III), who married a daughter of Yv 7 illiam, fourth Earl Marischal, 
by whom he had two sons and two daughters. The eldest of these 
daughters married Sir John MacDonald of Islay, the other daughter 
married Campbell of Glenfaochan in Lorn. Sir John early in the 
seventeenth century sold Croy and disposed of Ferintosh to Lord 
Lovat, and mortgaged other lands in order to purchase or conquer the 
island of Islay. The thanes of the clan of Campbell of Cawdor kept 
possession of Islay from 1612 to 1726, when it was purchased by 
Daniel Campbell, one of the Skipness family. 

The successor of Sir John (III) was his son, Sir John (IV). 
He married for his first wife Jean, a daughter of Sir Duncan Camp- 
bell of Glenorchy; his second wife was Margaret, daughter of Wil- 
liam, Earl of Angus. Sir John resigned the estate of Cawdor in 

330 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

1622 to his eldest son, Sir John, who was a member of parliament 
from -Nairnshire. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Urquhart of Cromarty, and died in 1654. The next successor to the 
estate was Sir Colin, the youngest son of Sir John (IV). His son, 
Sir Hugh, was knighted in 1660, and his son Sir Alexander during 
his lifetime resigned the estates to his son John, born 1695. John 
Campbell married Mary, eldest daughter and co-heiress of Lewis 
Pryce. He was a Lord of the Admiralty and afterwards of the 
Treasury. He died in 1777 and was succeeded by his grandson 
John, who was elevated in 1796 to the Peerage of Great Britain by 
the title of Baron Cawdor of Castlemartin, Pembrokeshire. He 
died in 1821 and was succeeded by his son, John Frederick Camp- 
bell, first Earl of Cawdor. He married a daughter of Thomas, sec- 
ond Marquess of Bath, and died June 27, 1860. His eldest son, John 
Frederick Vaughan Campbell, became the second Earl of Cawgor, 
and died in 1898, and his son, Frederick Archibald Vaughan Camp- 
bell, born in 1849, became the third Earl of Cawdor, and at his death 
in 1911 was succeeded by his son, Hugh Frederick Vaughan, born in 
1870, fourth Earl of Cawdor. His death occurred in 1914, and his 
successor was his son, John Duncan Vaughan Campbell, the fifth 
Earl of Cawdor. 

Sub-Clan— Caddell, Cawdor, Calder, from a town in Lanark- 
shire. 

Campbell of Loudoun — The first of the present house of Lou- 
doun was Sir Duncan Campbell, grandson of Sir Colin Campbell, 
ancestor of the Duke of Argyll, already mentioned. He married 
Susanna, daughter and heiress of Sir Reingald Crawford, High 
Sheriff of Ayr, who fell in battle in 1303, and was a grandnephew 
of the mother of the celebrated Sir William Wallace. 

Loudoun was in 13S1 converted into a free barony by a charter 
granted by Robert I, and included the lands of Stevenson. Sir 
Duncan also obtained from King Robert a charter of the Red Castle, 
and by his wife had a son, Sir Andrew, who was taken prisoner with 
David II at the Battle of Durham, and held in captivity in England 
until 1357. His son, Sir Hugh of Loudoun, was one of those ap- 
pointed to meet King James I at Durham in 1423, and his grandson, 
Sir George, became a hostage for the King's ransom and accom- 
panied the unhappy Princess Margaret to France in 1436, when she 
became the wife of the future Louis XL Two Sir John Campbells 

33i 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

of Loudoun succeeded; Sir Matthew Campbell was a faithful subject 
of Queen Mary, and fought for her at Langside. His second son, 
Matthew, settled in Levonia and became the ancestor of the famous 
Earl of Loudoun, who became famous in American history in the 
eighteenth century. 

Sir Hugh Campbell of Loudoun was, like all of his predeces- 
sors, High Sheriff of Ayr, and possessed large landed estates de- 
rived from Charles, granted between 1580 to 1600. In 1601 he was 
created Lord Campbell of Loudoun by James VI. He married Mar- 
garet Gordon, of the house of Lochinver. His son John died before 
him, leaving a daughter Margaret, who succeeded to all the honors 
of Loudoun in 1623, and married Sir John Campbell of Lawers, a 
descendant of Colin Campbell, the first Baron of Glenorchy. He was 
created by Charles I in 1633, Baron Tarrinzean and Mauchline and 
Earl of Loudoun, and in 1641 was Lord High Chancellor of Scot- 
land. His grandson, the second Earl of Loudoun, was James Camp- 
bell, colonel of the Scots Greys, and as a major-general was killed 
at the battle of Fontenoy in 1715. His elder brother Hugh became 
the third Earl of Loudoun, and joined King William's forces at the 
time of the Revolution, and died in 1731. His son John, the fourth 
Earl of Loudoun, attained the highest military honors. He was 
active in the government service in 1745, and raised a regiment of 
Highlanders, consisting of twelve companies, which covered itself 
with distinction in the war in Flanders. This regiment was dis- 
banded in 1748, and the Earl in 1756 was appointed commander of 
the forces in America. Two years later he was commander in 
Portugal, and in 1770 he was colonel of the Scots Foot Guards. He 
died unmarried, in 1782. The title thus reverted to his brother, 
Major General James Mure Campbell, who married Flora, eldest 
daughter of MacLeod of Rassay, by whom he had one child, Flora 
Mure-Campbell, who became the Countess of Loudoun, and married 
in 1801 General Earl of Moira, commander-in-chief in Scotland, af- 
terwards governor-general of India, and who in 1816 was created 
Marquess of Hastings. The Countess Flora was succeeded by her 
son George, the seventh Earl of Loudoun and the second Marquess 
of Hastings. The seventh Earl of Loudoun in 1858 was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Paulyn Reginald Serlo, who became the third Mar- 
quess of Hastings and eighth Earl of Loudoun. He was an officer 
in the army, and died unmarried in 1861, and was succeeded by his 

332 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

brother, Henry Weysford Charles Plantagenet, the fourth Marquess 
of Hastings and ninth Earl of Loudoun. At his death in 1SC8 the 
marquisate and the other titles created by patent, except the Scotch 
honors, became extinct. The ninth Earl of Loudoun was succeeded 
in his Scottish honors by his eldest sister, Edith May, Countess of 
Loudoun, who married Charles Frederick Clifton, afterwards Lord 
Donington. The Countess died in 1874, and was succeeded by her 
eldest son, Charles Edward Hastings, who became the eleventh 
Earl of Loudoun. 

Sub-Clans— Loudoun, a branch. 

Colquhoun — In the reign of Alexander II, Maldowin, Earl of 
Lennox, granted a charter of the lands of Culchone or Colquhoun to 
Umfudus (Humphrey) de Kilpatrik. Humphrey's successor Ingram 
adopted the name of the lands as a surname. In the beginning of the 
reign of Robert I a charter of Luss was given by Malcolm, Earl of 
Lennox, to Malcolm, Laird of Luss, confirming John, Laird of Luss, 
his charter to his son of those lands. Therefore it would appear 
that there were three branches of the family— Colquhoun, Kilpat- 
rick, and Luss. With regard to the Kilpatrick line, it appears during 
the reign of Alexander II that Umphresuis de Kilpatrick obtained a 
grant of land and barony of Colquhoun in Dumbartonshire, on which 
occasion he assumed the name and arms of Colquhoun. There were, 
however, others of the name in early times. Under David II, Gil- 
bert Colquhoun, a herald, was forfeited, and lands of Barinneheuric 
were bestowed on Isabel of Athois. In the same year a charter was 
given to Malcolm Culchone of Gask. 

Ingram, Humphrey, Sir Robert and Sir Humphrey, all Colqu- 
houns of that ilk, and Luss, succeeded each other, and then came 
Sir John, who was governor of Dumbarton Castle during the minor- 
ity of James II. He and one hundred and twenty of his clansmen 
were lured into an ambush by Lauchian McLean and other Islesmen, 
and massacred. His son Malcolm predeceased him and left a son, 
Sir John, who succeeded his grandfather and married a daughter of 
Lord Boyd. Sir John was a prominent figure in Scottish history; a 
man of ability, he was Comptroller of the Exchequer, 1465 to 1469; 
Great Chamberlain of Scotland in 1474; appointed governor, for 
life, of Dumbarton Castle in 1477 ; and was member of that commis- 
sion whose futile scheme was an attempt to arrange a marriage be- 
tween the Crown Prince of Scotland and Cecily, the daughter of 

333 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Edward IV of England. Sir John was granted the lands of Rose- 
neath, also the Castle of Douglas, whose ruins adorn the banks of 
the Clyde, belonging to the Colquhouns. He was slain by a cannon 
ball in 1478, during the siege of Dumbarton Castle, in which the 
famous "Mons Meg" figured. 

Sir John was succeeded by his son, Sir Humphrey, who died in 
1493, and his successor was his son, Sir John, who was knighted by 
James IV and obtained under the great Seal grants of land and bar- 
onies in Dumbartonshire. He died in 1535-36 and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Sir John, who died in 1574. His son, Sir Humphrey 
Colquhoun, the twelfth Laird of Luss, succeeded to the estates in 
his minority; he acquired the heritable coronership of Dumbarton- 
shire in 1583. He married (first) Jean, daughter of the Earl of 
•Glencairn, and (second) Jean, daughter of Lord John Hamilton, but 
left no issue. He was defeated with loss of two hundred men at the 
bloody battle of Glenfruin in 1607, by the MacGregors, and was 
afterwards killed in his own Castle of Benachra by the MacFar- 
lanes. His successor was his brother, Sir Alexander, who died in 
1617, when his son, Sir John Colquhoun, became the Thane of the 
Clan. He had obtained in 1602 a charter for ten pounds of land in 
Donnerbuck. He was made Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I in 
1625, and during the protectorship of Cromwell was mulcted of two 
thousand pounds sterling. His son, Sir John, was the second Baro- 
net of Nova Scotia, and died in 1676. His son, Sir John, was the 
third Baronet, and died unmarried in 1680. He was succeeded by his 
uncle, Sir James, the fourth Baronet, and at his death in 16S8 his 
son, Sir Humphrey Colquhoun, became the seventeenth Laird of 
Luss. He was a member of the Union Parliament, and married a 
daughter of Houston of that ilk, by whom he had a daughter Anne. 
She in 1702 married James Grant, of Pluscardine. Sir Humphrey 
being resolved that the young couple should succeed him in his whole 
estate and honors, in 1704 resigned his baronetcy to the Crown and 
obtained a new grant, giving himself a life rent, to his daughter 
and son-in-law in fee, providing that their heirs should adopt the 
name and arms of Colquhoun and that the estates of Grant and Luss 
should never be conjoined. Sir Humphrey died in 1718, and James 
Orant succeeded as Sir James Colquhoun. His elder brother dying 
without issue in 1719, he succeeded to the estates of Grant, and re- 
suming that name was succeeded in the estates of Luss by his third 

334 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

son, Sir Ludovick, who on the death of his elder brother unmarried, 
succeeded to the estates of Grant; that of Luss went to his younger 
brother James, born 1741, created Baronet of Luss in 1786 and died 
in 1805. His son, Sir James, was his successor, and was succeeded 
by two James's, the last dying in 1907. The titles and estates then 
devolved to Sir Alan John, a cousin of his predecessor. He died in 
1910, and was succeeded by his son, Sir Lain, born in 1887, four- 
teenth Baronet of Colquhoun, and seventh Baronet of Luss, the pres- 
ent chief of the clan. The war cry of the clan is "Cnoc Ealachain;" 
the clan pipe music is Gathering "Ceann na Drochaide Bige," 
' ' Head of the Little Bridge. ' ' March ' ' Caismeachd Chloinn a Chom- 
paich," "The Colquhouns' March." Lament— "Ruaig Ghlinne 
Preoine," "Rout of Glenfruin." The Badge: Braoileag nan con 
(Dogberry) or Caltuinn (Hazel). In the United States the clan is 
known by the family name of Calhoun or Calhoon, the badge being a 
hazel. 

Sub-Clans : 

Cowan. 
Kilpatriek. 
Kirkpatrick. 
Macachounich. 

MacCowan, from the Gaelic MacComnghain, and a personal 
name Comgan. (St. Comgan). 

Cumin, Comyn, dimming— This once powerful clan is now 
practically extinct. Its badge was Lus Mhic Cuimin, the Cumin 
Plant, common sallow, i. e., willow. The clan was located at Bad- 
enoch, in the southeast district of Inverness-shire, a wild, mountain- 
ous country, interspersed with bleak moorland. From 1080 to 1330 
the clan flourished in strength and then began to decline. 

Though some researchers claim that they originated in Comines 
in the arrondissement of Lille, France, this Norman tradition ac- 
cording to the Chronicle of Melrose would seem fictitious. The first 
one of the name in accordance with the authority mentioned above 
came from Northumberland, and was slain with Malcolm III at Aln- 
wick in 1093, leaving two sons, John and William. From the former 
all the Cumins in Scotland are said to be descended. William was 
preferred to the See of Durham by the Empress Maud. 

Sir John, the "Red Cumin (or Comyn), was the first to be desig- 
nated as Lord of Badenoch, and was in 1240 ambassador from Alex- 

335 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

ander II to Louis IX of France. His son John, called the Black 
Lord of Badenoch, was second to none of the subjects of Scotland in 
wealth and power, and was one of those who vowed to support 
Queen Margaret, daughter of Alexander II, in her title to the crown, 
against all mortals; he however agreed to her marriage with the 
eldest son of Edward I in 1290, and on her death became an unscrup- 
ulous competitor for the crown of Scotland, basing his claim as be- 
ing the son and heir of John, a son of Richard, son of William, son 
of Hextilda, a daughter and heiress of Gotherick, son and heir of 
Duncan, King of Scotland. Prior to this, Cumin, Lord of Tynedale, 
married the heiress of Fergus, the last of the old Earls of Buchan, 
and in 1220 in her right became Earl of Buchan. 

Edward I of England, in pursuance of his schemes against 
Scotland, favored the rival claims of John Baliol to the throne of 
Scotland, which however did not prevent the Lord of Badenoch from 
swearing fealty in 1292 to the foe. Five years afterwards he died 
a prisoner in England, leaving his wife, daughter of John and sis- 
ter of King John Baliol. His son, also known as Red Cumin, was an 
artful and ambitious dissembler, a panderer to the King of England, 
and on the point of betraying Robert Bruce perished under the dag- 
gers of Bruce and Kirkpatrick in the Church of Dumfries, February 
10th, 1306. He was the last Lord of Badenoch of the surname of 
Cumin. 

The line of the Earl of Buchan continued to flourish. Earl Wil- 
liam, first of the title, founded the Abbey of Deer, now in ruins. He 
was Great Justiciary of Scotland in 1220 under Alexander II. His 
brother William was by that monarch created Earl of Menteith on 
his marriage to the heiress of that family, with whom he acquired a 
vast estate. Alexander, third Earl of Buchan, was Justiciary of 
Scotland, and with his clansman, the Lord of Badenoch, was one of 
the regents appointed on the death of Alexander III. John, his son, 
fourth Earl of Buchan, was High Constable of Scotland and one of 
the arbiters on the part of Baliol. 

The slaughter of the Red Cumin by Bruce inspired the whole 
clan with a desire to avenge his death. They opposed the King, and 
were defeated at the battle of Barra in 1308, and pursued as far as 
Fyvie. The Earl was outlawed and his forfeited estates were di- 
vided between the Keiths, Plays and Douglasses, faithful supporters 
of the King, and whose good swords helped to win the battle of Ban- 

336 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUI. -CLANS AND FAMILIES 

nockburn. His only son married a daughter of the Earl of Pem- 
broke, and died without issue ; but Jordanus Cumin, a kinsman of his 
got the lands of Inverallochy from Earl Alexander and became an- 
cestor of the Cumins of Culter; however, Sir Robert Douglas got a 
charter of these lands in 1477 from James III. A number of the 
Cumin clan were slain in 1335 in the feudal battle of Culblean, in 
Glenmuiek. The old clan is now represented by the Gordon-Cum- 
ings, Baronets of Gordonstoun, through the Cummings of Altyre, 
who succeeded to the name and arms of Gordon by intermarriage. 
Sub-Clans : 

Buchan, named from a district in Aberdeenshire. 
MacNiven or Niven, from Gaelic, Naomh, a saint. 

Davidson — This clan associated themselves and took protection 
under William Mackintosh, seventh of Mackintosh clan, prior to 
1350, and ever since has been regarded as a sept of Clan Chattan. 
Clan Chattan was an early confederacy of eight clans, deduced from 
a reputed founder, Gillacattan Mor; i. e. servant of St. Catan, whose 
name means little cat, the cat apjoearing in the crest and motto. 
He had two sons— Neachtan, ancestor of the MacPhersons; and 
Neill, whence the Macintoshes. Neachtan 's son was Eead or Reth, 
through whose son Angus was a grandson Malcolm MacBeth, 
whose title to the earldom of Moray and the chieftainship of the 
clan was acknowledged by all Gaelic Scotland. Historians say that 
these eight clans and also the Camerons were of the same stock, and 
up to the dispute over chieftainship the MacPhersons, Davidsons, 
MacGillivrays, MacBeans, Macintoshes, and three clans now extinct, 
followed the same chief; but in modern times these clans are treated 
separately. They wore the same badge, red whortleberry, and had 
the same war-cry, "Loch Moy." 

The Davisons of Invernahaven in Badenoch were, according to 
common tradition, originally a branch of the Comyns. After the 
downfall of that clan, Donald Du of Invernahaven associated him- 
self with Clan Chattan, married a daughter of Angus, sixth Mackin- 
tosh, and became a leading member of Clan Chattan. The David- 
sons, called "Claim Daidh," from the first known leader, David Du, 
were chief actors in two disastrous fights at Invernahaven and the 
North Inch of Perth. In the former encounter, their leadership be- 
ing favored by the captain of Clan Chattan, aroused the jealousy of 
another clan and they suffered defeat. The Davidsons and Mac- 

337 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Phersons were not only of the Clan Chattan, but were relatives of 
the chief, and it is not intelligible why there should be such a bitter 
antagonism between them. The battle of Invernahaven arose on ac- 
count of a dispute between the Camerons and the Mackintoshes. A 
portion of the Mackintosh's lands laid in Lochaber; this had been 
leased to the Camerons, and their refusal to pay the rent caused the 
Mackintoshes to seize their cattle. Ultimately this led to several 
severe fights, with varying success. About 1370 the Camerons con- 
vened their numerous clans and dependents, together with several 
friendly clans, to demand reprisals. The Mackintoshes collected an 
equal force consisting of several tribes under the general name of 
Clan Chattan. When the opposing forces came in sight, an unfortu- 
nate difference involving priority arose between the MacPhersons 
and Davidsons. An appeal being taken to Mackintosh, the captain 
of Clan Chattan, he imprudently decided in favor of the Davidsons. 
This decision incensed Cluny, the chief of the MacPhersons, and he 
withdrew his men, which greatly weakened his allies, who suffered a 
defeat. Mackintosh becoming irritated on account of his defeat, de- 
nounced the conduct of the MacPhersons, and stigmatized them as 
cowards, which so stung and incited Cluny that he called upon his 
men to attack the Camerons by night, which resulted in a dreadful 
slaughter, the enemy being pursued to the foot of a mountain, 
and their chief, Charles MacGillony, was killed, at a place called to 
this day "Coire Thearlaich," or Charles' Corry. At the battle of 
the North Inch of Perth the leading men of the Davidsons, with ex- 
ception of one, were killed, whereby the family became virtually ex- 
tinct. 

The Davidsons of Tulloch stand high among the old landed 
families of the Highlands. Alexander Davidson of Davidson in 
Cromarty married in 1700, Miss Bayne, of Tulloch, and purchased 
the estate from his father-in-law. The Baynes of Tulloch for many 
generations occupied great position and influence in Ross-shire. 
Tulloch Castle is of ancient date, the keep having been built in 1166, 
and other parts of it in 1665. In the seventeenth century a branch 
of the family entered the service of France, having proved their 
descent to be noble for six generations prior to July, 1629, as shown 
by the Livre d'Or in the imperial archives of France. Another 
leading family is that known as the Davidsons of Cantray, in 
Inverness-shire. 

338 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Sub-Clans: 

.Davidson, from the Gaelic MacDaibhidn, usually spelt Mac- 
Daid (h). 

MacDade, Dade, Davis, Davie, Dawson, Dow. 
MacDhardh, pronounced MacKay and Kay. 

Drummond — The traditional origin of this clan as stated by 
various genealogists, is in Maurice, the son of George, who was a 
younger son of Andrew, King of Hungary. Maurice espoused the 
cause of Edgar Atheling, the rightful heir to the English throne. 
With his mother Agatha and sisters Margaret and Christian, on his 
return voyage to Hungary, the ship was wrecked at a place on the 
Forth now known as St. Margaret's Hope. The eldest princess 
became the Queen of Malcolm III. Maurice was granted by the 
King the lands of Drummond or Drymen in Stirlingshire, adjoining 
the Buchanan estates, from which the family took their name. Dry- 
men is derived from the Gaelic word Druenan, from druim, a ridge. 
The badge of the clan is Lus an righ— wild thyme; or cuileann, 
holly. 

Maurice married one of the maids of honor of Queen Margaret, 
and from their son Malcolm all the Drummonds in Scotland are 
descended. There is no doubt that in the early stages of their his- 
tory the Drummonds reached opulence and influence. Malcolm Beg, 
so-called from his 1ow t stature, the sixth of the family, married Ada, 
daughter of Malcolm, Earl of Lennox. He is mentioned in charters 
in the thirteenth century. Two of his grandsons became prisoners 
of Edward I, and the eldest Sir John under compulsion swore fealty 
to that monarch and served in the army against France. His eldest 
son, Sir Malcolm Drummond, married a daughter of Graham of 
Kihcardline; was loyal to Bruce, and received from him certain 
lands in Perthshire. The grandson of Sir Malcolm Beg, Sir John, 
married Mary Montifex, who brought him the estates of Cargill 
Stobhall and other places. He had a bitter feud with the Monteiths 
of Ruskie, in which his kinsman Bryce Drummond was slain in 
1330; he was accused of slaying in retaliation three of the Mon- 
teiths, and in compensation was forced to resign Rosneath. He re- 
tired to his lady's seat at Stobhall. Their daughter Annabella be- 
came Queen of Robert III. 

Near the seat of Lord Gwdyr, in Muthill, stands the ruins of 
the stronghold of this ancient family. How the Drummonds parted 

339 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

with the lands of Drymen is not known. Sir Malcolm Drummond, 
the eldest son of Sir John, acquired Cargill, Stobhall, Kinloch, and 
other lands, from his aunt, Queen Margaret. He married Isabel 
Douglas, Countess of Mar, and was murdered in 1403 by a band of 
highland marauders. His son, Sir John Drummond, of Cargill and 
Stobhall, Judiciary of Scotland, was his successor. His son Walter 
succeeded him and had three sons; the eldest, Sir Malcolm, died 
in 1470, and his son John became the head of the clan. He was a 
Judiciary of Scotland, a privy councillor, constable of Stirling 
Castle, and employed in various embassies. He was created Lord 
Drummond in 1487-SS. He died at age of eighty-one, in 1519, and 
was succeeded by his great-grandson David. 

David, the second Lord Drummond, was twice married, and at 
his death in 1571 his eldest son Patrick became third Lord Drum- 
mond. Balfrone was bestowed upon Thomas, a younger brother 
of the chief, who before 1305 gave the patronage of the church to the 
Abbey of Inchaffry. The Barony of Drummond, which still goes by 
that name, before 14S8 belonged to the first Earl of Lennox; this 
nobleman attempted in 1489 to avenge the death of James III, and 
lost the barony by forfeiture. Ten years afterwards the estates 
were bestowed upon the first Lord Drummond who, though en- 
nobled by King James, joined the insurgents. It remained in the 
Drummond or Perth family for one hundred and thirty years, when 
in 1630 John, second Earl of Perth, sold it to William, Earl of 
Monteith. 

The fourth Lord Drummond was created Earl of Perth in 1605, 
and his son John, the second Earl, was taken prisoner at the battle 
of Philiphaugh. James, the third Earl of Perth, was eldest son. 
James, the fourth Earl, was Lord Chancellor of Scotland ; followed 
the fortunes of James VII and was created Duke of Perth, K. G., 
and died at St. Germains, France, in 1716. James, his son, the sec- 
ond Duke of Perth, married Lady Jane, daughter of the first Duke 
of Gordon. He joined the revolution of 1715, and died at Paris, 
France, five years later. He was succeeded by his eldest son, James, 
who was wounded in 1746 at the battle of Culloden. This line became 
extinct in 1902, at the death of the fourteenth Earl without male 
issue. 

James, the second son of David, the second Lord Drummond, 
was created by James VI in 1610 Lord Maderty of Easter Craigton. 

340 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

On the death of the third peer, the title devolved on his brother, 
Viscount Strathallan, and his descendant, the ninth Viscount, suc- 
ceeded to the Earldom of Perth. The present chief of the Drum- 
monds is William Huntly Drummond, fifteenth Earl of Perth, also 
Viscount Strathallan born in 1871. Among other families which 
may be mentioned are the Drummonds of Hawthornden in Mid- 
lothian, cadets of the Perth Drummond; also the Drummonds of 
Concraig; the Drummonds of Stanmore in Middlesex; and the 
Drummonds of Blair Drummonds. 

Farquharson— The Farquharsons are one of the leading septs 
of Clan Chattan. Their war cry is Cam na Cuimhne, "Cairn of Ee- 
membrance;" their badge, Ros na greine, little sunflower, or Lus- 
nam-ban-sitli, foxglove. The clan branch off from Alexander Ciar, 
the third Shaw of Eothiemurchus, who married one of the Stuarts 
of Kincardine, the progenitor of the clan being the Farquhar, the 
fourth son of this marriage. The clan took up their residence in 
Aberdeenshire, and the descendants of Farquhar became known as 
Farquharsons, or Clan Fhearchair. The name is derived from the 
Gaelic word ferchar, fear man; and car, friendly; — therefore the 
clan became known as Farquharsons, or Clan Fhearchair, now Mac- 
Keracher or MacKercher. The founder settled in Aberdeenshire in 
March, 1371, and his great-grandson, Findla or Finlay Mor, gained 
distinction in history of Scotland in 1547 when he was killed while 
performing the duties of standard bearer at the battle of Pinkie, and 
after him the Farquharsons were termed Clan Fhionnlaidh, or de- 
scendants of Finlay. The Farquharsons acknowledge Macintosh as 
their chief in a bond of 159-1. 

Farquharson of Invercauld in 1641 bore a prominent part in the 
Scottish civil wars of that period, and was ordered by Parliament to 
levy a body of armed men to secure Angus and the Mearns. Four 
years later he served at the head of his clan at the battle of Mont- 
rose. In the Rising of 1715, John Farquharson of Invercauld, with 
a force of one hundred and forty men, joined the Clan Chattan reg- 
iment. He was lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and accompanied 
it to England, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Preston, after 
defending a most dangerous post. He was released from prison Au- 
gust 9, 1716. His daughter Anne married Angus, the chief of the 
Macintosh clan during the Eising of 1745 ; she took a leading part 
for the Stuarts, and was called ' ' Colonel Anne. ' ' At the battle of 

34i 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Culloden the Farquharsons numbered five hundred men, and were 
in the center of the front line. 

The Laird of Invercauld in 1748 gave a ninety-nine years lease 
to the government of the Castle of Braemar for a military station. 
James Farquharson died in 1750, and was succeeded by his son, 
also named James ; the latter in 1745 was a captain of Foot in the 
Hanoverian army. He retained possession of the estates for fifty- 
six years ; dying in 1806 without male issue, the entail descended to 
his only surviving child Catherine, who married Captain James 
Eoss, of the Royal Navy, a second son of Sir John Lockhart, Baronet 
of Balnagowan ; he took the name of Farquharson, and died in 1810. 
His successor was his son James, who died in 1862, and in turn was 
succeeded by his son, James Boss Farquharson, who died in 18S8 
and was succeeded by the present Laird Alexander Haldane Far- 
quharson, born in 1867. 

The land of the Farquharsons was an ideal residence of a High- 
land chief, Invercauld, standing on rising ground not far removed 
from the bank of the river Dee, which glides silently and majestical- 
ly through the valley. The surrounding country contains vast for- 
ests of birch and fir trees. Among the other leading families of the 
name are the Farquharsons of Monaltrie, Whitehouse, Haughton, 
Allargue and Breda and Finzean, all located in Aberdeenshire. 

Sub-Clans : 

Coutts, from Cutts, nickname of Cuthbert. 
Farquhar. 

Fin(d) lay from Fin (d) lay son. 
Greusach, from the Gaelic greusaieh, shoemaker. 
Hardie or Hardy, from the Norman word hardi, daring. 
Lyon, a lion. 
MacCaig. 

MacCardney, MacCartney, said to be from Macllardie. 
MacCuaig; MacCaig derived from cuthaig or cubhag, a cuckoo. 
MacFarquhar, MacEaracher, MacKer (ra)cher, from the Gaelic 
MacFhearehair. 
Macllardie. 
MacKin (d) lay. 
Keoch, Riach, from the Gaelic word riabhach, mottled gray. 

Fergusson— The badge of clan of Fergusson is the same as that 
of the Farquharsons. The ancient home of the clan was in Atholl, 
where they founded before the time of Robert the Bruce. Their 

342 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

chief was Baron Pergusson of Dunf allandy ; they also possessed the 
third part of the lands of Strathardle and Glenshee in Perthshire. 
The- Fergussons were strong supporters of Bruce and wherever in 
Scotland he held lands, branches of the clan settled, therefore we 
have the Fergusons of Craigdarroch, of Kilkerran, of Kinmundy, of 
Pitfour, and of Balquidder. 

The Atholl branch followed the banners of Montrose in the 
civil wars, and was the original nucleus of the victorious cavalier 
army. After Killiecrankie, they joined Viscount Dundee's army and 
formed an important fighting strength of the Dukedom of Atholl and 
Earldom of Strathardle. The} 7 espoused the cause of Prince Charlie 
in 1645, and the Laird was arrested the June following the battle of 
Culloden, and imprisoned in the gloomy dungeon of Carlisle. 

The Balquidder branch of the clan was settled in that parish in 
the thirteen century, but it is not known definitely whether they orig- 
inally came from Atholl. They were an important branch of the 
clan, and at one time were ministered to by the famous Robert Kirk, 
the first to give the Highlanders a metrical translation of the 
Psalms in their own language. 

The Fergussons of Aberdeenshire were land owners in the 
fourteenth century ; the best known families were the Kinmundy and 
Pitfour, many of whom distinguished themselves on the Bench and 
at the Bar. The Fergussons also were found in Banffshire and Kin- 
cardineshire, as well as Fife and Forfar. They were not however 
confined to the east coast of Scotland, as several colonies are to be 
found in the eighteenth century in Argyllshire. In the Cowal dis- 
trict there are many families of the name. Fergusson of Glenshellich 
was the head of the Argyllshire families. He held the office of ser- 
geantry or mairship of Strachur. Daniel Fergusson the last of the 
family to hold the estates, died in 1808. 

Fergus Fergusson had a crown charter of Kilkerran, Ayrshire, 
in 1466; Duncan Fergusson of Kilkerran appears on the record 
1508-1547, and Bernard Fergusson of Kilkerran 1564-1600. His 
son, Simon Fergusson of Kilkerran, died in 1591. He was succeed- 
ed by his son, Sir John Fergusson of Kilkerran, who suffered for 
his attachment to the cause of Charles I and died before 1650. His 
eldest son, Alexander, sold Kilkerran to his cousin, Sir John Fer- 
gusson, the son of Simon of Auchinwind, the second son of Sir John 
Fergusson of Kilkerran. He was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia 

343 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

in 1708, and at his decease in 1729 his eldest son, Sir James, became 
the second Baronet. He was a judge of the Court of Sessions in 1741 
and a member of Parliament from Sutherland. His son Adam was 
the third Baronet, and dying in 1813 without issue, the title devolved 
on his nephew, Sir James Fergusson, born in 1765. He married 
Jean, daughter of Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes. Their only 
son, Charles Dalryiuple Fergusson, on the death of his father in 
1838 became the fifth Baronet. His death occurred in 1849, and his 
eldest son, the Eight Honorable Sir James Fergusson, became the 
sixth Baronet. He gained distinction in military life, also in gov- 
ernment circles ; was governor of South Australia, New Zealand and 
Bombay. He also filled the position of Under Secretary of Foreign 
Affairs and Postmaster General. He died in 1907, and was succeed- 
ed by his son, Sir Charles Fergusson, the fifth and present Baronet, 
who was identified in the military life of Great Britain, died in 1S05, 
and the estate was sold three years later. 

The family is of great antiquity in Dumfries and Galloway, and 
the Fergussons of Craigdarroeh are among the old families of Scot- 
land. The head of this family in 1587 was summoned before the 
Council and fined for being in rebellion against the King. John 
Fergusson of Craigdarroeh was in 1642 Commissioner in Parlia- 
ment for Dumfriesshire. A head of the family married Annie Lau- 
rie, of Maxwelltown, made famous by the Scottish song. Another 
Laird was slain at the battle of Killiecrankie. 

The name is derived from the Gaelic words, fear, a man, and 
gus, strong, and has many variations, as Fergus, Ferries (for Mac- 
Fear ghuis), MaeFergus, MacKerras (Gaelic, MacFcarghuis), Mac- 
Kersey. 

Sub-Clan— MacAdie. 

Forbes — The clan of Forbes takes its name from the Aberdeen- 
shire parish of Forbes, and the Morgans was also an Aberdeenshire 
clan and are possibly one and the same with the Forbeses. The 
first one on record is Duncan Forbes, who had a charter for the 
lands of Forbes from Alexander III in 1271. John Forbes of Forbes 
is named in 1306 on the English Roll. Sir Christopher De Forbes 
is named in a grant of land in 1325. 

John De Forbes of that ilk had a charter from Thomas, Earl 
of Mar, of lands of Edinbanchory and Craiglogy, which was con- 
firmed in 1364 by King David II. He was sheriff of xVberdeen in 

344 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

1374, and the Bishop of Moray granted him the lands of Fyronie 
in 1378, He was succeeded by his son, Sir John Forbes, who was 
a man of eminence in the days of Robert II and III. He further 
increased the acquisitions of the family possessions and died in 1406. 
He had four sons — Alexander, William, John, and Alaster Cam; 
and from the three younger sprang the Forbeses of Pitsligo, Cullo- 
den, Waterton and Foveran. 

His successor, the eldest son Sir Alexander Forbes, accom- 
panied in 1408 Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, on an expedition 
into England to tilt with English knights. He served with honor 
in France at the head of one hundred horse and forty pikemen 
under Constable Buehan, in the war against Henry V, and was raised 
to the peerage by James I about 1442 as the first Lord Forbes. At 
his death in 1448, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir James, who 
in 1456 received a license to fortify the castle of Drumminor, com- 
monly called Forbes. He married Egidia, daughter of William 
Keith, the first Earl Marischal. Of their three sons, William became 
the third Lord Forbes, Duncan ancestor of the Forbeses of Cor- 
sindae, and Monymusk and Patrick ancestors of the Forbeses, Bar- 
onets of Craigievar, now Lord Sempill, and also of the Earls of 
Granard. 

Sir William married Christian Gordon, daughter of Alexander, 
first Earl of Huntly, and was succeeded in rotation by his three 
sons— Alexander, Arthur, and John, as the fourth, fifth and sixth 
Lord Forbes. The latter was twice married. His eldest son by his 
second marriage, John, was executed in 1537 for an alleged con- 
spiracy against the life of James V. His second son, William, be- 
came the seventh Lord Forbes, and married Elizabeth, daughter and 
co-heir of Sir William Keith of Innerugie; died in 1547, and his 
eldest son, John, the eighth Lord Forbes, became his successor. He 
was active on the King's side against the Catholic Lords, 1594-95. 
His eldest son, William, became a member of a religious order 
abroad and died in 1592. His second son, John, succeeded to the 
title and estates as the ninth Lord Forbes, but joined the order of 
Capuchins and died unmarried ; and Arthur, his half-brother, became 
the tenth Lord Forbes. His eldest son, Alexander, succeeded him 
as the eleventh Lord Forbes. He was a lieutenant-general under 
Gustavas Adolphus, afterwards in command of the Scottish army 
sent in 1643 to Ireland, and died at Stockholm, Sweden, in 1672. 

345 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

The successions of the baronetcy for the next half century were 
to the eldest sons, all named William, who respectively were the 
twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth Lord Forbes. Francis, the fif- 
teenth Lord Forbes, was a son of William, and was succeeded by 
his uncle James as the sixteenth Lord Forbes. His son James be- 
came his successor as seventeenth Lord Forbes, and married in 17G0 
Catharine, only daughter of Sir Robert limes, Baronet of Orton. 
He was appointed deputy governor of Fort William, where he died 
in 1804, when the title and estates devolved on James Ochonoar, his 
eldest son, who became the eighteenth Lord Forbes. He was a 
general officer in the army, colonel of the Twenty-first Scots Fusili- 
ers. His eldest son, James, lieutenant-colonel of the Coldstream 
Guards, died before his father, and he was succeeded by his second 
son, Walter, as the nineteenth Lord Forbes. His lordship also served 
in the Coldstream Guards at the battle of Waterloo, and died in 
1868, and was succeeded by his second son, Horace Courtenay Gam- 
mell, as the twentieth Lord Forbes. At the latter 's death unmar- 
ried, in 191-4, this brother, Atholl Laurence Cuningham, the sixth son 
of Walter, the nineteenth Baron Forbes, succeeded to the title and 
estates. The Barony of Forbes is the first in the peerage of Scot- 
land, and takes rank before all the Lords of Parliament. 

Forbes of Pitsligo—As before stated, Duncan the second son 
of James, the second Lord Forbes, was the ancestor of the Forbes 
of Pitsligo. He married Christian Mercer, daughter of the Laird 
of Ballief, Provost of Perth, and widow of Gilbert Skene of that ilk. 
Their son William married Margaret Lumsden ; their two sons were 
James, who continued the line, and Duncan who obtained the Priory 
lands of Monyinusk at the time of the Reformation. He married 
.Agnes Gray, and died in 1587, and their son William married Lady 
Margaret Douglas, daughter of William, the ninth Earl of Angus. 
The death of William Forbes of Monynmsk occurred before 1618, 
when he was succeeded by his eldest son William, who was created a 
Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1626 and became the first Baronet of 
Monyinusk. His son William was the second Baronet of Monynmsk, 
and was succeeded by his only son, Sir John, as the third Baronet of 
Monymusk. He had with other issue John, from whom the family of 
Ogilvie-Forbes of Boyndlie are descended. The fourth Baronet, Sir 
William Forbes, sold Monyinusk to Sir Francis Grant, Lord Cullen, 
in 1713. William, the fifth Baronet, succeeded his grandfather, and 

346 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

at his death in 1743 his eldest surviving son, Sir William, a banker of 
great eminence in Edinburgh, succeeded to the title and estates. His 
death occurred November 12, 1806, and he was succeeded by his eld- 
est son William as the seventh Baronet. He married Williamina, sole 
child and heir of Sir John Belches Stuart. Of the issue of this mar- 
riage, William, the eldest son, a captain in the army, died unmarried 
in 1S26. The second son, John Stuart, at the death of his father in 
1828, became the ninth Baronet. Sir John assumed the additional 
name of Hepburn on the death of Alexander Hepburn, as their en- 
tail to the barony of Invermay and as heir-in-law to the estate of 
Balmanno, both in the county of Perth. Tie died May 27, 1866. and 
was succeeded by his nephew, William Stuart Forbes, born June 16, 
1836, as the ninth Baronet. He died July 5, 1906, and the honors and 
estates devolved on his oldest son, Sir Charles Hay Hepburn Stuart 
Forbes, born June 8, 1871, the present Baronet. 

The Forbes, Baronets of Craigievar, a branch of the ancient 
clan of Forbes, was founded by Patrick Forbes of Corse, armor-bear- 
er of James III. He had in 1182 a feu charter from the crown of 
Coull Kencraige and Corse in the barony of Oneil. His son, David 
of Forthirbirss, had the same lands confirmed in 1506, and five years 
later they were erected in his favor into the barony of Oneil. His 
son by his wife, Elizabeth Panter, Patrick Forbes of Corse, mar- 
ried Marjory, daughter of Lumsden of Cushny, and was father of 
William Forbes of Corse, who died in 1596, having married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Strachan of Thornton, by whom he had with other 
issue, Patrick of Corse, Bishop of Aberdeen, noted for his piety and 
learning. William, his second son, accumulated a large fortune by 
mercantile pursuits abroad, and purchased Craigievar in 1610 from 
John Mortimer, and finished the beautiful castle that the former 
owner had commenced. The male line of the Bishop failing, he suc- 
ceeded his father, and in 1630 was created Baronet of Nova Scotia 
and became first Baronet of Craigievar. He acted on the Parliamen- 
tary side during the civil war and at his death was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Sir John Jorbes, known as "the Bed Sir John," a man 
of note and of great energy of character. His son, Sir William 
Forbes, became the third Baronet, and was succeeded by his son, Sir 
Arthur Forbes, who for many years represented the County of 
Aberdeen in Parliament. His son, William, the fifth Baronet of 
Craigievar, married Hon. Sarah, eldest daughter of John, thirteenth 

347 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Lord Sempill, and their son Arthur, the sixth Baronet, was succeed- 
ed by his brother John, who died February 16, 1846, having issue 
William, who as the eighth Baronet, succeeded his cousin Maria 
Janet Baroness Sempill as the seventeenth Baron Sempill. He was 
a lieutenant in the Coldstream Guards and served in the Crimean 
War. He died July 21, 1905, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 
John Forbes Sempill, as the eighteenth Lord Sempill. 

The Irish branch of the Forbes clan was established by Sir 
Arthur Forbes, the sixth son of William Forbes of Corse, and a 
grandson of Patrick Forbes, the armor bearer of James III. He 
settled in Ireland in 1620 ; two years later he was made by patent a 
free denizen of that kingdom. He was created in 1628 a Baronet 
of Nova Scotia, and obtained a grant of lands in the county of Long- 
ford, which were erected into the manor of Castle Forbes. He mar- 
ried Jane, widow of Sir Claud Hamilton of Clonyn, and she de- 
fended Castle Forbes in 1646. Sir Arthur was killed in a duel in 
1632, while abroad as lieutenant-colonel of his regiment in the ser- 
vice of Gustavus Adolphus. His eldest son, Sir Arthur, zealously 
espoused the royal cause in Scotland, served under Montrose, was 
rewarded after the Restoration by being sworn of the privy council 
in Ireland and appointed marshal of the army in that kingdom. He 
was elevated to the peerage of Ireland in 1675 as Baron Clanehugh 
and Viscount of Granard, county of Longford, and in 1684 was 
created Earl of Granard. His lordship died in 1695 and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Arthur, who also gained military honors and was 
imprisoned in the Tower by William III. He died in 1734, and his 
only surviving son, George, became the third Earl of Granard. He 
was called to the House of Peers during the lifetime of his father 
as Lord Forbes. A naval officer of great eminence, at the time 
of his death he was senior admiral of the British Navy. His son 
George, the fourth Earl of Granard, was a lieutenant-general in the 
army, and at his decease in 1769 was succeeded by his only son 
George, whose surviving son George became the sixth Earl. This 
nobleman was created in 1806 a peer of the United Kingdom as 
Baron Granard of Castle Donnington in the county of Leicester. 
His lordship died in Paris, June 9, 1837, and was succeeded by his 
grandson, George Arthur Hastings, who died in 1889, when the 
title and estates devolved on his eldest son, Bernard Arthur Wil- 
liam Patrick Hastings, the eighth and present Earl of Granard. 

348 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

The war cry of the Forbes is Lonach — a mountain in Strath 
Don. The clan pipe music is march, Cath ghlinn eurainn, the 
battle of Glen Eurann; also The Lonach Highlanders. The badge, 
bealaidh, broom. 

Sub-Clans : 

Bannerman, flagbearer. 

Fordyces, from Fordyce parish in Banffshire. 

Michie, a variant spelling for Forbush. 

Fraser — The name Fraser is spelt variously as Frazer, Fres- 
ser, Frezel, Frisel, and on the Boll of Battle Abbey it is Fresell. 
The Gaelic form is "Friseal. " The name is referred to in the old 
French, as freze, strawberry, a possible diminutive of which is frez- 
el, Latin fragula. Seven strawberry leaves form part of the armor- 
ial bearings of the Frasers. The war cry is "A Mhor-fhaiche," 
"The Great Field," and later " Caisteal Dhuni, " Castle Downie. 
The badge, inbhar, yew. 

The clan is of Norman descent, and their first resting place in 
Scotland was East Lothian, and in the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies they diverged into Tweeddale and subsequently into the shires 
of Inverness and Aberdeen. In the thirteenth century a line of 
Frasers owned Oliver Castle, in the county of Peebles. The first 
record is of Gilbert of Fraser, a witness of a charter to the monas- 
tery of Coldstream in 1109, during the reign of Alexander II. Si- 
mon Fraser made many donations for religious purposes in the time 
of David I. During the reign of William the Lion, Bernard Fraser 
in 1178 made a donation to Newbattle Abbey. In the time of Alex- 
ander II there are records of Gilbert Fraser, Bernard Fraser of 
Drem, and Thomas Fraser. But it is difficult to connect these Fra- 
sers with each other, though doubtless they come of common stock. 

Oliver, of Oliver Castle in the county of Peebles, son of Gilbert, 
dying without issue, Adam, son of Oliver's brother L T dard, succeed- 
ed; Laurence, the next in succession, dying without issue, was suc- 
ceeded by the third son of Gilbert. Simon, son of the last incumbent, 
was succeeded by his brother Bernard, prominent in the reign of 
Alexander II, and he by his only son, Sir Gilbert Fraser of Oliver 
Castle. Sir Simon, pater, was succeeded by Simon, filius. As he 
had no son, the reversion went to Sir Andrew Fraser, son of Sir Gil- 
bert, who was younger brother of Simon pater. His son was the 

349 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

first of the Frasers of Lovat, says Mackenzie ("History of the Fra- 
sers"). Sir Simon Fraser of Oliver Castle held a high position 
among the Magnates Scotioe in the troubles after the death of Alex- 
ander II. He won three battles of Boslin in one day in the year 
1303; three years later he was executed by Edward I, leaving two 
daughters as co-heiresses. The male succession was continued by the 
posterity of Alexander Fraser, a younger brother of the family, who 
seems to have been the first Frazier to possess estates in the High- 
lands. He was killed at the battle of Dupplin. 

Burke continues the succession from Simon filius, to a brother 
Alexander, who married Mary, sister of Robert Bruce, and head of 
the Frasers of Findrack; Hugh was a grandson of this Simon. He 
was a portioner, with Sir William Fenton of Ard, of lands from the 
Bishops of Moray, and owned Kinnell in Forfarshire. His grand- 
son Hugh, who succeeded as chieftain of the clan, was High Sheriff 
of Inverness, one of the ransom hostages for James I, and on his 
return from England granted lands in Nairn and of the barony of 
Kinnell in Forfarshire. By some authorities he is counted as the 
first Lord Lovat. He died in J 440, and was the father of Thomas 
or Hugh Fraser, who died ten years later, leaving a son in his 
minority. 

Hugh Fraser is generally acknowledged as the first Lord of 
Lovat or Lord Fraser of Lovat, created between 1458 and 1464. 
His eldest son Hugh fell in the battle of Flodden, and his second 
son, Alexander, was ancestor of the Frasers of Farraline and Led- 
clune. Thomas, the second Lord Lovat, was in the reign of James 
IV, Justiciary of the North of Scotland. He died in 1524, and his 
eldest son Hugh became the third Lord; his second son James was 
the ancestor of the Frasers of Culbokie. The third Lord of Lovat 
was Queen Mary's Justiciary in the north, and was in 1544 with his 
eldest son Hugh, killed in an engagemert with the MacDonalds at 
Loch Lochy. His second son, Alexander, became the fourth Lord 
Lovat, and at his death in 1558 the title and the estates devolved on 
his eldest son, Hugh, who died in 1576, and his son Simon became the 
sixth Lord Lovat. His death took place in 1633, and his eldest 
son Simon having predeceased him, the succession went to his second 
son Hugh. The seventh Lord Lovat died in 1646, and was succeeded 
by his grandson Hugh, a son of his second son Hugh, who died in 
1643. 

35o 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

Hugh, the eighth Lord Lovat, had a son Hugh, who on his death 
in 1672 became the ninth Lord Lovat. He married Amelia, daugh- 
ter of John Marquess of Atholl. The issue of this marriage was four 
daughters; Amelia, the eldest, on the death of her father in 1696, 
assumed the title of Baroness Lovat, though her right was ques- 
tioned by her uncle Thomas Fraser of Beaufort, and his son Simon. 
The case was contested in the courts, though she continued to possess 
the estates until 1715, when the case was compromised. Thomas 
Fraser of Beaufort and his heirs was declared as possessor of the 
title and estates as the tenth Lord Lovat de jure. His death having 
occurred in 1699, his son Simon became eleventh Lord Lovat. His 
career was remarkable. After the death of Hugh,, the ninth Lord 
Lovat, he induced his eldest daughter to elope with him, but she soon 
afterwards returned to her mother. He then seized the estates, and 
for this and other acts of violence he was tried in absence in 1698 
and a sentence of death and attainder pronounced against him. He 
next forcibly possessed the person of the widow of the ninth Lord 
and compelled her to marry him, for which he was tried and out- 
lawed in 1701. In 1715 he took part with the government, obtained 
a remission of his crimes and a gift of Fraser of Fraserdale for- 
feited life rent of the Lovat estates. He then endeavored to assert 
his right to the dignity of Lord Lovat at an election of representa- 
tives peers, but his vote was objected to. He however obtained from 
the Court of Sessions a remission of the decision, giving the heir 
female the title, and in virtue of decree in his favor in 1730 became 
eleventh Lord Lovat. He took part in the rebellion of 1745, was 
impeached by the House of Lords, and executed April 9, 1717. His 
son Simon became a general in the army, saw service in Portugal 
and America. His father's forfeited lands were granted him, and 
he died in 17S2. The last of the direct line of the family was Archi- 
bald Campbell, Consul General to Algiers in 1766, and member of 
Parliament for Inverness in 1782. He married Jane, daughter of 
William Fraser of Ledclune. His five sons predeceased him, un- 
married. He died December 8, 1815, and the male representation of 
the family passed to Thomas Alexander Fraser, twelfth Baron 
Lovat, descended from Thomas, the second son of Alexander, the 
fourth Lord. He was created Baron Lovat of Lovat, county In- 
verness, January 28, 1837, in the peerage of the United Kingdom, 
and also established his rights to the Scottish barony of Lovat. He 

35i 



HIGHLAND SCOTTISH CLANS, SUB-CLANS AND FAMILIES 

was succeeded on his death, June 2, 1875, by his eldest son Simon, 
the thirteenth Baron Lovat, born December 21, 1828, and died Sep- 
tember 6, 18S7, when the honors devolved on the present baron, his 
second son, Simon Joseph. 
Sub-Clans : 

Frissell, or Frizell. 

Maeinmey, Makemie, MacKim, MacKimmie, MacShimes, Mac- 
Simon, MacSimin, MacSymon, Sim, Sims, Simon, Syme, Syom, all 
from Simon pater, his sons being in Gaelic, MacShimi, pronounced 
Macimney. 

Tweedie (Twiddy), emigrant from Tweeddale. 







ol 



<^ 



352 



Editorial— Literary Notes 



It is pleasing to find in such discriminating prints as the literary 
pages of the "New York Times" and the "New York Evening 
Post," appreciative references to "Americana." These publica- 
tions are held in regard by an unusually intelligent contingent of the 
reading public. 

The current number of "The Yale Review" presents, as usual, 
a most appealing array of papers, of real timeliness, neither too 
reminiscent nor too anticipative. Among the principal ones are 
Mario Puccini's "Young Italy," telling of the new aspirations of 
Italy's people as following after the 'Great War; Mr. McCracken's 
masterly study of "American College Government;" Mr. Lett's "A 
Child's Religion, " of deep interest to every parent who recalls his 
own youth and contrasts himself with his son and daughter just 
entering upon young man and young womanhood; Professor 
Bragg's "New World of the Atom," which suggests more stu- 
pendous questions than science has yet answered; and C. Remold 
Noyes' "Chart of Population." As usual, the Book Reviews are 
of commanding interest, but only a few captions may be here cited : 
"Autobiographical Intimacies," dealing with recent volumes by 
Mrs. Patrick Campbell, John Drew, the Countess Tolstoy, Harry 
Kemp, John St. Leo Strachey and James Gibbons Huneker; "Me- 
morials of Prime Ministers," portraying various of Britain's lead- 
ing men during the war recently closed: "Self-Criticism in Amer- 
ica," suggesting wherein American literature is deserving of re- 
buke; and "Wilsonia," citing more than a half-dozen volumes in 
which "The Peace President" (such is the title of one of them), is 
considered from as many different standpoints by as many differ- 
ent close observers, most of them on more or less intimate relations 
with him. 

This summary cannot be dismissed without mention of the 
review by Mr. Beers of P. P. Howe's "Life of Hazlett," a hack 
writer whom the reviewer brings into vivid contrast with several 

353 



EDITORIAL 

brighter geniuses. But why should said reviewer in these "fair, 
well spoken days," call up such visions as witness the following: 

"At one time, Hazlett drank too much gin, though his biograph- 
ers do not acknowledge that it hurt his complexion. And he broke 
off the habit, and during his last fifteen years took nothing stronger 
than tea — very strong tea, which was probably worse for him than 
gin. Charles Lamb also drank too much gin; Addison exceeded in 
wine-bibbing; Thackeray was over-fond of claret; and Daniel Web- 
ster's performances with the brandy bottle are legendary. There 
was more drinking in a single night at Ambrose's than Hazlett or 
Lamb equaled in a month. But then they drank whiskey at Am- 
brose's, 'the true Glenlivit, ' the drink of Tories and gentlemen." 

The reviewer might have added, which he did not, and it is not 
necessarily a reflection upon present-day writers, that there was a 
very superior literature in those (as-compared-to-the present) dis- 
solute days. 

"The Canadian Historical Review" (Toronto, June, 1923), 
has an article of commanding interest, "Some Letters of David 
Thompson," who has been denominated "the greatest land geog- 
rapher the British race has produced." Born in England, in 1770, 
he left school at the early age of fourteen, but with an ardent love 
for mathematics, and was apprenticed to the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, which he left after thirteen years to join the North West Com- 
pany. While thus employed, he devoted himself to exploring and 
surveying the immense region between the Bocky Mountains and 
Hudson's Bay, and from his data he made his famous map of North- 
western America. His later days were pitiful. He impoverished 
himself in paying off the debts of sons whom he had set up in busi- 
ness. His eyesight failed him. Finally, he was obliged to sell his 
surveying instruments and even to pawn his coat, to procure food 
for his family and himself. His biographer (Mr. J. B. Tirrell) has 
said of him that with extraordinary accuracy he placed on his map 
the main routes of natural travel in one million two hundred thou- 
sand square miles of Canada, and five hundred thousand square 
miles of the United States ; he surveyed the head waters of the 
Mississippi, he opened the first trade between what is now Canada 
and the territory beyond the Great Divide ; he fixed the locations of 
outstanding geographical points over this vast area w T ith the sure- 

354 



EDITORIAL 

iigss of an expert astronomer, though he had to learn how to figure 
with the stars when he was a boy wintering on the Saskatchewan 
river. Adds Mr. Tirrell, what he did has been of inestimable prac- 
tical value to the continent and to the world. And after all this, 
Mr. Tirrell finally says : 

" For whatever reason, the project of publishing the map came 
to naught. It is a curious commentary on human nature that while 
other maps of the period were eagerly purchased, often for the sake 
of information that had been lifted without acknowledgment from 
Thompson's map, no market could be found for the original, al- 
though it contained not only all that the map-makers of the day 
could offer in regard to Northwestern America, but also a wealth of 
information, the result of a lifetime's close observation, which 
hitherto had not seen the light in any form, and some of which has 
not even yet been published except insofar as it is included in the 
reproduction accompanying the Champlain Society's edition of 
Thompson's Journals." 







35: 



Statement of the Ownership, Management, Circulation, Etc. 



Required by the Act ok Congress of August 24, 1912. 



OF AMERICANA, published Quarterly at Somerville, New Jersey, for April 2nd, 1923. 

City and State of New York, I 
County of New York, j 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and County aforesaid, per- 
sonally appeared Marion L. Lewis, who, having been duly sworn according 
to law, deposes and says that he is the Vice-President and Manager of the American 
Historical Society, Inc., publisher of Americana, and that the following is, to the best 
of his knowledge and belief, a true statement of ownership, management, etc., of the 
aforesaid publication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of 
August 24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are: Publisher, The American Historical Society, Inc., Somerville, 
N. J., and 80 East nth street, New York City; Editor, Fenwick Y. Hedley, No. 80 East 
nth street, New York City; Managing Editor, Marion L. Lewis, No. 80 East nth street, 
New York City; Business Manager, Marion L. Lewis, No. 80 East nth street, New 
York City. 

2. That the owners are: The American Historical Society, Inc.; Benjamin F. 
Lewis, Sr., No. 908 Central avenue, Wilmette, 111.; Marion L. Lewis, No. 80 East nth 
street, New York Citv; Metcalf B. Hatch, Nutley, N. J.; Ed Lewis, No. 192 Park Place, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; F. M. Keller, 80 East nth St., New York, N. Y. ; Benj. F. Lewis, Jr., 
180 North Market St., Chicago, 111. ; John P. Downs. 1006 East 28th St., Brooklyn, N. 
Y. ; Louise M. Greuling. 22 Weston Place, Nutley, N. J. ; Harriet H. Lewis, 908 Central 
Ave., Wilmette, 111.; Mabel E. Lewis, 171 Prospect St., Nutley, N. J.; Myrtle M. Lewis, 
1006 East 28th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Florence K. Parks, State Road, Great Barrington, 
Mass. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or 
holding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: 
None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stock- 
holders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security 
holders as they appear upon the books of the company, but also, in cases where the 
stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's 
full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stock- 
holders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as 
trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, association, or corporation 
has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, b<. nds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

MARION L. LEWIS, Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 2nd day of April, 1923. 
(Seal) F. M. KELLER. 

Notary Public Bronx Co.. No. 84. 

Certificate filed in N. Y. Co., No. 482. 

Commission expires March 30, 1924. 



356 



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AMERICANA 

OCTOBER, 1923 




<Jg 



Historic Pilgrim Shrines 

By Mrs. Alton Brooks Parker (Amelia Day Campbell) 



fe^HPl N niy travels through Europe last summer, as a descend- 



W: 



■ ■ 



ant of Mayflower ancestry I made pilgrimages to the 
countries with which the lives of our Pilgrim Fathers 
are interwoven. Holland claimed my first attention, and 
I approached Leiden with reverence. It is only a short distance 
from the Hague, and is one of the most picturesque towns in Hol- 
land. It has a population of less than sixty thousand. The rivers 
run through the town, and are used as canals. A favorite means of 
freight carrying is by the boats on these waterways, propelled by 
their huge magenta colored sails. There are many attractive pub- 
lic buildings, and it was from the Burg that the inhabitants watched 
for eleven months for the relief promised them by William the 
Silent, which eventually arrived in time to drive the Spaniards 
away. 

The place of greatest interest to Mayflower descendants is St. 
Peter's Church, where John Eobinson lies buried in the southwest 
chapel. On the outside of the wall is this inscription: 

The Mayflower 1620 

in memory of 

Revd. John Eobinson M. A. 

Pastor of the English Church worshipping 

Over against this spot A. D. 1609-1625 

Whence at his prompting went forth 

The Pilgrim Fathers 

To settle in New England 1620 

Buried in this House of Worship 4 March 1625 

Aet. 49 

The church is a very large handsome edifice, seating several 
thousand people. The pulpit is that used by John Robinson. Be- 

357 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

fore the Pilgrims worshiped here it was a Catholic Cathedral. 
There is a row of grated windows opening on a high halcony through 
which the nuns used to listen to the service. 

There is one place in Leiden that sightseers, even Mayflower 
descendants, like to visit because of its quaintness, seclusion and 
charm, and that is St. Anna Hofgen, meaning almshouse. One opens 
a street door and walks down a long passage to a little cloistered 
square full of flowers and sunshine. There are thirteen entrance 
doors from the square, each of which admits to a tiny compartment 
of one room with a cupboard in the wall for sleeping, and a pantry, 
the upper attic room being the kitchen. These thirteen compart- 
ments are now occupied by thirteen old ladies, but were formerly the 
abodes of thirteen nuns. In this enclosure there is a small chapel 
about twelve feet square, "above which is the priest's small room 
containing the confessional chair, the tiny oak panelled recess for 
his bed, the iron chest for his collections, and his copper warming 
pan." 

We are not unmindful of the fact that it was here in Leiden 
that the Pilgrims lived for about twelve years, and that it was the 
liberal laws of government, equal educational advantages for boys 
and girls, and others as well under which they had dwelt in Holland, 
on which many of their own laws were based when they settled in 
Plymouth. At the same time the Hollanders must have learned 
much from these English people who resided so long in their midst. 
I found the Hollanders delightful, courteous and helpful. There 
was no question asked that they did not answer cheerfully, and no 
help needed that was too much trouble to perform. They spoke 
English fluently, therefore we had a bond of mutual understanding 
from the outset. 

I heard a very good story a few days ago told by an English 
knight from South Africa. It seems a brawl took place in a crowded 
room in which about twenty men were attacking one man. Suddenly 
his voice rang out, "Is there anyone here who speaks God's lan- 
guage and with an American accent?" At once six men jumped 
up and rushed to his rescue. One of them was a Dutchman. It was 
he who told the story to Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, and further told him 
that he had learned the accent from the American doughboys during 
the late war. He probably knew the language long before. 

I left Holland with regret, but war-time restrictions still pre- 

358 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

vailed, and if one stayed more than a certain number of days it was 
necessary to have a special permit and one's passport vised anew. 
The next place of interest, after visiting the Standish country, 
of which I will speak in detail later, was Plymouth, England. It is 
a fine old town with a rock-bound promontory coast strongly fortified, 
and a magnificent view. The esplanade at the top is called the Hoe. 
It is one of England's chief seaports, and has a finely sheltered har- 
bor. I stood at the Barbican and on the commemorative stone in- 
scribed "Mayflower 1620," which memoralizes the spot from which 
our forefathers set sail for Plymouth, Massachusetts, crowded into 
the Mayflower because of the unseaworthiness of the Speedivell 
which had brought some of them from Holland. In the wall is a 
bronze tablet which reads as follows : 

On the 6th of September, 1620, in the Mayoralty of Thomas Pownes 

after being kindly entertained and courteously used by divers 

Friends there dwelling, the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from 

Plymouth in the Mayflower, in the Providence of God to 

settle in New Plymouth and to lay the Foundation 

of the New England States. The ancient 

Cawsey whence they embarked was destroyed not many Years 

afterwards, but the Site of their Embarkation is marked by 

the Stone bearing the name of the Mayflower in 

the pavement of the adjacent Pier. This Tablet was erected 

in the Mayoralty of J. T. Bond 1891, to commemorate 

their Departure, and the visit to Plymouth in July 

of that Year of a number of their Descendants and 

Bepresentatives. 

The Barbican was the site of another historic event almost three 
hundred years later, for in June, 1919, "standing on the Mayflower 
slab, the Mayor welcomed the crew of the American seaplane NC 4, 
the first aircraft to cross the Atlantic." 

We now come to the Standish country in Lancashire, not far 
from Manchester. No greater contrast could possibly be imagined 
than that existing today between Standish Hall, the former seat of 
the Standishes of Standish, and Duxbury Hall, the seat of the Stand- 
ishes of Duxbury. Both branches claim to be the birthplace of Myles 
Standish, and in making the pilgrimage to his birthplace as one of 
his descendants I was eager to visit both places. I left Manchester 
early Sunday morning and arrived at Chorley in less than an hour, 

359 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

but not knowing conditions or how I was to accomplish my mission, 
for my only knowledge of the place was from my guide book. The 
beautiful music of the chimes in the Cathedral which greeted me as 
I alighted from the train gave me courage, and I inquired the way 
to the Choiiey Parish Church, wondering if the chimes proceeded 
from that ancient historic place in which the Standishes of Duxbury 
were wont to worship. I found this was not the case. They were in 
a newer and more wonderful edifice, and were recently placed there 
as a memorial to the soldiers who died in the late war. However, the 
handsome Chorley Church is of gray stone, of old English architec- 
ture, and it is hard to realize its age, so well is it preserved. 

The service was about to begin as I entered, and on explaining 
my mission to a man seated in a rear pew, whose welcoming counte- 
nance assured me of sympathetic assistance, he pointed out the 
throne-like pew of the Standishes, and said that Airs. Mayhew, the 
present owner of Duxbury, was already occupying it for the service. 
She was a stately woman with a face of sweet dignity and charm be- 
neath her black lace-veiled hat— a widow of less than two years. It 
was a privilege most unexpected to attend the service and feel that 
I was walking in the footsteps of my ancestors. I saw the Standish 
coat-of-arms over the two throne seats in the box pew, and the 
stripes and star were pointed out to me as being the source of the 
American flag. We are told today that it is to the coat-of-arms of 
the ancestors of George Washington that we are indebted for our 
stars and stripes, but as some historians have declared that Stand- 
ish, Washington and Lafayette are related, perhaps we can reason- 
ably assume that the star and stripes of the Standishes is the source 
of our flag. The shield in the stained glass window and many me- 
morial tablets in the church told of the Standishes departed. 

With true American perseverance, I secured an introduction at 
the conclusion of the service, and was invited to motor a mile and a 
half to Duxbury Hall for luncheon with Mrs. Mayhew, her sister and 
niece. Nothing could have been more agreeable nor more unex- 
pected. As we passed through the large gate I was shown the coat- 
of-arms of the Standishes of Duxbury, with the Cock d 'Argent over 
the door of the lodge. We sped along the drive through a beautifully 
kept park and grounds, arriving at the Hall, a large substantial 
house of stone measuring about eighty by ninety feet, with a huge 
Doric pillared portico in front. Part of the Hall dates back to the 

360 



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HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

early sixteenth century, but in 1828 it was faced with huge blocks of 
ashlar gritstone. 

Mrs. Mayhew suggested that we see the gardens before lunch, 
and I was shown the Italian Garden, tilled with scarlet geraniums, 
walks bordered by rhododendron hedges, close mown lawns as 
smooth as a billiard table, the rock garden, trees hundreds of years 
old — yew, weeping birch, and chestnut ; the greenhouses with large 
bunches of grapes suspended from vines covering the glass roof, and 
with luscious peaches apparently climbing the walls. Then to the 
stables, the old tithing barn with huge hand-hewn beams, the step- 
ping blocks in the stable courtyard, and it was easy to conclude that 
the mistress of all this loveliness loved every tree and shrub and 
ancient landmark, even though in no way related to the Standishes. 
Mrs. Mayhew is a Canadian by birth and married an Englishman, 
who bought the Hall many years ago, and they both loved it for its 
history as well as beauty, which their pride and care brought to its 
present state of perfection. 

After lunch in the beautiful oak-panelled banquet hall hung 
with paintings by old masters, I was shown the house, which was 
filled Math many treasures of historic value, and flowers everywhere. 
Here again I saw the pride with which every object was treasured 
and loved, and every Standish relic exhibited with keen pleasure be- 
cause of my relationship. There was a carved stone coat-of-arms of 
the Standishes of Duxbury in the entrance hall, which had been 
brought in to protect and preserve it from the elements. The cellars 
were full of partitioned bins in large spacious rooms beneath arched 
roofs. Many passages led to different parts, which seemed a perfect 
maze to me. Here and there in an out-of-the-way corner was a 
mysterious opening which extended up to the roof of the huge hall, 
for which there was no apparent use. 

Was it here that Myles Standish was born, or would Standish 
Hall seem the more probable place? 

Standish Hall, in the village of Standish, was only three miles 
distant, and Mrs. Mayhew and her sister accompanied me there. The 
village of Standish contains the old stone church of generous propor- 
tion, a row of houses built close together and which look very old and 
most uncomfortable. There are the stocks where punishment was 
administered publicly once upon a time, the stone cross, and other 

361 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

bygone relics. I knew from newspaper reports several months 
previously that the carving, which Mrs. Mayhew declared was the 
most beautiful she had ever seen, had been removed from several 
rooms in Standish Hall and shipped to an American purchaser, but 
the devastation of the place was surprising until I learned that it 
had not been occupied by the Standish.es since 1824, since when it had 
had many tenants but presumably no owners. The estate had been 
sold in small parcels of land, and the trees purchased by a lumber 
merchant. To a lover of trees it was a sad sight to see those giants 
of the ages lying prostrate on the ground, while others were stand- 
ing in their beauty awaiting the axe. 

Standish Hall, which is mentioned as early as 1537, is deserted 
and soon to be torn down, and my pilgrimage was just in time to 
get a first and last look at it. The old sixteenth century part of the 
Hall was very interesting. The mullioned windows from the outside 
were set in a black and white wall of quartre-foil ornamentation, 
which on the inside opened into a corridor. The rooms from which 
the carved panelling had been removed were bare to the plastered 
walls and old hand-hewn beams. The mantels had been removed 
with the panelling. There was still, however, one shrine left, even 
though crumbling, and that was the room in which it is said Myles 
Standish was born — a large square upper room with the coat-of- 
arms over the mantel. It was in a crumbled condition from the ef- 
forts to remove it, but the design was still plainly to be seen — three 
standing dishes on a blue azure field, surmounted by an owl with 
a rat in its talons. 

From the despoiled and fast-ruining old part, we went to the 
Chapel. That, too, was but a ruin, although the dome over the 
altar still showed the decoration of a bygone day, and the "I. H. S." 
perhaps proving that the Standishes of Standish had originally 
been Catholic. There was the outline of the stair which went to the 
balcony facing the altar, the hole for the old bell rope, and the door 
now boarded up which led to the Hall. 

Formerly Standish Hall was surrounded by a moat, which was 
filled up in 1780. Standish Park existed in 1336, and the family has 
been an ancient and honorable one, while the history of the Hall it- 
self has been varied. It was the meeting place for Lancashire gen- 
tlemen devoted to the Jacobite cause, and it is recorded that many 
plots were there put on foot in behalf of the banished king. 

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HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

In this beautiful park-like English country and once lovely 
surroundings, Myles Standish was born and lived and went forth 
;d light for her Majesty Queen Elizabeth when she made him a cap- 
tain in her army which was sent to Holland to assist in her war 
svith Spain. How sharp the contrast to the rude hut which was his 
Iwelling place in Plymouth, Massachusetts. It must have been terri- 
? ying to the frail Rose Standish, his wife, who was probably of the 
Duxbuiy Standishes, and Myles' cousin, and it is not to be won- 
dered at that she died within two months of her arrival on the 
Massachusetts shore from the hardships and privations there en- 
sountered. But Myles was a warrior, and undaunted he took charge 
of safeguarding the Pilgrims against Indian attacks, and on his in- 
;repidity and courage the Pilgrims relied. Indeed, they placed their 
afety in his hands to good purpose. 

It is recorded in history that Barbara Standish, Myles' second 
wife and mother of his children, was sister to Rose, and if so was 
andoubtedly of the Duxbury branch. Duxbury, Massachusetts, was 
founded by Myles Standish and other Mayflower families, and 
named either in honor of his own birthplace or that of his wife. It is 
in Duxbury that Standish sleeps his last sleep. 

The Tercentenary Celebrations marking the three hundredth an- 
niversary of the landing of our Pilgrim Parents on the Massachu- 
setts coast at Plymouth, taught us much that we did not know about 
them, and thus gave us the privilege of proudly and humbly paying 
dded homage. It brought the tributes of other countries as well, for 
Great Britain and Holland had their own Tercentenary Celebrations 
of this historical event, and joined with us in worthily recognizing 
this anniversary of world-wide interest and importance. 

When the famous Compact was signed by the men of the May- 
flower passengers which was to guide the newly born Pilgrim set- 
tlement, their aim was for its preservation, protection and a com- 
munity of interests, to which the graphic words of Dumas can well 
apply, ''All for one, and one for all." Little did they realize, how- 
ever, that they were people of destiny, whose institution of laws was 
to result in a great Democracy which after three hundred years' ex- 
istence is striving to establish an international community of inter- 
ests through mutual faith and mutual understanding with the coun- 
tries and peoples of the world. Truly, the hope and faith with which 

363 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

it is undertaken must ultimately crown the efforts toward universal 
harmony, if not with accomplishment, at least with very long strides 
toward such a goal. 

America has been the pioneer in founding a democracy, in estab- 
lishing statehood, in leveling boundaries. The frontier between the 
United States and Canada, where Maine joins soil with the Provinces 
of Quebec and New Brunswick, is designated merely by cement posts 
inscribed ''Treaty of Washington" and placed very far apart, and 
one feels that they are merely of historical interest, and in no re- 
spect barriers. 

America was the pioneer in urging a period of Limitation of 
Naval Armament to the minimum of what was necessary to police 
her water boundaries and protect her rights. The sanctuary found 
here by the Pilgrims, and many others during these three centuries, 
aims to make the entire world a sanctuary from the future devas- 
tations of wars — A World Sanctuary for Peace. 

The Tercentenary Celebration in this country began in Prov- 
incetown in 1920. Our Government participated by sending the two 
dreadnaughts Florida and Delaware to represent the Navy; Secre- 
tary of State Bainbridge Colby brought a message from the Presi- 
dent of the United States. Great Britain sent a cruiser, and her 
naval attache at Washington brought greetings from his Govern- 
ment. France sent a battleship ; Holland her Minister of the Neth- 
erlands with a greeting from the Queen. Patriotic organizations 
sent their prominent officers as delegates. Famous American artists 
gave their time and talents in preparing the picturesque parade. Dr. 
John Finley, who represented the Red Cross organization in the 
Orient during the World War and entered Jerusalem with General 
Allenby, was one of the many noted speakers, and presented to the 
Pilgrim Church of Provincetown water from the River Jordan, 
which he poured from his canteen into the ancient pewter baptismal 
font in which many Pilgrim descendants have been baptized. Rev. 
John Sewall, the pastor, in accepting the gift said: "I thank you, 
honored sir, in behalf of that organization in our community which 
still perpetuates among us their faith and life; and I promise you 
that this water, mingled with that of the spring in yonder valley 
where first the Pilgrims drank the water of this new land, shall be 
used hereafter in consecration of true Pilgrims of today and tomor- 
row to the Pilgrims' faith and service." 

364 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

It was at Provincetown that the Pilgrims first landed, and a 
granite tablet marks the spot where the women did their first wash- 
ing. There is also in front of the Town Hall a splendid tablet con- 
taining the names of all the Mayflower passengers. On the highest 
elevation of this sand-dune end of Cape Cod, rises to a height of 252 
feet the dignified monument to the Pilgrims, which is visible for 
many miles by sea and land. It is of old world beauty, being a copy 
of the famous tower of Siena, Italy; and the inclined plane of its 
interior is so easy of ascent that one readily credits the story that 
Napoleon rode on horseback to the top of the original — the Campa- 
nile San Marco of Venice. Great men sponsored this monument, for 
its cornerstone was laid by President Roosevelt, and it was dedicated 
by President Taft. Provincetown is to have a statue to the Pilgrim 
Mothers a little later on, as well as a broad parkway from the monu- 
ment down to the shore of the bay. 

However, it is Plymouth that is today, and for all time, the 
Shrine of Remembrance, and it is there that the impressive pageant, 
the "Pilgrim Spirit," was enacted in the summer of 1921 — that rev- 
erent, historical spectacle that sent us away thrilled with pride at 
what our country has accomplished through the periods of war and 
peace, pestilence and health, despairs and inspirations, through 
which she has been born and reared. From the coming of the 
Norsemen in the year 1000, to the arrival of the Pilgrims in 1620 and 
re-enacted in 1921, made realistic by the replica of the Mayflower 
out in the Bay, by the voice that speaks from Plymouth Rock, and 
by the treaty with the Indians, we were shown the different phases 
of wars, religions and explorations, right down to our recent World 
War, and the massing of the armies and their colors of these differ- 
ent periods at the finale, was a never-to-be-forgotten sight. 

As the hands of the clock neared the hour of five on days when 
the Pageant was not performed, citizens and visitors were to be seen 
hurrying toward Town Square, through streets across which were 
hung banners bearing the names of the Mayflower passengers, and 
in some part of the town every name was represented. On the stroke 
of five, at the beating of a drum, the "Pilgrims' Progress" began, 
and from the foot of Leyden street and along the way, people dressed 
as Pilgrims came out from the houses and fell in behind the drum- 
mer — the men with muskets, the women with prayer books, and the 

365 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

little children by their sides. They were all there — Winslow, Carver, 
Standish, Bradford, Hopkins — and their dignity, seriousness and de- 
votional demeanor were fittingly in keeping with the times they por- 
trayed, as they wended their way to Burial Hill, at that time Fort 
Hill, and formed a hollow square while the Scriptures were read, a 
hymn sung and a prayer said. Mayflower descendants living in 
Plymouth took great pride in being a part of this progress daily, 
while descendants visiting there joined the Pilgrim band too, and for 
the time being became their ancestors of three hundred years ago. 

The graves of historical interest on Burial Hill were plainly 
marked so that they could be readily found — Governor Bradford, 
John Rowland, and others ; also the site of the First Fort and of the 
old Watch House; while many houses along Leyden street were 
marked as the sites where three hundred years ago stood their early 
houses and meeting places. The Old Town Brook was marked, and 
a drinking fountain stands on the site of the spring from which they 
drank. 

Various patriotic societies had different days set apart for their 
participation and celebration. Our Government joined, and Presi- 
dent's Day became a country-wide event, when President Harding, 
Vice-President Coolidge, their wives, Cabinet officers and Members 
of Congress, came to do those Pilgrims reverence. There was an 
outpouring of the best in nature's sunshine, the best our nation had 
to offer, and the best that fifty thousand people could give by per- 
sonal pilgrimage. There was a parade with notables in Government 
and civil life; battleships came as escort and brought officers and 
men of the Navy; the Army was strongly represented; the Governor 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was there. Beautiful and 
characteristic floats represented Patriotism, Loyalty, Industry, and 
history of Massachusetts townships. The British sailors from the 
British ship in the Bay took part, a special envoy came from Ply- 
mouth, England, and the speeches by the British Naval Attache and 
the Netherlands Minister, made it an international occasion. 

President Harding's address was an epic. You will be inter- 
ested in a few of the many tributes he paid the Pilgrims : "Wheth- 
er we reflect upon the restraints upon freedom which the Fathers 
imposed, or whether we measure the broader liberty under the law 
of today, here began the reign of dependable public opinion, which 
unfailingly is the law of highest civilization. . . . Hand of man 

366 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINKS 

did not build alone what was founded here; it was but the visible 
sign,, the human symbol of a purpose which we may not understand, 
but for whose beneficence all men must give tribute of praise and 
voice undying gratitude. We may speculate and conjecture, we may 
seek to frame laws of human relationship, by which to account for 
such results as here have been wrought ; but at last we will have to 
recognize that they are not for us to explain." 

In speaking of what we owe by personal endeavor, President 
Harding said: "Just as the Pilgrim Fathers had a practical mind 
for material things amid effective pursuit of their higher ideals, so 
must we with our inheritance. God never intended an achievement 
without great effort. There is no reward without great labor. Free- 
dom is the field of endeavor, not the fancied abode of idleness. ' ' 

Plymouth may well be called Memory's Shrine, for the bear- 
ers of gifts make it a living Memorial to the Pilgrims. The quaint, 
dignified reserved little town put her best foot forward all during 
the summer of the Tercentenary and proudly displayed her many 
shrines, gratefully accepting them as each new one was fittingly 
dedicated. 

The Sarcophagus presented by the Society of Mayflower De- 
scendants — a large granite monument which bears the names of all 
who died the first winter — is on Cole's Hill, where they were buried, 
though no one knows the exact spots. But what matter where their 
bodies were laid when their spirits are so richly awake? The dedi- 
cation services were held in the First Church on September 8th, and 
it was an impressive sight to see the Mayflower Descendants, whose 
Society was holding their Ninth Congress in Plymouth, march from 
the church two by two down through Town Square, past many sites 
of their early buildings, each person carrying a flower which was 
finally placed along the top of the Sarcophagus, until the place where 
they are enshrined was enwreathed with these beautiful floral em- 
blems of remembrance. The inscription on the north end explains 
the real purpose of its erection : 

"The bones of the Pilgrims, found at various times in and near 
this enclosure and preserved for many years in the canopy over the 
Rock, were returned at the time of the Tercentenary Celebration and 
are deposited within this monument, erected by the General Society 
of Mayflower Descendants, A. D. 1920." 

The south end bears a quotation from Bradford's History, with 

367 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

its quaint spelling: "Aboute a hundred sowls came over in this 
first ship and began this work which God of his goodnes hath hither- 
to blesed. Let his Holy name have ye praise. Bradford, 1620." 

The long side of the monument facing the water contains the 
fifty-two names of those who died the first winter, while the opposite 
side reads: 

"This Monument marks the first burying ground in Plymouth 
of the passengers of the Mayflower. Here under cover of darkness 
the fast dwindling company laid their dead, leveling the earth above 
them lest the Indians should learn how many were the graves. 
Reader: History records no nobler venture for faith and freedom 
than that of the Pilgrim band. In weariness and painfulness, in 
watchings, often in hunger and cold, they laid the foundations of a 
state wherein every man through countless ages should have liberty 
to worship God in his own way. May their example inspire thee to 
do thy part in perpetuating and spreading the lofty ideals of our 
Republic throughout the world. ' ' 

Truly that last sentence is a haunting message of inspiration to 
us of today. 

During the processional and the exercises at the monument, the 
sweet and rich tones of the chimes in the church tower made beauti- 
ful music. These chimes were played for the first time on Presi- 
dent's Day. They are the gift through the efforts of Elijah R. Ken- 
nedy, of the New England Society of Brooklyn, and a popular sub- 
scription in which Plymouth, England, shared to the extent of a 
hundred pounds. 

"We all know of the part played by the Indians in that first set- 
tlement, and the debt of gratitude the Pilgrims owed them. The 
Peace Treaty made with the Indians through their Chief Massasoit 
was kept "with fidelity" as long as Massasoit lived, a period of fifty 
years. One of the articles of that treaty referred to disarmament, 
which reads: "That when their men came to us, they should leave 
their bows and arrows behind them, as we should do our pieces when 
we came to them." 

To the memory of this Treaty a beautiful bronze statue of Mas- 
sasoit has recently been dedicated. It stands on Cole's Hill, and 
represents him looking out over the waters, just as the Indians 
watched the approach of the Mayflower, and in his hand is his "pipe 
of peace." The inscription is: "Massasoit, Great Sachem of the 

368 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

Wampanoags, Protector and Preserver of the Pilgrims, 1621. 
Erected by the Improved Order of Red Men as a grateful tribute." 
The statue was unveiled by a descendant of Massasoit, Princess 
Wontonekanaska, in full ceremonial Indian dress. Manj 7 Indian 
Councils participated in the ceremonies. Today we regret and de- 
plore the routing of the Indians from our country, who were extermi- 
nated from many sections because they were feared, and feared be- 
cause they were not understood. 

Likewise on Cole's Hill is a memorial which is apt to be over- 
looked as such, for it seems just a permanent part of the whole sur- 
roundings. It is a granite bench, roomy enough for two or three 
people only, and was always occupied. A bronze plate in the back 
shows it to be the gift of the Pennsylvania Society of New England 
Women. 

The restoration of Cole's Hill is one of the Memorials, for the 
United States Government and the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts appropriated thousands of dollars for its beautilication, and 
now the view out to sea is unobstructed, for the old shanties, fish 
wharfs and unsightly landmarks have been torn down, the old pier 
replaced with a new one, and a park laid out at the water's edge be- 
side of and beyond historic Plymouth Pock. 

Plymouth Eock, the very cornerstone of our country, has been 
lowered onto the beach where it is now 7 washed by the waters at high 
tide in the exact spot where it originally stood. Above it rises the 
imposing pillared portico of white granite. Within the colonnade a 
grille fence surrounds the opening in the center through which can 
be seen the famous Eock. This beautiful Memorial Portico is the 
gift of the National Society of Colonial Dames. A large fountain 
to the Pilgrim Mothers will be erected as a tribute from the Daugh- 
ters of the American Eevolution, whose then President-General, Mrs. 
George Maynard Minor, so splendidly referred to them in her 
Provincetown address: "The Pilgrim Mothers did their full share 
of the work in their little State, but they had no part or parcel in 
the signing of the Compact. History makes but little mention of 
them, yet they helped to discover a world and to found a nation." 

Not far away will be located the statue of the Pilgrim Woman, 
representing the spirit of courage, unselfishness and loyalty with 
which the Pilgrim "women were so nobly endowed. This will be the 
gift of the Society of New England Women, through the personal 

369 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

efforts of Mrs. Richard Henry Green, wife of Captain Green, one of 
the founders of the Society of Mayflower Descendants, his number 
being one, and Mrs. Green's twenty-five. 

On famous Leyden street a log cabin, replica of the first house 
on this first street, has been erected, and, with the adjoining prop- 
erty, is the gift to Plymouth of Mr. Frank Gregg, of Cleveland, Ohio. 
It looks strangely primitive and out of place to our Twentieth Cen- 
tury vision, but more than any of the other up-to-date and idealistic 
memorials, gives a realization that the Seventeenth Century habita- 
tions were nothing more than shelters, and that they were the abodes 
of hunger, privation and suffering. One glance at it, even by the 
most callous, will cause the head to be bowed in reverence, and think- 
ing of the noble pioneers will impel the heart to murmur : 

1 

Three hundred years add lustre to thy brav'ry, 

Time places laurels fresh upon thy brow. 
Would thy descendants could, by emulation, 

Worthy be found to claim such kin as thou ! 

Pilgrim Hall has been beautified. The entire front, formerly of 
wood, has been constructed of granite, carried out on the old lines 
of simplicity and beauty embodied in its huge Doric columns. It is 
the handsome gift of the New England Society of New York. This 
is a most important gift, for it makes fireproof this building which 
contains many Pilgrim belongings, and though inexpensive, are 
priceless treasures today. In the Library of Pilgrim Hall a beauti- 
ful three-panel stained glass window, representing the coining and 
landing of the Pilgrims, occupies the entire front of the room, flood- 
ing it with mellow light. It is the gift of the Society of Daughters of 
Founders and Patriots. 

In the tree decorated, grass carpeted Pilgrim Hall Parle, a sun 
dial was recently dedicated and presented by the Colonial Daugh- 
ters of the Seventeenth Century. Still more recently a gem of a 
fountain was unveiled in this Garden. It is a replica of the May- 
flower sailing in a sea of real water, upheld by a pedestal of dol- 
phins, and was presented by the Daughters of the Revolution. 

Burial Hill was in the days of the Pilgrims the place of their 
fort and their armament. Recently a reproduction of the old powder 
house has been erected there, dedicated and presented. The bronze 
tablet tells its own story : "The Old Powder House was built here in 
1770. This building, erected in 1920, is dedicated to those descend- 

37o 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

ants of the Pilgrims, by birth or of the spirit, who helped establish 
American Independence. Massachusetts Society of the Sons of 
the .American Revolution." The tablet which was on the original 
Powder House has been placed in the interior of this replica. 

Early in October, 1921, two ancient brass cannon were set in 
place very near the original fort site. They were made in 1550 and 
1554, and are the gift of the British Government by the Honorable 
Artillery Company of London, through the Ancient and Honorable 
Company of Boston. They were discovered a few years ago in the 
British National Artillery Museum at Woolwich, England, and as 
they were the only ones of their kind in Great Britain, were parted 
with very reluctantly, and only because they were to be given to 
Plymouth — some say returned to Plymouth. The bronze tablet be- 
tween the guns reads in part as follows: "Brass Cannon like these 
were named by Bradford and Winslow in the annals of Plymouth as 
mounted on the first Fort, 1621, and were still in use in 1645, when 
the Ancient and Honorable Company of Massachusetts, under its 
commander, Major General Gibbons, joined the Plymouth Company 
under the command of Captain Myles Standish to fight against the 
Narragansett Indians." 

Another Memorial is to be presented by the General Society 
Sons of the Revolution, which will be to the memory of Colonel 
Alexander Scammell, the last officer to die before the surrender of 
Yorktown. The Colonel Scammell Memorial will be erected on the 
old Burial Hill, on the site of the school house where he taught, and 
will be in the form of a granite settee, in the center of which will rise 
a monumental tablet of granite with his bust in bronze relief. 

Probably the first Memorial erected was the National Monu- 
ment to the Forefathers. In order to promote this erection, the Pil- 
grim Society was organized over one hundred years ago, in 1820, 
but it was not until 1888 that it was completed, and dedicated in 
1889. It stands on a broad plateau with a magnificent view of the 
surrounding country and harbor. It is of Maine granite, eighty-one 
feet in height. The center figure represents Faith, and the four 
seated figures represent Morality, Law, Education and Freedom. 
There are relief groups depicting the "Departure from Delft Ha- 
ven," the "First Treaty with the Indians," "Signing of the Com- 
pact, ' ' and ' ' The Landing at Plymouth. ' ' There are two panels con- 

37i 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

taming the names of all the Mayflower passengers, while another 
panel reads: "National Monument to the Forefathers, erected by a 
grateful people in remembrance of their labors, sacrifices and suf- 
ferings for the cause of civil and religious liberty." Contributions 
were made to this monument by eleven thousand people and of dif- 
ferent countries. 

Not far away from Plymouth, in the South Duxbury Cemetery, 
is still another shrine — the grave of Myles Stan dish, Military Com- 
mander of Plymouth, to whom his fellow Pilgrims owed their pre- 
paredness and safety. The grave is surrounded by a high stone wall 
with entrances at each side, and on each of the four corners is a 
huge cannon with pyramids of cannon balls and connections of 
heavy iron chains. A massive boulder is his tombstone, inscribed 
simply but impressively with the name only — Myles Standish. It 
needs no other marking while history survives, for this spot is a 
shrine at which the passerby removes his hat in deep reverence 
toward one who helped to build for us that which we enjoy today. 

Farther away on the shores of the Bay is the Monument to 
Myles Standish, which towers from the top of Captain's Hill, at 
the foot of which his house stood and where he resided for many 
years. It can be seen for many miles by land and sea, and it appears 
to follow the Boston boat right along its route, for it is visible so 
much of the way. 

Massachusetts may well be proud that the Pilgrim Fathers 
sought sanctuary there. In recognition of the service rendered the 
Pilgrims by the Indians, as well as a tribute to Myles Standish, it 
is interesting to note that the present Great Seal of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, which was approved by an Act of the State 
in 1885, has the figure of an Indian on the shield, while the crest is a 
sword grasped by an uplifted arm. The sword was copied from the 
Damascus blade of Myles Standish, the sketch having been made for 
that purpose by the authorities of Pilgrim Hall, which owns the 
sword. The arm is "clothed and ruffled after the fashion of Myles 
Standish." 

The Tercentenary Celebration brought us all to a fuller realiza- 
ation of those traditions of our forefathers and a truer appreciation 
of their accomplishments. All honor to anniversaries, in the cele- 
bration of which the lapsing cycles of time give us a proper perspec- 

372 



HISTORIC PILGRIM SHRINES 

tive of historical events, on which occasion they are reverently 
brought forth to show our loyal and abiding- patriotism; and not 
alone for the events that have gone, but for our attitude toward the 
future of our country, our staunchness and abiding love for it, and 
consecration and sacrifice if need be, to its Service. 



Note — The foregoing interesting chapter is based upon a paper written by the 
author especially at the request of the Society of Mayflower Descendants of New York, 
and read b3 r her before that body. 



S2^ 




373 




The Scotch=Irish in Pennsylvania 

By E. Melvin Williams, "Waverly, Pennsylvania. 

RUMORE township was one of the original township 
divisions of Lancaster county, organized in 1729 ; and, 
when then delineated, its boundaries embraced prac- 
tically the whole of the territory recognized as the do- 
main of the Scotch-Irish in southern Lancaster. Its settlement an- 
tedated the organization of Lancaster county; and while a part of 
northern Lancaster was earlier settled by the virile Scotch-Irish, 
the seat of the Scotch-Irish in Lancaster county has for almost two 
centuries been in the "Lower End" of the county. 

It was not without good governmental reason that the Presby- 
terians from Ulster were granted land in southern Lancaster. And, 
knowing their antecedents, it is not surprising that they were soon 
found to be fringing almost the whole territory. These sturdy, brave 
and independent men from a turbulent homeland were well-fitted for 
the uncertainties and dangers of the frontier; and it may be sup- 
posed that they were almost happy in constituting the front line 
against encroaching Maryland Catholics. Samuel Evans, in his 
"History of Lancaster County" (18S3), points out the particular 
use made of the Ulsterites by the Provincial Government. After 
stating that "The Scotch-Irish . . . first entered this region in 
1715, and, pushing past the Mennonite and Huguenot settlements, 
located themselves on Chikis creek, ' ' he writes : 

"A few years later a cordon of settlements by these people, 
who were all Presbyterians, had been made and extended along 
Octorara creek, from Sadsbury to the Susquehanna, and thence 
along the river to the Conestoga. These people had been encouraged 
by the authorities to settle near the disputed boundary line between 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, because it was believed that they would 
be more disposed and better able to defend the settlements against 
the Catholic Marylanders than would either the Huguenots, the 
Friends, or the Mennonites. ' ' 

Undoubtedly they were ; it was but continuing a home feud to 

374 




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Printed by die Affipins of /«A» 7>'///, Thnmu D^e~PXOitiB> t 
and Henry llilh, Printers to the Kings moft 
Excellent Majerty. 1 6 i! i. 

PROCLAMATION OF THE CHARTER TO WILLIAM PENN, APRIL, 1681 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

set Presbyterians to guard a frontier against Catholics, though the 
Scottish Presbyterian of Ulster was but a recent enemy of the Irish 
Catholic, by comparison with the latter's English overlord. That 
feud had existed for centuries, the Irishman all the while being the 
"underdog." The Irish of the Twelfth Century were but a "mass 
of warring clans," else they would probably have driven the English 
into the sea. There was no union among them. Still, the English 
were never, for long, able to get much farther into Ireland than the 
districts which came to be known as the "English pale" — the dis- 
tricts of Drogheda, Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, and Cork. And 
the forays of the Irishry from beyond the pale more than once car- 
ried havoc to the walls of Dublin itself. The English could make no 
headway in Ireland. The attempt of King Henry the Eighth to foist 
his Church of England upon Ireland, and so stamp out Catholicism, 
brought, it is true, the spectacular burning of the Staff of St. Pat- 
rick in the market-place, and the imprisonment of recalcitrant 
priests; but Thomas Cromwell had eventually to recognize that in 
Ireland the new episcopal system he had devised was a failure. 
Nothing could shake an Irishman's faith in himself and his religion. 
Centuries of attempts to subdue Ireland were fruitless ; bloody re- 
pression of liberty and religion availed not. The Irishry could not 
be held down. Subsequent attempts laid waste much of Ireland, but 
as the Seventeenth Century dawned, Lord Mountjoy, Queen Eliza- 
beth's lieutenant in Ireland, "found himself master on his arrival 
of only a few miles around Dublin. ' ' He had been sent to suppress 
a revolt fomented and skillfully led by Hugh O'Neill in the North 
of Ireland. The 'Neills, Earls of Tyrone, had for generations been 
thorns in the flesh of the English, and Hugh O'Neill was as capable 
and valiant as his forefather, Shane O'Neill, had been; and it took 
three years of devastating work with the sword before Mountjoy 
was able to carry Hugh 'Neill in triumph to Dublin. Famine com- 
pleted the ruin of Ulster. 

It was upon this spent theatre of war that, after even another 
attempt to bring English uniformity of religion into effect therein 
had failed, that Elizabeth's successor, King James the First, "the 
wisest fool in Christendom," suddenly resolved upon the Ulster 
experiment. He carried through the Ulster colonization ruthlessly 
but successfully. According to Green, "two-thirds of the North of 
Ireland was declared to have been confiscated to the Crown by the 

375 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

part its possessors had taken in the recent revolt ; and the lands 
"which were thus gained were allotted to new settlers of Scotch and 
English extraction." King James was at least original. He did 
not despoil the Irishry in order to bestow their lands upon some 
favorite courtiers, who would but set up feudal state, with Irish 
peasantry as retainers. He wished to sweep the tract clean, and 
start afresh with a people of different antecedents and religious 
faith. He therefore divided Ulster into small portions, which he 
was disposed to lease to settlers under a legitimate colonization 
scheme. He ordained that "no one shall obtain grants of land which 
he is unable to plant with men." His decree attracted Scotch Prot- 
estants, and they crossed St. George's channel in great numbers. 
Englishmen also came, attracted possibly by the plan of the Cor- 
poration of London, which undertook to colonize Deny, "and gave 
to the little town the name which its heroic defence has made so 
famous." The principal migration was, however, from the north- 
eastward, over the narrow strait that divides Scotland from Ire- 
land. These Scotch Presbyterians were predominant in the coloni- 
zation of the confiscated part, almost six entire counties, of Ulster. 
They settled principally in the counties of Down, Antrim, and Lon- 
donderry. Green states: "In its material results, the Plantation of 
Ulster was undoubtedly a brilliant success. Farms and homesteads, 
churches and mills, rose fast amidst the desolate wilds of Tyrone. 
The foundations of the economic prosper^ which has raised Ulster 
high above the rest of Ireland in wealth and intelligence were un- 
doubtedly laid in the confiscation of 1610. Nor did the measure 
meet with any opposition at the time, save that of secret discontent. 
The evicted natives withdrew sullenly to the lands which had been 
left them by the spoiler; but all faith in English justice had been 
torn from the minds of the Irishry, and the seed had been sown of 
that fatal harvest of distrust and disaffection which was to be reaped 
through tyranny and massacre in the age to come." 

In later years there was probably some degree of inter-mar- 
riage, but the Protestant Ulsterites and Catholic Irishry never har- 
moniously merged. Three centuries have passed since the first 
Presbyterian church was established in Ireland; today the Ulster 
Presbyterians are so ardently Protestant, and the Irish Catholics 
so fervently Catholic, as to indicate that as peoples they are still 
distinct and separate. What are now termed Scotch-Irish can, it 

376 




THOMAS PENN 
Proprietor of Pennsylvania 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

would seem, only be so hyphenated from the circumstance that they 
were the descendants of Scots who had taken up their residence in 
the r\ T orth of Ireland. Robert Blair Risk quotes James Parton's de- 
scription of the Irish and the Scotch of Ireland. Of the former he 
wrote: "If he gives up the struggle of life, he supplies half the 
world with its fun and fancy; himself often miserable, but always 
interesting and picturesque; the chosen of novelists, the delight of 
the stage, the sketching tourist's best friend, and never wanting to 
the comic corner of the newspapers." Of the latter, the Scotch- 
Irishman, so called, he wrote : "The most orderly, the most truthful, 
the most persistent of men; slow to feel, though susceptible of the 
deepest feeling; capable of enthusiasm, but not easily roused; as 
brave as the brave, but unacquainted with the shilialah; not slow to 
take offence, but moody in his wrath; not jocular, nor witty, though 
social and fond of his own quaint and quiet humor." These two 
descriptions indicate characters so different that one would hardly 
expect the two neighboring peoples to merge successfully. 

However, religious intolerance was well-nigh chronic, and no 
sect could in those days look for long immunity from persecution. 
The only state one could confidently predict was that of the as- 
cendency of one. Peace, with toleration seemed impossible. The 
feeling of one Church against the other was too keen for half meas- 
ures. And the record shows that Presbyterians in Ireland, i. e., 
the Scotch colonists in Ulster, had eventually to bear their cross of 
persecution also. "New brooms sweep clean." With the demise 
of one king and the accession of another, new views on matters of 
civil government, and especially of episcopal polity, would loom 
ominously for some sect. Under Charles II and James II, Presby- 
terians in Scotland had no peace ; many came across the channel into 
northern Ireland, not to settle but to hide ; and it would seem that 
the American immigrants of that period from Ireland came mainly 
from these Scottish refugees or from those banished to Virginia, 
rather than from those Scots who had settled in Ulster under 
James I. 

The joint reign of William and Mary opened with better pros- 
pects for all sects, William solemnly declaring that there should be 
no persecution for conscience's sake anywhere within the realm. 
But he could not authoritatively speak for Ireland, for in that land 
James, while still reigning in England, had so well entrenched him- 

377 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

self that in case domicile in England became unsafe, lie could escape 
to Ireland, and from there intrigue, surrounded by Catholic friends. 
During his reign he had purged all governmental offices in Ireland 
of Protestants; and when in 16S9 he was forced to seek refuge in 
France, Irish Catholics were glad to conspire with him to overthrow 
the government of "William of Orange. They did not see eye to eye 
with James, however. When news reached Ireland that James was 
coming, with officers, ammunition, and a supply of money provided 
by the French King, Irishmen rejoiced ; but when it was disclosed 
that James planned to use an Irish army for an invasion of Eng- 
land, the Irish leaders became less enthusiastic. Such plans were 
distasteful to them, for all that was before them in the coming of 
James, as they viewed it, was the opportunity to regain Ulster for 
the Irish, and to drive Englishmen and Scotchmen out of Ireland. 
Beyond, they were not disposed to go. So James had to amend his 
plans, and the attack upon the Ulsterites developed. The Irish 
under James spent their force in a futile effort to take Londonderry, 
so heroically defended ; and, when the siege was lifted, James tem- 
porarily fell back on Dublin, the seat of government. 

But the lot of the Protestant in Ireland was still desperate, and 
the future uncertain. A general massacre of Protestants had been 
suggested to James, who, however, shrank with horror from sucli 
an expedient, though it was argued that "mercy to Protestants was 
cruelty to Catholics." But the dominion of James in Ireland was 
brief. In 1G90 William of Orange himself landed at Carrickfergus, 
and with his forces encountered the Irish and French armies at the 
Boyne, there winning a brilliant victory. Churchill, later made Duke 
of Marlborough, and then "quietly proving himself a master of the 
art of war," added to the discomfiture of the Irish in the south; 
and in 1691 the defeat of the combined Irish and French forces at 
Aughrim, the death of the French general, St. Ruth, and the conse- 
quent surrender of Limerick by Sarsfield, sealed the fate of Ireland. 
And when the whole of Sarsfield 's Irish army, ten thousand men, 
"chose exile (in France) rather than life in a land where all hope 
of national freedom was lost," the subjugation of Ireland seemed 
complete. "When the wild cry of the women who stood watching 
their departure was hushed, the silence of death settled down upon 
Ireland. -For a hundred years the country remained at peace, but 
the peace was a peace of despair. The most terrible legal tyranny 

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Original Recommendation of Jonas Davenport, Indian Trader, 
signed by inhabitants of Donegal (Chester), 1724-25 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

under which a nation has ever groaned avenged the rising under 
Tyrconnell." For a century thereafter, Catholic Irishry became to 
all intents "hewers of wood and drawers of water" to their con- 
querors, the Protestants. The latter looked upon themselves as 
mere settlers, and boasted of their Scotch or English extraction; to 
apply the name "Irishmen" to them was considered an insult. 

However, it soon became evident that Presbyterians were as 
much beyond the pale as Catholics. The English Established 
Church was to be the only one tolerated in Ireland; and Presby- 
terians found themselves shut out by law from all civil, military and 
municipal offices. Furthermore, Scotch settlers in Ulster, after a 
while, after they had held land for thirty-one years, found them- 
selves evicted by the Landed Gentry, who thereafter exacted such 
high rentals that life in Ulster became well-nigh impossible for the 
tenant. "Then it was," states Houston, "that the Presbyterians 
turned their faces toward the colonies, unable longer to bear the 
persecutions of the Established Church of England, by which all 
dissenters, Catholic and Presbyterian alike, were under the ban of 
the prelates. Their ministers were forbidden to solemnize mar- 
riages, and the children of such marriages were treated as illegiti- 
mate, and the parents subject to punishment for fornication. Vexed 
with suits in the ecclesiastical courts, forbidden to educate their chil- 
dren in their own faith, deprived of their civil rights, the sacra- 
mental test required and their only crime being non-conforrnity, 
they determined to seek a home where the long arm of prelacy was 
too short to reach them. During the first half of the Eighteenth 
Century Down, Antrim, Armagh and Derry were emptied of Prot- 
estant inhabitants. Froude says that in two years following the An- 
trim evictions, thirty thousand Protestants left Ulster." 

The reason why there was not also an exodus of Catholic Irishry 
to America at this time is probably that they were so much poorer 
than the Scots of Ulster. Also, perhaps they saw in the departure 
of the Scots a sign that their own lot was brightening; that they 
would again come into their own. Perhaps they had such inherent 
hatred of the Ulsterites that, even for their own good, they would 
not follow a lead set by the Scots. Whatever the reason, the fact is 
that the emigrants were almost exclusively Presbyterians. Indeed, 
throughout that century those who came to America from Ireland 
were mainly Protestant Presbyterians-Scots, or the sons of Scots. 

379 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Men of former Irish residence fought for America in the E evolution, 
but they were mostly Presbyterians-Scots. They were "Scotch- 
• Irish" only in name, and that hyphenated name was not known in 
Ireland, where Presbyterians in Ulster were always Scots to Cath- 
olic Irishmen. King George III is said to have characterized the 
American Revolution as "a Presbyterian war." Horace Walpole, 
addressing the English Parliament once during the Revolution, 
said : "There is no use crying about it. Cousin America has run off 
with, a Presbyterian parson, and that is the end of it." It was main- 
ly the weight of the twenty-five thousand Ulster Presbyterians of 
the 1771-73 exodus that "changed the delegates in the Continental 
Congress and caused the vote of Pennsylvania to be cast in favor of 
the Declaration of Independence." The emigration of Catholic 
Irishry cannot be deemed to have well commenced until the Nine- 
teenth Century was dawning, following the suppression by Corn- 
wallis of the Irish revolt of 1798, in which hideous cruelty was prac- 
ticed by both factions, the "United Irishmen," and the "Orange- 



The reasons for the migration of Presbyterians from Ulster to 
America in the first decades of the Eighteenth Century as herein- 
before stated, have been set ahead of this only because the first land 
surveyed in Lancaster county happens to be in a Scotch-Irish sec- 
tion of southern Lancaster. It is generally recognized that the first 
dominant Scotch-Irish settlements in Lancaster county were in its 
"Upper End," or northern part, not in the "Lower End," as the five 
Scotch-Irish townships of southern Lancaster are sometimes called. 

The settlement of the aggressive Ulsterites in Lancaster county 
seated a power which soon became evident in the local government. 
The Hon. W. IT. Hensel reviewed the matter in an address he de- 
livered in 1905, entitled: "The Scotch-Irish: Their Impress on Lan- 
caster County. ' ' In part he said : 

"Into the historic bailiwick of my county there entered almost 
contemporaneously three ruling strains that have made the com- 
posite citizenship of Pennsylvania for nearly two centuries. On 
that theatre of action there have been displayed the play and coun- 
terplay, the relation and interrelation, the action and counteraction 
of the several religious and political forces that were set in motion 
early in the eighteenth century by the English Quaker, the Scotch- 
Irish, and the Pennsylvania-German. Whether Eobert Gait was 

380 












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BEX J AMI X F RAX KLIN 

For whom Franklin College was named, and who was present 

at its Dedication 






THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

the first white settler who crossed the ridge that separates the Ches- 
ter from the Pequea Valley, or if he was shortly preceded by the 
Pi-lgrim Palatines to whom in 1711 Penn 'required the friendship' 
of the Conestoga Indians, it is difficult to determine, and it may be 
profitless to inquire; but it is notable that the early assessment lists 
of Conestoga township, then in Chester county, which bore such 
characteristic names as James Patterson, Collum McQuair, Thomas 
Clark, and John McDaniel, discriminated as 'Dutch inhabitants' the 
Herrs and Kauffmans, Brubakers and Swarrs, the Brenemans and 
Zimmermans, the Brackbills and Shenks. 

"It is equally certain that, with characteristic persistence, the 
Scotch-Irish pushed past his German neighbor; so that when as 
early as 1720 the territory of West Conestoga, beyond the Pequea, 
was cut off and called 'Donegal,' it was already peopled almost en- 
tirely by the more aggressive race. They held the frontier and 
stood on the firing line ; at once they bore the odium and won the 
glory of battling with the savage. They worked out that great 
moral and political problem which has always to be solved when a 
weaker race throws itself across the path of advancing civilization. 
They made stern wrestle with all the difficulties that confront those 
who would at once break a new soil and settle new institutions. 

"Carrying his religion with his rifle, the Scotch-Irishman in 
Lancaster county . . . stamped an iron heel where he settled and 
wheresoever he trod. Regardless of disproportionate numbers he 
dominated the situation over his German neighbor for a century and 
a half." 

The Scotch-Irish migration reached out in two directions, like 
a two-pronged fork, one prong reaching the northwestern part of 
Lancaster county, and the other prong the southwestern part. In 
the northwestern settlement they disturbed the Germans, and in the 
southwestern settlement dominated the Quakers. Hensel refers to 
the coming of the Scotch-Irish into Lancaster county thus: 

"x\lmost immediately they advanced across the country, leaping 
from Pequea to Leacock, from Leacock to Donegal, in the upper end 
of the county; and, on the lower side of the Mine Ridge, they oc- 
cupied what was once 'the great township of Drumore,' stretching 
from the west bank of the Octorara to the west bank of the Susque- 
hanna, and from the Martic hills to the disputed Maryland line. In 
the valleys of the Upper End, where their furrow broke the lime- 
stone lands, the pioneers whose history we commemorate were sur- 
rounded by the patient plodding and tenacious German peasants; 
while in the Lower End, where the slate lands were more easily 
cleared of the lighter timber, they were confronted by an alien ele- 

38i 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

ment in the meek followers of Penn, and the unwarlike worshippers 
with Fox." 

Indeed, of the two, the Quaker seemed the most perturbed and 
resentful. The Scotch and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians were so dif- 
ferent in their natures and beliefs that one scarcely wonders that 
the passive Mennonites and equally meek Quakers were soon over- 
run by the upstanding Ulsterites, who were quite prepared to violate 
the Penn edicts, if needs be, ''by protecting their homes and families 
from the midnight attacks of their savage foes, when no other re- 
dress could be obtained." Indeed, Nathaniel Grubb, who was a 
member of the Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania, and probably 
was of the Grubb family of ironmasters, once said, in the council 
chamber, in reply to appeals for governmental protection against 
the Indians : "They are a pack of insignificant Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terians, who, if they were killed, could well enough be spared." And 
of course it is State record that the provincial authorities were 
much alarmed when the Presbyterian immigration reached such 
numbers as to be almost ominous. James Logan, president of the 
Proprietary Council of Pennsylvania, and identified with the 
Friends, once stated that "if the Scotch-Irish continue to come they 
will make themselves masters of the Province." To check the in- 
flux, there came a time when the Provincial Government would 
sell no more lands in Lancaster and York counties to the Scotch- 
Irish, though they were made advantageous overtures to migrate to 
the Cumberland Valley. 

That the Scotch-Irish soon took dominant part in the Provincial 
and later in the State governance, is made clear by a study of the 
Civil lists. Hensel writes : 

"How tame is the recital of the felicitous electioneering of the 
beautiful Duchess of Devonshire by comparison with the animated 
political campaign in which Andrew Galbraith ran for Assembly 
against George Stewart, the ablest and most accomplished Quaker 
in Lancaster county ! At a time when the only poll was in Lancaster 
City and none save freeholders voted, Galbraith 's wife, mounting 
her favorite mare, roused the Scotch-Irish settlements, led the horse- 
back procession of her husband's clansmen to the election, and 
rallied other voters with such enthusiasm and addressed them with 
such eloquence as to not only then elect her husband, but to start 
him on a political career of unopposed success. Little wonder that 

382 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

when a member of the House of Bonaparte sought an American 
wife he found her in a granddaughter of that same Ann Galbraith. 

"In the stress and storm of the Revolutionary period, neither in 
Massachusetts nor in Virginia was there a more fervid patriotic 
spirit than burned and blazed among the Scotch-Irish of Lancaster 
county; nowhere were vows of hostility to the Crown and Parlia- 
ment more devoutly sealed than in the group which encircled 'the 
Witness Oak' at Donegal. They were of a race no more determined 
to have 'a church without a bishop,' than to live under 'a State with- 
out a king. ' ' ' 

It was a Scotch Presbyterian divine, the venerable Dr. Wither- 
spoon, who put the last straw into the scales on that memorable 
Fourth of July, 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was 
submitted to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. The scale 
went down when Dr. Witherspoon made his fiery, fearless utterance : 
"To hesitate at this moment is to consent to our own slavery. The 
noble instrument on your table, which insures immortality to its 
author, should be subscribed this very morning by every pen in this 
house.. He who will not respond to its accents and strain every 
nerve to carry into effect its provisions is unworthy the name of 
freeman. Whatever I may have of property or reputation is staked 
on the issue of this contest; and although these gray hairs must 
descend into the sepulcher, I would infinitely rather that they de- 
scend hither by the hand of the executioner than desert at this crisis 
the sacred cause of my country." Of such is the Scotch-Irishman 
of America made ; it might almost be said that by such was America 
made a republic. 

Donegal township was organized in 1722. A year earlier the 
township of West Conestoga had come into being, embracing the 
territory in which English-speaking emigrants had settled, and be- 
yond that part of Conestoga township in which the Mennonite colo- 
nies were. The tax-lists of 1721, covering that part of Chester 
county now in Lancaster, were three in number, and bore the cap- 
tions: "English Conestoga Assessments," "Palatines at Cone- 
stoga," and "Pequea List." In 1722 the captions were: "East 
Conestoga Assessment;" "West Conestoga, also known as Donegal 
township;" and "Pequea Township List of Taxables." And refer- 
ence to these assessment lists shows that most of the names stated 
on the "English Conestoga Assessment" list appear on the later 

3§3 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

West Conestoga (also known as Donegal) township list. It is said 
that the settlers in West Conestoga could not for more than one 
year tolerate a township name that did not clearly differentiate 
them from the Palatines of Conestoga; therefore West Conestoga 
township was renamed Donegal in 1722, that being the name of the 
county in North Ireland from which the Presbyterians who had 
settled along the Cinques creek came in 1716 and immediately suc- 
ceeding years. 

They had emigrated from Ulster under the impression that this 
was a free land; a country in which one might live entirely free from 
governmental curb. They were Britons, and as such were not re- 
quired to take the oath of allegiance; and they mostly hurried from 
the landing-place to the wilderness frontier without taking heed of 
land-warrants, surveys, and suchlike preliminaries of land-titles. 
They were under the impression that they could settle anywhere 
west of the then settled frontier, without let, hinderance, or cost. 
They came in such numbers that the government could not cope with 
them; and after some years of undisturbed possession, many reso- 
lutely declined to bother about warrant, survey, and patent, es- 
pecially shunning papers that called for payment of any ground- 
rental, or quit-rent, to the Proprietors. However, it was not long 
before the Scotch-Irish set themselves right with the Provincial 
Government, and what is more became an influential part of that 
government. In the first year of the existence of Lancaster county, 
a man of Donegal, James Mitchell, was sitting in the Provincial 
Assembly; and others were taking prominent part in the civil ad- 
ministration of the county. 

The Scotch-Irish settlers were preceded by some French- 
Canadian fur traders, who however can hardly be considered as 
legitimate settlers. These traders — Bazaillon, LeTort, Chartier, 
Marianda, Jessup, and others — located along the river between 
Conoy creek and Marietta, with the exception of Chartier, who 
went into Conestoga Manor, and later into Cumberland county. 
They all had large tracts surveyed in the Donegals, but only for 
speculation; and it is said that "there are very few instances where 
they actually took out patents for their land." 

The original limit of Donegal township embraced all to the west- 
ward and northwestward of Pequea creek, the northwestern bound- 
ary not being defined, as all was wilderness beyond. But when 

384 



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ROBERT FULTON 

Inventor of Navigation by Steam. Born in Lancaster 
Count}-, Penna., November 14, 1765 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Lancaster county was erected in 1729, the southeastern boundary of 
Donegal township was set farther back, to approximately the line 
of the Big Chiques creek, so as to permit the organization of Hemp- 
field township. Donegal's boundaries were thus delineated in 1729: 
"The township of Donegal, beginning at the mouth of the Chickasa- 
lunge, thence up the East Branch to Peter's Eoad, thence (taking 
in the present inhabitants) on a northerly course to Conewago, 
thence by the same and the said river to the place of beginning." 
The subsequent divisions have created the townships of Eapho, 
Mount Joy, East and West Donegal, and Conoy. 

Eapho was set apart from Donegal township in 1711, as the 
twenty- first township of the county, taking all of the territory be- 
tween the Big and Little Chiques creeks, an area of about twenty- 
seven thousand acres. Mount Joy township was detached from 
Donegal in 1759 or 1767. Its long northern and northwestern bound- 
ary is part of the Lancaster county line between it and Dauphin and 
Lebanon counties; its eastern boundary is the Little Chiques creek 
and Eapho township; and its southern and southwestern boundary 
is along the Lancaster and Harrisburg turnpike, on the opposite 
side of which East and West Donegal lie. In 1S38 Donegal township 
was divided almost in half, and the two parts organized as East 
Donegal and West. Donegal. The boundary line between them forms 
"a segment of a circle with the convex side in the direction of West 
Donegal." The southern half of West Donegal was detached in 
1812 to form Conoy township. Conoy is the extreme westerly point 
of Lancaster county; its northeastern boundary is Y\ r est Donegal, 
its eastern line is East Donegal border, its northwestern boundary 
is Dauphin county, and the eastern bank of the Susquehanna river 
borders it on the southwest. The boroughs within what was the 
territory of the original Donegal township are : Marietta, in East 
Donegal, chartered in 1830 ; Mount Joy, at the point where East 
Donegal, Mount Joy and Eapho townships meet, chartered in 1851; 
and Elizabethtown, in Mount Joy township, incorporated in 1827. 

II. L. Steinmetz, in a paper on "The Political Divisions of Lan- 
caster County," contributed in 1900 to the Historical Society, 
pointed out that: 

"It is not generally known that there w T as a township in this 
county which had only a few vears of existence, and which was 

385 



THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

named for William Henry Harrison, President of the United States. 
Such a township however was projected, laid out, and named, in 
1844. In that year a petition was presented to the court of Lan- 
caster county, signed by citizens residing within the bounds of the 
Twenty-second Election District of the county, composed of parts of 
Rapho, Mount Joy, and Donegal townships, stating that inconveni- 
ence, trouble and expense were incurred by reason of the distance to 
which the petitioners were subjected in attending their respective 
township elections, and praying the erection of a new township out 
of portions of each of the three above-named townships. Upon that 
petition the court appointed Christopher Brenner, Henry M. 
Reigart, and Thomas Lloyd, viewers. Two of the viewers met and 
returned a report creating the new township. It was called 'Harri- 
son,' and was embraced in the Twenty-second Election District of 
Lancaster county. The report of the viewers was made to the Au- 
gust Court of Quarter Sessions, 181-4; and on February 3, 1845, the 
court set the report aside. The matter was certioraried to the 
Supreme Court, and there the proceedings on the report of viewers 
was quashed. The attorneys were Messrs. Stevens and Penrose, 
and the opinion of the Supreme Court was delivered by Justice 
Rogers. Argument was had before the Supreme Court on Decem- 
ber 8, 1846. By Act of Assembly, passed in 1846, Harrison town- 
ship was divided into two election districts, — Mount Joy and Sport- 
ing Hill ; but the act did not become operative owing to the adverse 
decision of the Supreme Court. However, Mount Joy was called 
Harrison in the election returns of 1846, and repealed in 1847. The 
case is fully reported in 5th Barr, p. 447." 

The foregoing covers all of the political divisions of the original 
Donegal township. 

There is no doubt as to the origin of the name given to the 
pioneer township division. Very many of the Ulsterites who settled 
in Lancaster county were from County Donegal, in Ireland. The 
influence of the Scotch-Irish is also seen in the naming of Derry, 
after Londonderry. Derry was one of the township divisions de- 
cided upon when Lancaster county was organized; but when 
Dauphin county was organized, Derry township could no longer be 
claimed by Lancaster. Rapho can also be traced without reasonable 
doubt, for the town of Baphoe is the ecclesiastical centre of County 
Donegal. "The Roman Catholic Bishop of Raphoe is practically 
Bishop of Donegal; and the Episcopal Bishop of Raphoe has juris- 
diction in Derry." The derivative of Mount Joy, however, is not 
so easily determined. Dr. Dubbs suggested, though not seriously, a 

386 






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OLD AXD NEW CAPITOLS OF PENNSYLVANIA 



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THE SCOTCH-IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

French origin, "Mont-Joie" being an ancient battle-cry of the 
Franks. There is not much evidence to support such a suggestion, 
even though the first white settlers in the Donegals were the French- 
Canadian Indian traders. Mount Joy may safely be associated with 
dramatic incidents of British history — either the breaking of the 
boon by the vessel Mount joy and the consequent raising of the siege 
of Londonderry; or the breaking of the power of the Catholics in 
the North of Ireland by Lord Mount joy in Queen Elizabeth's last 
years, making possible King James the First's plan to colonize 
Ulster with Protestants from Scotland and England. Conoy town- 
ship, on the other hand, though seemingly an Irish name, is said 
to have been derived from a tribe of Indians that formerly inhabited 
the region. 




387 




ians of Bergen County, New Jersey 

By Fraxces A. Westervelt, Hackexsack, N. J. 

^^ HEN the white settlers came to America they found that 
one great family of Indian nations — the Algonquins — 
occupied the country from frozen Labrador to Sunny 



Savannah, and from the shores swept by the Atlantic 
surges to the snow-capped Rocky Mountains. Among the innumeral 
independent nations of the Algonquin was one which its members 
proudly called the Lenni Lenape — the original or pure Indian. The 
Lenni Lenapes, or Delawares, occupied most of New Jersey, at least 
the southern part. It is improbable that the Indians had any gen- 
eral name for the whole territory now known as New Jersey, 
and it is quite likely that "Seheyechbi" merely designated the shore 
of the Delaware bay. They preferred the river valleys, but their total 
number, perhaps, never exceeded a thousand. They were all peace- 
ful people, though suffering much from the wars of others and in 
wars that were forced upon them, until they became extinct, under 
the conditions involved in the contact of themselves and their kin- 
dred with an opposing civilization. 

The Earitan country extended northerly to Weequahick (Bound 
or Dividing) creek, the dividing line between Newark and Elizabeth; 
and from First Mountain to the Hudson river was occupied by the 
Achkinheshacky Indians, who were principally settled along the 
river of that name. Being in such close proximity to New Amster- 
dam, they naturally came much in contact with the whites, and we 
find numerous references to them in the early records. They 
appear to have been peaceable for the most part, and were fre- 
quently intercessors for the warlike Raritans on the south, and the 
Esopus and other Indians on the north. The first conveyance on 
record by the Achkinheshacky Indians was made in 1630, for ' ' Hobo- 
can Hacking," the grantors being Arromeauw, Tekwappo and Sack- 
womeck. 

The Indians seem to have been quiet and comparatively indus- 
trious; they raised large quantities of provisions, and manufac- 

388 



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FROM JOHN ETTL'S STATUE OF ORATAM 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

tured wampum. They had their principal seat on the bank of the 
Overpeck, then Tantaqua creek, north of the present Fort Lee road ; 
and an important settlement at Communipaw, whence they were 
ready to trade with the Dutch or to make war upon Manhattan, 
whichever the inhabitants of that island preferred. It is not 
unlikely that they were in the habit of holding their weird "Kinte- 
Kaey" at Yantacaw, on Third river. Undoubtedly they taught the 
first settlers many things about fishing, hunting, the cultivation of 
maize, and its subsequent utilization in the favorite form of suppaen, 
which soon became familiar to every Dutch youngster in the land. 
We may well believe, too, that the thrifty Dutch vrouws learned 
many a new thing in domestic economy from the squaws, experienced 
in housewifery peculiar to the New World. The farmers who yearly 
burn the grass off the Hackensack meadows learned that practice 
and benefits from the "Wilden." The cupidity of the early settlers 
led them to sell liquor to the Indians, and countless evils ensued. 

The Indians of New Jersey were well built and strong, with 
broad shoulders a id small waists, dark eyes, snow-white teeth, 
coarse black hair, cf which the men left but a single tuft (scalp lock) 
on the top of the head, convenient for an enemy's scalping knife, 
and which the women thrust into a bag behind. They preserved 
their skins smooth by anointing them with the "oil" of fishes, the fat 
of eagles and the grease of "rackoons," which they believed in the 
summer to be the best antidote to keep their skins from blistering by 
the scorching sun, and their best armour against "muskettos," and 
stopper of the pores of their bodies against the winter cold. The 
men painted or stained their bodies, using colors extracted from 
plants or finely crushed stones as found along the seashore. The 
women, not having the advantage of Christian training and, there- 
fore, less wise than their white sisters, were wont to paint their 
faces; and in general they adorned themselves more than did the 
men, for a proud squaw would sometimes display her charms set off 
by a petticoat ornamented with beads to the value of one hundred 
dollars or more. They dressed in the skins of wild animals, which 
they skillfully cured. The Indians of New Jersey did not wear war 
bonnets made of feathers, as did the other tribes in America. 

Bishop Ettwein gives the only detailed account we have of the 
manner of choosing the chiefs of the various gentes : 

Each Tribe has a Chief. The Chief of the great Tortoise is 

389 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

the Head, but the Tortoise Tribe cannot make or choose him; that 
is the Work of the Chiefs of the other Tribes, and so vice versa. 
None of the Chief's sons can follow him in his Dignity, because they 
are not of that Tribe, but the Son of his Sister, or his Daughter's 
Daughter's Son may follow him. The Candidate is commonly in the 
lifetime of a Chief appointed, to be learned and informed in the 
affairs of the Chief. The Election and Appointment is made in the 
following- Manner: After the Death and Burial of a Chief, the 2 
other Chiefs meet with their Councellors and People ; the new Chief 
being agreed upon, they prepare the Speeches and necessary Belts. 
Then they march in Procession to the Town where the Candidate 
is, the two Chiefs, walking in front, sing the intended Speeches, 
and enter the Town singing; they go on to the East side into the 
Council House and round the several Fires prepared, then sit down 
on one side of them, upon which the Town's People come in, shake 
hands with them and place themselves over against them. One of 
the Chiefs sings a Speech, signifying the aim of their Meeting, con- 
doles the new Chief about the Death of the old one, wiping off his 
Tears, &c, and then declares him to be Chief in the place of the 
deceased. He gives the People present a serious admonition to be 
obedient unto their Chief and to assist him wherever they can, with 
2 Belts. (That is, he emphasizes these points of his speech by pre- 
senting two belts of wampum.) Thereupon he addresses also the 
Wife of the Chief and the Women present to be subject unto the 
Chief, with a Belt. He then tells the Chief his Duties, and the new 
Chief promises to observe them. All is sung. 

The Head Chief with two others, has to take care of the 
National Concerns, to cherish the Friendship with other Nations. 
None can rule or command absolute, he has no Preference, nobody 
is forced to give him anything, but he is commonly well provided 
with. Meat, and the AVomen assist his Wife in Planting, that he may 
get much corn, because he must be hospitable, and his House open 
to all. They are generally courteous and conversable. He has the 
Keeping of the Council Bag with the Belts, &c, and his House is 
commonly the Council House and therefore large. 

The chief Duty of a Chief is to preserve Peace as long as possi- 
ble; he cannot make War, without the consent of the Captains, and 
also cannot receive a War Belt. If he finds his Captains and People 
will have War, he must yield to them, and the Captains get the gov- 
ernment. But as the Chief cannot make War, so the Captains can- 
not make Peace. If a Captain receives a Proposition for Peace, he 
refers it to his Chief, and says: I am a Warrior, I cannot make 
Peace. If a Captain brings such a proposition to his Chief he likes 
it, he bids him to sit down, and takes the Hatchet from him, and a 
Truce begins. Then the Chief says to the Captain; as thou art not 
used to sit still, to smoke only thy pipe, help me in that good Work, 

39o 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

I will use thee as a Messenger of Peace among the Nations; and 
thus the Warriors are discharged. 

Captains are not chosen. A Dream or an enthusiastic Turn for 
War, with which an old conjuror joins, persuading the man that he 
would be a lucky Captain, is his call, upon which he acts. After he 
has been 6 or 7 times in War so lucky as to lose none of his Com- 
pany, or got for each one lost, a Prisoner, he is declared Captain. 
If the contrary happens, he is broke. There are seldom many Cap- 
tains, yet always some in each tribe. 

The Chief here spoken of was the Sachem of his tribe — a name 
derived from the root olii, signifying above, (in space, and hence in 
power). Notwithstanding what has been said above regarding the 
election of a Sachem, it is clear that the office was in a sense hered- 
itary. The descent was in the female line, in order to keep the rule 
within the gens. As the children belonged not to the gens of the 
father, but to that of the mother, the sons of a Sachem could not 
succeed him; but his brother or a son of his sister was eligible to the 
succession, and in electing a new Sachem he was chosen from among 
them. This custom was probably a survival of a primitive matriar- 
chal rule. The common chiefs were chosen for their personal merit, 
— their bravery, wisdom, or eloquence, and the office was non-heredi- 
tary. When a person was elected Sachem or Chief, his name was 
taken away, and a new one conferred at the time of his installation. 
A Sachem or Chief could be deposed at any time by the council of 
the tribe ; and his office was also vacated by his removal to another 
locality, as in the case of Mattano, Chief of the Nyack Indians, who 
in 1660 removed to Saten Island. The government of the tribe was 
a democracy; the Sachem or Chief who attempted to lead his people 
against their will must needs have a powerful mastery over his fel- 
lowmen, or he fared ill. At the same time, the earlier patriarchal or 
matriarchal influences were so strong that the free impulses of 
the savages were held much in check, and deference was paid even 
to an unpopular Chief. The Sachem was permitted to exercise a 
certain authority in the naming of his prospective successor, whom 
he chose from among the most eligible young men of the tribe and 
instructed in the duties and responsibilities of the office. If they 
proved unworthy, he would set them aside and choose another, and 
perchance they would fall a victim to his vengeance if he suspected 
them of treachery to the tribe. 

There were occasional deviations from the rule, the selection of 

39i 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

the Sachem failing of ratification by the tribe, as we shall see in the 
case of Oratainy, Sachem of the Hackensack Indians. Sometimes, 
either because of her descent, or for some special trait which marked 
her out, a woman was chosen to rule over the tribe as a Squaw- 
Sachem, and the verdict of history is that their sway was quite as 
wise and firm as that of the sterner sex. The position of woman 
among the Indians was far from unfavorable; she was secure in 
the possession of her property and of her children, and had a voice 
in the selection of Chief. This independence was due largely to the 
gentile organization of the tribe; a woman had the support of all 
the members, male and female, of her gens (kin). 

The Council of each tribe was composed of the Sachem and the 
other Chiefs, either experienced warriors, or aged and respected 
heads of families, elected by the tribe. The executive functions of 
the government were performed by the Sachems and Chiefs, who 
were also members of the Council. The latter body was legislature 
and court combined, having a strict and most decorous procedure. 
Here matters pertaining to the welfare of the tribe were discussed, 
whether of peace or of war ; offences against good order in the tribe 
were considered, and the accused tried with deliberation and utmost 
fairness. 

The rhetorical figures were mostly suggested by natural objects, 
at times rising to flights of genuine eloquence. At a conference with 
the whites in 1649, Pennekeck, the " Chief behind the Col," that is, 
of the Achkinheshacky Indians, said the tribe called the Earitanoos, 
formerly living at Wiquaesskeck, had no Chief, therefore he spoke 
for them, in the Indian tongue. "I wish you could see my heart," 
he exclaimed, as he threw down two beavers, "then you would be 
sure that my words are sincere and true. ' ' 

Among the Delawares, the Turtle warrior draws either with 
coal or paint here and there on the trees along the warpath, the 
whole animal, carrying a gun with the muzzle projecting forward, 
and if he leaves a mark at the place where he has made a stroke 
on his enemy, it will be a picture of a tortoise. Those of the Turkey 
tribe paint only one foot of a turkey, and the Wolf tribe, sometimes 
a wolf at large with one leg and foot raised up to serve as a hand, in 
which the animal also carries a gun with the muzzle forward. 

On the west bank of the Tantaqua creek, later known as English 
or Overpeck, on a high, wide-spreading knoll, with acres of land over 

392 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

bill and dale, extending to the Hackensack river on the west, and 
north and south on a lower plane touching on the edge of the 
marshes, washed by tidal waters, was located the Indian village of 
Achkinheshacky, the home of Oratam, the Sachem of the tribe that 
inhabited this territory. The Sachem name is variously spelt in the 
records as follows : Oratamin, Oratamy, Oratan, Oraton, Oratum, 
Oratany, and the one more frequently used Oratam, and his life 
filled the span between 1577 and 1G67. There is no question as to the 
truth of this statement, according to the following notes. In docu- 
mentary records he is referred to as "of Achenkesacky and to his 
Village at Ackensack," and listed as a landowner. He gave to 
Sarah Kiersted (a daughter of Annake Jans, of Trinity Church 
property), 2,120 acres lying between the Hackensack river and 
Overpeck creek (early name Tantaqua) for services as an inter- 
preter. This property began where the Overpeck flows into the 
Hackensack river at Ridgefield Park, up to the Fort Lee road, taking 
in all of Ridgefield Park, part of Bogota and Tenneck township, 
joining the south boundary of the Ackenkishacky village site. In 
16G9, Governor Carteret confirmed the patent of her gift from Ora- 
tam. (Later, Samuel Edsall purchased all or a portion of it). 

On the village site the following indications of Indian occupa- 
tion have been found, pointing to more than casual occupancy. A 
large shell heap; ruins of a fort, or palisaded section; hundreds 
of "stone implements, one collector having over five hundred (to be 
loaned to the Bergen County Historical Society), a kitchen midden 
yielding interesting scraps that told a story. The site is well chosen 
above the high water mark on a stream that was one of the water- 
ways to the Kill von Ivull on the south and the Tappans on the 
north, only a few miles to the Hudson river via the Palisades trails, 
thence to "Manhattan." This location was unknown to the His- 
torical Society until a set of old photographs was given of the site, 
then action was taken to communicate with some expert archaeolo- 
gist to make an examination of the site, when it was found that two 
settlements had been made, one at Glenwood Park, the other Cedar 
Park. The road leading to them from the Teaneck road is "Fyke 
Lane," bordered with very old willows, as it leads to the water edge. 
Here on this beautiful, peaceful site, lived Oratum, and no doubt 
died, and the following copies of The New York Colonial Historical 
Documents are full of him and his wonderful life, and show that he 

393 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

was well called "a notable man among men in his day." 

The following peace treaty was made between the Dutch and the 
Indians on the Lower Hudson, April 22, 1643 : 

Between William Kieft, Director-General and the Council of 
New-Netherland of the one side, and Oratamin, Sachem of the sav- 
ages living at Achkinkcshacky,* who declared himself commissioned 
by the savages of Tappaen, Kechqawawane, Kichtawanc and Sint- 
sinck, of the other side, a firm peace was concluded to-day in the 
following terms : 

All injuries done by the aforesaid tribes to the Dutch or by the 
Dutch to them shall henceforth be forever forgotten and forgiven. 

They promise mutually not to molest each other any more in the 
future, but if the Indians learn, that any tribe not mentioned now, 
had evil intentions upon the Christians, they will faithfully forewarn 
them and not admit such within their limits. 

For the confirmation and ratification of this treaty presents 
were mutually given. 

We pray God, that this peace may be kept unbroken by the sav- 
ages. 

The ink was scarcely dry on this paper before Pachem, "a 
crafty man" of Achkinkeshaky, was running through all the vil- 
lages, urging the Indians to a general massacre. More trouble fol- 
lowed, but in 1645 peace was concluded. 

In 1649, a number of leading Indians, chiefs in the neighbor- 
hood of Manhattan, namely, Seysegechkimus, Oratamin, Willem of 
Tappaen and Pennekes from "Behind the Col," in the council cham- 
ber at Fort Amsterdam, in presence of D° Johannes Megapolcnsis, 
minister of Kensselaerswyck, Arent Van Curler and Johannes Van 
Twiller, made the following proposition for a lasting peace : 

1. Pennekeck, the Chief "behind the Col," made a speech in 
the Indian tongue, which was translated and said, the Southern Min- 
quas had asked them to live in friendship with the Dutch, which they 
were willing to do and for that purpose they had brought a present 
to the HonWe Director. 

2. An Indian of Mechgachkamic had involuntarily or unknow- 
ingly lately done mischief at Paulus Hook, which they requested us 
to excuse. 

3. Pennekeck said the tribe called Earitanoos, formerly living 
at Wiquaeskeck had no chief, therefore he spoke for them, who 
would also like to be our friends and sent through him their greet- 



*Hackensack, N. J. 

394 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

ings to the Honk'e General. Throws 3 beavers to the grounds as a 
present. 

. 4. Meijterma, the Chief of Neyick, was included with his peo- 
ple into this agreement and would be, like them, our friends. They 
throw 3 beavers down. 

5. He speaks for the tribe of Kemahenonc as for the above 
with a like present. 

6. Pennekeck threw down 2 beavers declaring in the name of 
all, that their heart was sincere and that they desire to live in friend- 
ship with us, forgetting on either side, what was past. 

7. Pennekeck said: "I wish you could see my heart, then you 
would be sure, that my words are sincere and true." He threw 
down two beavers, saying that is my confirmation. 

8. The Hon ble Director had in former times desired to speak 
with them; it was done now and they had shown their good inten- 
tions ; they are now waiting to see, what he would do, laying down 
two beavers. 

9. Pennekeck said, although the Hon ble General could not 
understand them, they did not doubt his good intentions. 

10. In conclusion Pennekeck said : "It is the wish of the Min- 
quas, that we and you should be and remain friends, we are ready 
for it. 

The IIonMe Director-General first expressed his thanks to the 
chiefs, that they had come to visit him with offers of neighborly 
friendship, and he then told them that he was pleased to hear such 
a request. He promised, that nothing whatever should be wanting 
on our part and that he was willing to live with them in mutual 
friendship and intercourse. No cause for complaint should be given 
and if somebody injured them, they should themselves report it to 
the Director, in order that they should receive justice in accordance 
with the case. In token of his good will he accepted their presents 
on the foregoing propositions with thanks and in due time he would 
return the compliment. 

A small present worth about 20 guilders was then given to the 
common savages and some tobacco and a gun to the Chief Oratamin 
and so the savages departed well pleased. 

As is noted, Oratamin was present but said nothing. However, 
his superiority was recognized by the gift of the tobacco and the 
gun, while the "common savages" received only "a small present 
worth about twenty guilders." 

During the ten years, 1645-55, there were occasional encounters 
between the Indians and the whites. The whites were continually 
encroaching on the natives, and in the neighborhood of Pavonia 
a considerable settlement of Dutch had grown up. The Indians 

395 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

became restive as they saw their lands slipping away from them, 
and finally seemed to have planned the extirpation of the invaders. 
Very early on the morning of September 15, 1655, sixty-four canoes, 
filled with five hundred armed savages, landed on Manhattan Island, 
and the warriors speedily scattered through the village. Many 
altercations occurred between them and the whites during the day. 
Towards evening they were joined by two hundred more savages. 
Three Dutchmen and as many Indians were killed. The savages 
then crossed the river and in the course of three days destroyed 
buildings and cattle and carried off about eighty men, women and 
children into captivity. In this outbreak the Indians of Ilacken- 
sack and Abasinms were conspicuous actors. It was the last expir- 
ing effort of the natives near New York to check the resistless 
advance of the Swannekins, as they called the Dutch. However, for 
a time the Indians believed they had the advantage, and proceeded 
to profit by it with great shrewdness. They brought some of their 
prisoners to Pavonia, and then treated with the whites for their 
ransom, demanding cloth, powder, lead, wampum, knives, hatchets, 
pipes and other supplies. Pennekeck, chief of the Indians of Ach- 
kinkeshaky, finally sent fourteen of his prisoners over to the Dutch 
authorities, and asked for powder and lead in return; he got what 
he wanted and two Indian prisoners besides. The negotiations con- 
tinued until Pennekeck had secured an ample supply of ammunition, 
and the Dutch had received most of their peox)le back again. To 
the credit of the savages it should be said that no complaint was 
made of the treatment of their captives, and they kept all their 
promises. The authorities of New Netherland were greatly dis- 
turbed by this brief but destructive war, and as a precaution against 
the recurrence of such an event advised the erection of a block-house 
of logs, in sight of the Indians, near Achkinheshaky. Affairs seem 
to have gone smoothly between the Dutch and the Hackinsacks there- 
after. 



In 1666 Oratam was very old (said to have been fourscore years 
and ten), and unable to travel from Hackingkesacky to Newark to 
attend the conference between the whites and the natives in relation 
to the proposed purchase of the site of Newark. The Indian deed 
for Newark, July 11, 1667,* does not bear Oratam 's name, from 

396 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

which it is inferred that Oratara had died during the year. We 
quote from Nelson's "Indians of New Jersey," the following: 

And so fades from our view this striking figure in the Indian 
history of New Jersey. Prudent and sagacious in counsel, he was 
prompt, energetic and decisive in war, as the Dutch found to their 
cost when they recklessly provoked him to vengeance. The few 
glimpses we are afforded of this Indian Chieftain clearly shows 
him to have been a notable man among men in his day, and that he 
was recognized as such not only by the aborigines of New Jersey, 
but by the Dutch rulers with whom he came in contact. The name of 
such a man is surely worthy of commemoration, even two and a half 
centuries after his spirit has joined his kindred in the happy hunting 
grounds of his race. 

The following letters, taken from the New Jersey Archives, Vol- 
ume I, were from Governor Philip Carteret in reference to the pur- 
chase of the Newark Tract : 

Eliz. Town, the 26 th May, 1666. 
Capt. Post and Cornelius — 

This letter to accompany Capt. Treat and some of his Company, 
they are going to Haekmsack to Oraton; therefore so as you have 
beginned ij pray you to Continue, and to go long with them to said 
Oraton and to Interpret my letter that I have written to him, like- 
wise to help the said Capt. Treat for to bring the Bargain of the 
Land concerned to a period, the same being ended you shall bring 
Oraton and the Owner or at least the Owners of the said Land with 
you ; and to View the said Land, and to put the Limitts — according 
the use and your best Judgment not more at the present, I do remain. 

Eliz. Town, the 26 th May, 1666. 
To Oraton — Honoured Sachamore according to our agreements, 
in our last meeting ij have sent to you Capt. Treat, with some others 
and the Interpreters for to make an End — Concerning that Parcell 
of Land, that we were about the other day, and ij have given him 
full power to act with you, concerning the same so much if ij was 
with you myself ; and what you do agree with him i j shall see you 
fully and duely satisfied; and as we have been and lived together 
in unity and amity ij do wish that it may continue it shall not fail of 
my side, that you ma}' be sure of it, and you need not to question 
that it will prove very advantageous to you, and to the People under 
your Command, and as for those Complaints that you did to me of 
the abuses done to you at the Manhattans ij cannot help the same 
but you may be sure that the same hath been Committed without any 
consent or knowledge of the Governour and in the future this shall 
be amended, and ij have given him notice of it and ij am very well 

397 



THE INDIANS OF BERGEN COUNTY 

assured that if he hath known the same, for the respect that he hath 
for you had not suffered it, and ij do promise you that if any Man 
under my Command do wrong you or yours upon prove of it he 
shall be severely Punished, the same Justice I do expect from your 
side and I hope in a little time to be able to supply your People with 
such goods as they shall have need of, and not to go to them places 
where they receive affronts ; in a short time I shall take an Occasion 
to give you a Visit in the mean while I remain, &c. 

At a special meeting held in 176S by the Six Nations, they con- 
ferred upon Governor William Franklin, of New Jersey, as the rep- 
resentative of the people, the euphonius name of Sagorighweyoghsta 
(the great arbiter or doer of justice), in recognition of his and his 
people's justice in putting to death some persons who had murdered 
Indians in this province. 

During the eighteenth century the Indian title to the soil was 
rapidly extinguished, and at the same time the vices and diseases of 
the stronger race were gradually reducing their numbers. In 1758 
an Indian reservation, said to have been the first within the present 
limits of the United States, was established at Edgepelick, or Broth- 
erton (now called Indian Mills), in Burlington county, New Jersey. 
The surviving aborigines remained there until 1802, when they 
joined the Mohegans in New York and migrated to Wisconsin, and 
later to Indian Territory, now part of the State of Oklahoma. For 
the extinction of all Indian titles, the Legislature of New Jersey, in 
1832, appropriated $2,000, and since that date almost every vestige 
of Indian occupation has disappeared. New Jersey was the only 
State in the Union that purchased and paid for all lands procured 
from the Indians. 



*This tract was known by its Indian name Nipnichsen, and was (at least 115 morgens 
of it) granted by William Kieft to Jacob Jacobscn Roy. Land Papers (Albany) 
G. G., 141. 

*The Indian deed for Newark, July 11, 1667, is from Wapamuck the Sakamaker and 
Wa.nesane. Peter Captamin, Wecaprokikan Nepean, Perawe Sessom, Mamustome Cack- 
anakque, and Hairish Indians, belonging now to Hackinsack from which it is to be in- 
ferred that Oratamin had died during the year and had been succeeded by Wapamuck 
instead of by Hans as he had anticipated. 



nsssr 



LES2_ 



=2^2= 



398 



Some Usages of Long=Ago 




*^! HE old colonies of Pennsylvania and New Jersey had 



P 



much in common in early days in regard to Redemp- 
tioners and to Slavery. Upon these subjects Mr. Wil- 
liam J. Buck, of Norristown, Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania, a most industrious and conscientious antiquarian and 
historian, assembled a vast mass of memorabilia, as did also such 
a capable writer as the late Colonel Theodore W. Bean, also of Nor- 
ristown, in his notable "History of Montgomery County" of many 
years ago. These sources have been copiously drawn upon by a val- 
ued contributor, as will appear upon the following pages : 

A type of slavery obtained at an early day in this (Montgom- 
ery) and adjoining counties, of which later generations have no 
knowledge whatever. From the first settlement in Pennsylvania, 
a considerable business was transacted, chiefly by ship-owners and 
captains of vessels, in bringing from Europe persons who were de- 
sirous of coming to America and were too poor to pay for their pas- 
sage or to have a competency for an outfit in so long a journey. 
With this class, generally from England's shores, with others from 
Ireland and Germany, arrangements would be made through agents 
to contract and bring over such persons, furnish them with food 
during their voyage, and perhaps some other necessaries, on condi- 
tion that on their arrival in an American port they have the right to 
sell their time for a certain number of years to repay the cost thus 
incurred and be of some profit to those engaged in such traffic. With 
the growth and development of the country, this industry, if such it 
might be called, grew rapidly. Labor was demanded here, and this 
seemed a good method by which to secure both male and female help. 
It was just before the Revolution that it reached its greatest height, 
yet, even after that war, it was not much less than before and dur- 
ing that eight year conflict. 

In the Charter agreed upon as Laws, in England, and confirmed 
April 25, 16S2, by Penn, we find this mention in Article 23: "There 
shall be a register for all servants, where their name, time, wages 

399 



SOME USAGES OF LONG-AGO 

and days of payment shall be registered." In the laws prepared on 
the 5th of the following month the proprietary wisely provide "that 
the children within the province of the age of twelve years shall be 
taught some useful trade or skill, to the end that none may be idle, 
but the Poor may work to live, and the Rich, if they have become 
poor, may not want. That servants be not kept longer than their 
time, and such as are careful be both justly and kindly used in their 
service, and put in fitting equippage at the expiration thereof, ac- 
cording to custom. " William Penn deserves credit for his just spirit 
toward labor, considering the day in which he lived. "The Great 
Law," passed at Chester, December 7th, contains this clause : "That 
no master or mistress or freeman of this Province, or territories 
thereof under the penalty that every person so offending shall for 
each servant so sold forfeit ten pounds sterling to be levied by way 
of distress and sale of their goods. ' ' Strange to relate, the aforesaid 
excellent enactment, on William and Mary reaching the throne, 
were abrogated in 1693. 

In the beginning of 1683 "A bill to hinder the selling of ser- 
vants into other Provinces, and to prevent runaways," was passed 
by the Council. August 29, Governor AVilliam Penn "put ye ques- 
tion whether a proclamation were not convenient to put forth to 
impower Masters to chastise their servants, and to punish any that 
shall inveigle any servant to goe from his Master. They unanimous- 
ly agreed and ordered it accordingly." (Colonial Records, Vol. 1, 
page 79.) 

In 1700 an act was passed "For the Better Regulation of Ser- 
vants in this Province and Territories," which provided: 

That no servant shall be sold or disposed of to any person resid- 
ing in any other Province or Government, without the consent of the 
said Servant and two Justices of the Peace of the County wherein 
he lives or is sold, under the penalty of Ten Pounds, to be forfeited 
by the seller. That no servant shall be assigned over to another 
person by any in this Province or Territory, but in the Presence of 
one Justice of the Peace of the county, under penalty of Ten Pounds.